# Teaching Place Value in First Grade: A Resource Guide

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1 Teaching Place Value in First Grade: A Resource Guide Ivygail Abella Fall 2012

2 1 Table of Content Introduction... 3 Rationale.. 4 Project Goal. 5 Professional Question... 6 Professional and Common Core Standards. 7 Abstract 9 Place Value Concept Math Stations Skip counting and forming groups I. Teacher Directed Instruction II. Paired-Cooperative Stations III. Independents Stations IV. Post Assessment Grouping by Tens I. 32 I. Teacher Directed Instruction II. Paired-Cooperative Stations

3 2 III. Independent Stations Grouping by Tens Using a Flip Chart 44 Lesson Extension Grouping beyond Tens.. 54 Subtraction by Tens 55 Connecting Place Value to Real World. 59 Glossary References 64 Annotated Bibliography. 65

4 3 Introduction: Place value concepts are often difficult for primary students to grasp. During the beginning stages of place value instruction, the algorithmic process may confuse rather than enhance conceptualization. Students often memorize the steps and rules for getting the correct answers resulting in frustrations and misunderstanding. Since place value knowledge is pre-requisite to success in primary mathematics, students would benefit from an experiential approach, whereby they explore, construct and practice required skills with teacher directed guidance within varied instructional settings geared to individual students learning needs. This resource guide focused on utilizing the following researched based strategies in teaching place value into different math stations: (a) Scaffolding, teaching new skills and concepts by using previously taught skills, (b) Paired-Cooperative or Peer-Mediated Instructions, guiding students pairs in joint explorations, (c) Cognitive Strategy Instruction (CSI), instructing students in the development of thinking skills and processes as a means to enhance learning and (d) Concrete Representational Abstract Sequence (CRA), teaching math through the use of concrete manipulatives, representational pictures and abstract symbols. The flow of the activity will start with the teacher directed instruction, followed by different math stations and ongoing assessment. The students have multiple opportunities to explore in learning stations which may require independent or paired learning tasks. The math station will focus on the application of concrete manipulatives, followed by paper- pencil assessments to measure students progress.

5 4 Rationale: According to National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM), developing an understanding of place value and the base-ten number system was considered a fundamental goal of the early primary grades. Many students in the U.S. have difficulty learning place value skills and concepts, and teaching of these fundamental competencies needs to improve. Students who are proficient with basic math skills will be more successful in understanding new math task.

6 5 Project Goals Teachers Goal: The primary goal of this project is to create a resource guide for second grade teachers to teach place value concepts. Students Goal: The secondary goal of this that second grade students will be able to use the math stations to learn place value.

7 6 Professional Questions: What are the effective strategies for teaching place value in second grade? How can second grade students learn place value concept from the teaching strategies presented?

8 7 Professional Standards The following professional standards from the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) were addressed in this project: 1. Standard 4 -Knowing Mathematical Pedagogy 2. Standard 7- Assessing the students understanding of mathematics In addition to NCTM standards addressed in this project, the following Core Propositions from the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards were included: 1. Preposition 1 :Teachers are Committed to Students and Their Learning 2. Preposition 2-: Teachers Know the Subjects They Teach and How to Teach Those Subjects to Students.

9 8 Common Core Standards The following Math Common Core Standards for First Grade were addressed in this project: 1.NBT.2 Understand that the two digits of a two-digit number represent amounts of tens and ones. Understand the following as special cases: 1. NBT.2. a Ten can be thought of as a bundle of ten ones - called a "ten." Counting and number patterns: Counting tens and ones - up to 20 Counting and number patterns: Counting tens and ones - up to 99 Counting and number patterns: Hundred chart 1. NBT.2.b the numbers from 11 to 19 are composed of a ten and one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine ones. Counting and number patterns: Counting review - up to 20 Counting and number patterns: Counting tens and ones - up to 20 1.NBT.2.c The numbers 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 refer to one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine tens (and 0 ones). Counting and number patterns: Counting by tens - up to 100

10 9 Abstract Abella, I.C. (2012). TeachingPlace Value in Second Grade: A Resource Guide for Teachers.(Unpublished master s professional project). Sierra Nevada College, Incline Village, Nevada Many students have difficulty understanding place value because they lack concrete experiences, collaborative explorations, and insufficient instructions. The purpose of this professional project is to enhance second grade teachers place value instructional practices. Four recommended strategies presented in this handbook are: Scaffolding, Cognitive Strategy Instruction (CSI), Paired-Cooperative Strategy, and Concrete Representational Abstract Sequence (CRA). Included in the resource guide are (a) teacher directed instructions, (b) cooperative-d math stations, (c) independent math stations and (d) post- assessments.

11 10 Place Value Concept According to Richardson, (1999) the following are several pre-requisite skills that the students must understand as they learn the concept of place value: When counting large numbers it is essential to form groups based on tens. The number system is based on forming groups of tens. When there are ten single units, group it into a group of ten. Once there are ten groups of ten, then group them into one group of one hundred. Groups are counted as single objects. Student s first counting experiences involve an understanding of one-to-one correspondence. When dealing with numbers beyond ten, it will be efficient for students to count it by groups as though they were individual objects.

12 11 One large group may be made up of many small groups. Students will need to understand that ten ones are the same as one group of ten and ten groups of tens is the same as 100. A numeral (digit) can stand for different amounts depending on where it is written in the number. A particular number can stand for many different amounts, depending on its place in the number system. For example, 77 the first number 7 represent seven ones and the other seven represents 7 tens or seven group of tens.

13 12 Math Stations Differentiated instruction means tailoring instruction to meet individual needs. Whether teachers differentiate content, process, products, or the learning environment, the use of ongoing assessment and flexible grouping makes this a successful approach to instruction (Tomlison, 2000). To teach differentiated instruction in place value, one best practice is to use math stations. Math stations are a great way to help the teachers meet the learning needs of all the students. The students are assigned to a particular learning station according to their instructional level. Each station has a specific activity to challenge the students skills by the tasks derived directly from teacher assessment and instructional discretion. Through frequent opportunities to practice place value concepts, students will advance to the next level of challenge.

14 13 Whole Group Teacher Directed Instruction During whole group teacher directed instruction, the teacher will provide the essential skills needed to learn place value. The teacher models the desired learning strategy or task, then gradually shifts the responsibility of learning to the students. Scaffolding is important in this whole group because the teacher can assess student pre-requisite of basic math facts and numerical relationship through questioning and short performance tasks. The building upon what students know and bring to a learning setting, referred to as scaffolding, benefits every students. The goal is to use astute questions and observational skills of students to ascertain when they may embark on independent activities. Here is an example of an observational checklist during whole group teacher directed instruction: Place Value Observation Checklist Consistently add one cube to the ones side of the place value mat when the signal is given. Loose cubes were at the one side of

15 14 the place value mat. Snap ten cubes together and move it to the tens side of the place value mat. Understand the regrouping steps independently Concrete Representational Abstract Sequence The next place value strategy is called Concrete Representational Abstract Sequence (CRA). Students will learn place value through the use of concrete manipulatives, representational pictures and abstract symbols. This particular strategy will allow the students to use concrete materials in learning place value such as beans, hundred chart, unifix cubes, dice, place value mat, and flip chart.

16 15 Cognitive Strategy Instruction (CSI) The use of scaffolding and CRA strategy will be integrated with the model of Cognitive Strategy Instruction. CSI is important because it will allow teachers to systematically teach the concept of place value. The following steps are the stages of teaching CSI instruction: (1) develop and active background knowledge, (2) discuss the strategy, (3) model the strategy, (4) memorize the strategy, (5) support the strategy, (6) independent performance, and (7) post- assessment (Reid, 2006). After the completion of this segment of instruction, a post-assessment observation of the students will be given to determine their level of proficiency and the math stations where the students will be placed. Paired-Cooperative or Peer-Mediated Stations During paired-cooperative math stations the students will be paired and work cooperatively. The students will gain knowledge with their peers. The students will be

17 16 on task promoting higher level of thinking skills by viewing the lesson from their peers perspective. The students will also apply the same strategies presented in the teacher directed instruction such as scaffolding, CRA, sequence and CSI. Once the students become proficient in their place value skills, students will then be placed into independent stations. Independent Stations During the independent math stations the students who demonstrate proficiency in the skills taught will productively focus on applying the place value skills they learned from the teacher directed instruction. As the students become more proficient with their understanding of place value concept, a post-assessment will be administered each time their level of understanding progresses. The students who are not meeting the standards will have an opportunity to work with the teacher to improve the students individual skill level to maximize and increase their understanding of the place value concept. Here is an example of post-test after completion of Independent Stations: Use your skills of place value to tens, to complete the place value charts for the following problems:

18 Tens Ones Number in Words 17

19 18 Skip counting and forming groups Teacher Directed Instruction Activity: Process of skip counting and forming groups with teacher directed instruction It is important to include all the students in this activity to later assess which math stations the students will be placed. In this activity the following research based strategies are important because it will help the students to investigate and conceptualize the concept of place value: Scaffolding, CRA sequence, and CSI. In scaffolding strategy, the teacher will model the desired learning strategy or task, and then gradually shifts the responsibility of learning to the students. The students will practice the strategy in learning rather than memorizing math facts and following the process of algorithm. In CRA sequence strategy, the materials in this activity will served as the manipulatives. Students will use the manipulatives to visualize the concept of place value. Manipulatives should be gradually removed, in order for the students to eventually demonstrate comprehension independently. In CSI the teacher will have a systemize structure in teaching place value. The following stages should be followed to gain success: (1)develop and active background knowledge, (2)

20 19 discuss the strategy, (3) model the strategy, (4) memorize the strategy, (5) support the strategy, (6) independent performance, and (7) post-assessment. Materials: Dry lima beans, cupcakes papers, and containers Who says it is important? The following authors state the importance of this activity: Barrata-Lorton (1995), Cole and Washburn (2010), Reid, (2008) and Richardson, (1999). This activity is important to serve as a foundation and a skill builder to meet the following First Grade Math Common Core Standards: 1. NBT.2 Understand that the two digits of a two-digit number represent amounts of tens and ones. Understand the following as special cases: 1. NBT.2.a 10 can be thought of as a bundle of ten ones - called a "ten." 1. NBT.2.b The numbers from 11 to 19 are composed of a ten and one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine ones. 1.NBT.2.c The numbers 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 refer to one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine tens (and 0 ones). Counting and number patterns: Counting by tens - up to 100 Procedure: Teacher Say: Today we are going to play a game called grouping. We will be using dry beans Students Students will follow the teacher directed instruction individually. to count. Let me illustrate to you using dry

21 20 beans how to count by ones. Say: Next, I will put two dry lima beans on each cupcake papers then watch me on how Students will follow the teacher directed instruction individually. to count by twos. Say: Which way do you think it is more efficient to count, by twos or ones? Students: By twos Then, the teacher will place all the dry beans back into the container to prepare for Students will follow the teacher directed instruction individually the next activity of skip counting by 5s. Say: Next, I will put five dry lima beans on each cupcake papers then watch me on how to count by 5s.

22 21 Say: Which way do you think it is more efficient to count by twos or ones? Students: By fives. Tips for teachers The students thinking of one-to-one correspondence will be shifted to skip counting. The skip counting will give the students the opportunity to count groups as though they are individual objects. Pre-Assessment Rubric: Record the observation from students work and pre-test. Use the rubric below to assess students knowledge. When the students scored three on the rubric, the students will directly go to independent math stations. When the students scored two, the students will go to paired-cooperative station. When the students scored one, the students will go to the teacher for a small group instruction. The small group instruction with teacher will implement the same activity presented from the teacher directed instruction with a smaller teacher to student ratio.

23 22 CATEGORY Mathematical Errors Students made no errors Students made 1-3 errors Students made 4 or more errors Organization Answers show a complete understanding of grouping. Answers show a little understanding of grouping. Answers show no understanding of grouping.. Mathematical Concepts Answers show a complete understanding of skip counting Answers show a moderate understanding of skip counting Answers show very little understanding of skip counting Pre-Test Assessment 1. The second graders gathered too much pebbles to count it all by ones! Help them count their fruits faster by circling groups of 2, 5 and 10. Circle the pebbles by 10 s Circle the pebbles by 2 s

24 23 Circle the pebbles by 10 s Circle the pebbles by 5 s Complete the skip counting tables: Skip count by 2s Skip count by 5s Skip count by 10s

25 24 Paired-Cooperative Stations Activity: Process of skip counting and forming groups with paired-cooperative stations It is important to include all the students in this activity to later assess which math stations the students will be placed. In this activity the following research based strategies are important because it will help the students to investigate and conceptualize the concept of place value: Scaffolding, CRA sequence, Paired-Cooperative Strategy and CSI. In scaffolding strategy, the teacher will model the desired learning strategy or task, and then gradually shifts the responsibility of learning to the students. The students will practice the strategy in learning rather than memorizing math facts and following the process of algorithm. In CRA sequence strategy, the materials in this activity will served as the manipulatives. Students will use the manipulatives to visualize the concept of place value. Manipulatives should be gradually removed, in order for the students to eventually demonstrate comprehension independently. In Paired-Cooperative strategy, it will students to work together to communicate about and explore with their own solutions to mathematical situations. This strategy will provide students with the opportunities to work in groups to formulate and pose questions; share ideas; clarify thoughts; and experiment, brainstorm, and present solutions with peers. In CSI the teacher will have a systemize structure in teaching place value. The following stages should be followed to gain success: (1)develop and active background knowledge, (2) discuss the strategy, (3) model the strategy, (4) memorize the strategy, (5) support the strategy, (6) independent performance, and (7) post-assessment.

26 25 Materials: Dry lima beans, Containers, Cupcake papers, 100 Charts and Markers Who says it is important? The following authors state the importance of this activity: Barrata-Lorton (1995), Cole and Washburn (2010), Reid, (2008) and Richardson, (1999). This activity is important to serve as a foundation and a skill builder to meet the following First Grade Math Common Core Standards: 1. NBT.2 Understand that the two digits of a two-digit number represent amounts of tens and ones. Understand the following as special cases: 1. NBT.2.a 10 can be thought of as a bundle of ten ones - called a "ten." 1. NBT.2.b The numbers from 11 to 19 are composed of a ten and one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine ones. 1.NBT.2.c The numbers 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 refer to one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine tens (and 0 ones). Counting and number patterns: Counting by tens - up to 100 Procedure: The teacher will put dry lima beans in each paired-cooperative station for the students to count. A 100 chart will be used to mark the pattern of counting. Start the activity by pairing each student who scored two from post-assessment rubric. Students will be working collaboratively in skip counting and grouping.

27 26 Student 1 Student 2 1. Student 1 will place 2 lima beans on each cupcake papers. 2. Student will start to skip count by 2s with the lima beans. 1. Student 2 will mark a pattern of skip counting by 2s using markers on his or her 100 chart while student 1 is skip counting by 2s. 3. Once the students have completed their practice skills in skip counting by 2s and marking the pattern by 2s in their 100 chart, students will switch roles. After skip counting by 2s the students will repeat the same process with skip counting by 5s and 10s.

28 27 Independent Stations Activity: Process of skip counting and forming groups with independent stations It is important to include all the students in this activity to later assess which math stations the students will be placed. In this activity the following research based strategies are important because it will help the students to investigate and conceptualize the concept of place value: Scaffolding, CRA sequence, and CSI. In scaffolding strategy, the teacher will model the desired learning strategy or task, and then gradually shifts the responsibility of learning to the students. The students will practice the strategy in learning rather than memorizing math facts and following the process of algorithm. In CRA sequence strategy, the materials in this activity will served as the manipulatives. Students will use the manipulatives to visualize the concept of place value. Manipulatives should be gradually removed, in order for the students to eventually demonstrate comprehension independently. In CSI the teacher will have a systemize structure in teaching place value. The following stages should be followed to gain success: (1)develop and active background knowledge, (2) discuss the strategy, (3) model the strategy, (4) memorize the strategy, (5) support the strategy, (6) independent performance, and (7) post-assessment. Materials: Dry lima beans, Containers, Cupcake papers, 100 Charts and Markers Who says it is important? The following authors state the importance of this activity: Barrata-Lorton (1995), Cole and Washburn (2010), Reid, (2008) and Richardson, (1999). This activity is important to

29 28 serve as a foundation and a skill builder to meet the following First Grade Math Common Core Standards: 1. NBT.2 Understand that the two digits of a two-digit number represent amounts of tens and ones. Understand the following as special cases: 1. NBT.2.a 10 can be thought of as a bundle of ten ones - called a "ten." 1. NBT.2.b The numbers from 11 to 19 are composed of a ten and one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine ones. 1.NBT.2.c The numbers 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 refer to one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine tens (and 0 ones). Counting and number patterns: Counting by tens - up to 100 Procedure : The teacher will put dry lima beans in each independent station for the students to count. A 100 chart will be used to mark the pattern of counting. Students will practice the same activity presented at the paired-cooperative station independently. Students will take the postassessment test after completion of the independent station activity in skip counting and grouping. Post-Assessment Test: The second graders gathered too much pebbles to count it all by ones! Help them count their fruits faster by circling groups of 2, 5 and 10.

30 29 Circle the pebbles by 10 s Circle the pebbles by 10 s Circle the pebbles by 2 s Circle the pebbles by 5 s Use this chart to help you count by 2's. A B C D E F G H I J Count up by 2's from 0. Circle the numbers you count in the chart. Look at the circles. Which columns have some of the numbers you counted?

31 30 A B C D A, B, C, D, E, F A, C, E, G, I B, D, F, H, J A, D, G, J 4. Use this chart to help you count by 5's. A B C D E F G H I J Count up by 5's from 0. X the numbers you count in the chart. Look at the X's. Which columns have some of the numbers you counted? A B C D C, E, G, I A, E, I B, D, F, H, J A, F 5. When counting by 10 s which numeral does NOT belong in this series? A 40 B 45 C 50 D 80

32 31 Post-Assessment Rubric: Use the rubric below to assess students knowledge. The students who scored four are exceeding the standards. The students who scored three in the rubric are considered meeting the standards. The student who scored two, in the rubrics is considered approaching the standards. The students who scored one are considered emerging the standards. CATEGORY Mathematical Concepts Students made no errors in post-test and show consistent application of skip counting in math stations Students made no errors in post-test Students made 1-3 errors in post-test Students made 4 or more errors in posttest Organization Students made no errors and show consistent application of organization in math stations Answers show a complete understanding of grouping. Answers show a little understanding of grouping. Answers show no understanding of grouping.

33 32 Grouping by Tens I Teacher Directed Instruction Activity: Process of grouping by tens with teacher directed instruction It is important to include all the students in this activity to later assess which math stations the students will be placed. In this activity the following research based strategies are important because it will help the students to investigate and conceptualize the concept of place value: Scaffolding, CRA sequence, and Cognitive Strategy Instruction CSI. In scaffolding strategy, the teacher will model the desired learning strategy or task, and then gradually shifts the responsibility of learning to the students. The students will practice the strategy in learning rather than memorizing math facts and following the process of algorithm. In CRA sequence strategy, the materials in this activity will served as the manipulatives. Students will use the manipulatives to visualize the concept of place value. Manipulatives should be gradually removed, in order for the students to eventually demonstrate comprehension independently.

34 33 In CSI the teacher will have a systemize structure in teaching place value. The following stages should be followed to gain success: (1)develop and active background knowledge, (2) discuss the strategy, (3) model the strategy, (4) memorize the strategy, (5) support the strategy, (6) independent performance, and (7) post-assessment Who says it is important? The following authors state the importance of this activity: Barrata-Lorton (1995), Cole and Washburn (2010), Reid, (2008) and Richardson, (1999). This activity is important to serve as a foundation and a skill builder to meet the following First grade Math Common Core Standards: 1. NBT.2 Understand that the two digits of a two-digit number represent amounts of tens and ones. Understand the following as special cases: 1. NBT.2.a 10 can be thought of as a bundle of ten ones - called a "ten." 1. NBT.2.b The numbers from 11 to 19 are composed of a ten and one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine ones. 1.NBT.2.c The numbers 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 refer to one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine tens (and 0 ones). Counting and number patterns: Counting by tens - up to 100 Materials: Unifix cubes, Place value mat and Containers

36 35 Say: Now let s read our place value mat. Say: Look at your place value mat? Do you have Students: Zero tens, zero ones No any cubes yet? Say: We will read our place value from tens side to ones side. Slide your hand from tens side to Students slide their hand from tens side to ones side of the place value mat. ones side. Teacher will ring the bell. Ding! Say: This is the signal to add one cube to the ones Students will add one cube to the ones side of the place value mat. side of the place value mat. Say: Read your place value mat. Students: Zero tens, one ones Ring the bell again. Ding? Say: This is the signal to add one more cube to Students will add one more cube to the ones side of the place value mat. the ones side of the place value mat.

37 36 Read your place value mat. Ding! This is the signal to add one cube to the ones side of the place value mat. Students: Zero tens, two ones Students will add one more cube to the ones side of the place value mat. Read your place value mat. Repeat the same activity until you reach ten cubes. Students: Zero tens, three ones Students will add one more cube to the ones side of the place value mat. The activity below will target adding cubes on the tens side of the place value mat Teacher Ding! Say: Add one Say: You now have ten cubes, it is time to snap ten cubes and move it to the tens side of the place Student Students will add one more cube to the ones side of the place value mat. Students snap the cubes together and move it to the tens side of the mat. value mat.

38 37 Say: Read Students: One ten, zero ones Say: Ding! Add one Students will add one more cube to the ones side of the place value mat. Say: Read Say: Ding! Add one Students: One ten, one ones Students will add one more cube to the ones side of the place value mat. Read One ten, two ones Tips for Teachers: The activity above demonstrates the concept of forming groups of tens. Once the students reach ten cubes, the goal is to snap the ten cubes together and move it to the tens side of the place value mat. The students need to understand that ten individual units of cubes are the same as one group of tens.

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