AP Chemistry 2004 Free-Response Questions

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1 AP Chemistry 004 Free-Response Questions The materials included in these iles are intended or noncommercial use by AP teachers or course and exam preparation; permission or any other use must be sought rom the Advanced Placement Program Teachers may reproduce them, in whole or in part, in limited quantities, or ace-to-ace teaching purposes but may not mass distribute the materials, electronically or otherwise This permission does not apply to any third-party copyrights contained herein These materials and any copies made o them may not be resold, and the copyright notices must be retained as they appear here The College Board is a not-or-proit membership association whose mission is to connect students to college success and opportunity Founded in 1900, the association is composed o more than 4,500 schools, colleges, universities, and other educational organizations Each year, the College Board serves over three million students and their parents, 3,000 high schools, and 3,500 colleges through major programs and services in college admissions, guidance, assessment, inancial aid, enrollment, and teaching and learning Among its best-known programs are the SAT, the PSAT/NMSQT, and the Advanced Placement Program (AP ) The College Board is committed to the principles o excellence and equity, and that commitment is embodied in all o its programs, services, activities, and concerns For urther inormation, visit wwwcollegeboardcom Copyright 004 College Entrance Examination Board All rights reserved College Board, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Central, AP Vertical Teams, APCD, Pacesetter, Pre-AP, SAT, Student Search Service, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks o the College Entrance Examination Board PSAT/NMSQT is a registered trademark jointly owned by the College Entrance Examination Board and the National Merit Scholarship Corporation Educational Testing Service and ETS are registered trademarks o Educational Testing Service Other products and services may be trademarks o their respective owners For the College Board s online home or AP proessionals, visit AP Central at apcentralcollegeboardcom

2 INFORMATION IN THE TABLE BELOW AND IN THE TABLES ON PAGES 3-5 MAY BE USEFUL IN ANSWERING THE QUESTIONS IN THIS SECTION OF THE EXAMINATION DO NOT DETACH FROM BOO 1 H Li Na Rb Cs Fr (3) 4 Be Mg Ca PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS Sr Ba Ra 60 1 Sc Y *La Ac 703 Ti Zr 91 7 H V Nb Ta Cr Mo W Mn Tc (98) 75 Re Fe Ru Os Co Rh Ir R Db Sg Bh Hs Mt (61) (6) (63) (6) (65) (66) 8 Ni Pd Pt (69) 9 Cu Ag Au (7) 30 Zn Cd Hg (77) 5 B Al Ga In Tl C Si Ge Sn Pb 07 7 N P As Sb Not yet named Bi O S Se Te Po (09) 9 F Cl Br I At (10) *Lanthanide Series Actinide Series Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu (145) Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk C Es Fm Md No Lr (44) (43) (47) (47) (51) (5) (57) (58) (59) (60) He Ne Ar r Xe Rn () GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

3 STANDARD REDUCTION POTENTIALS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION AT 5 C Hal-reaction E ( V ) F ( g) e F 87 3 Co e Co 18 3 Au 3e Au() s 150 Cl ( g) e Cl 136 O ( g) 4 H 4 e HO( l) 13 Br () l e Br 107 Hg e Hg 09 Hg e Hg( l) 085 Ag e Ag( s) 080 Hg e Hg( l) Fe e Fe 077 I () s e I 053 Cu e Cu() s 05 Cu e Cu() s 034 Cu e Cu Sn e Sn 015 S () s H e H S () g 014 H e H ( g) 000 Pb e Pb() s 013 Sn e Sn() s 014 Ni e Ni() s 05 Co e Co( s) 08 Tl e Tl() s 034 Cd e Cd( s) Cr e Cr 041 Fe e Fe( s) Cr 3 e Cr() s 074 Zn e Zn() s 076 Mn e Mn() s Al 3 e Al() s 166 Be e Be() s 170 Mg e Mg( s) 37 Na e Na() s 71 Ca e Ca() s 87 Sr e Sr() s 89 Ba e Ba() s 90 Rb e Rb() s 9 e (s) 9 Cs e Cs() s 9 Li e Li () s GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

4 ADVANCED PLACEMENT CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS AND CONSTANTS ATOMIC STRUCTURE E hv c lv l h p mu mu En joule n EQUILIBRIUM [ H ][ A ] a [ HA] b w [ OH ][ HB ] [ B] 14 [ OH ][ H ] 10 5 C a b ph log [ H ], poh log [ OH ] 14 ph poh log [ A ph p ] a [ HA] log [ HB poh p ] b [ B] p log, p log a a b b D ( RT), p c n where Dn moles product gas moles reactant gas THERMOCHEMISTRY/INETICS DS S products - S DH DH products - DH DG DG products - DG DG DH - TDS - RT ln RT log -n E DG DG RT ln Q DG 303 RT log Q q mcdt C p ln A ln k DH DT t    - ln A -kt kt A A t Ea - 1 e j ln A R T 0 0    reactants reactants reactants E energy u velocity v requency n principal quantum number l wavelength m mass p momentum Speed o light, c m s Planck s constant, h J s Boltzmann s constant, k J Avogadro s number mol Electron charge, e coulomb 1 electron volt per atom 965 kj mol Equilibrium Constants S H G E a b w p c T n m q c C E p a (weak acid) (weak base) (water) (gas pressure) (molar concentrations) activation energy k rate constant A requency actor standard entropy standard enthalpy standard ree energy standard reduction potential temperature moles mass heat speciic heat capacity molar heat capacity at constant pressure Faraday's constant, 96, 500 coulombs per mole o electrons -1-1 Gas constant, R 831 J mol L atm mol volt coulomb mol 4 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

5 GASES, LIQUIDS, AND SOLUTIONS F H G P I PV nrt n a V - nb nrt V J ( ) P PV T P PV T m D V 3kT 3RT urms m M E per molecule 1 mu E per mole 3 RT r1 M r M1 molarity, M moles solute per liter solution molality moles solute per kilogram solvent DT i molality DTb ib molality p MRT A abc X X A total A A, where Ptotal PA PB PC n m M C 73 moles A total moles P pressure V T volume temperature n D m number o moles density mass u velocity urms E r root-mean-square speed kinetic energy rate o eusion M p molar mass osmotic pressure i van't Ho actor b molal reezing-point depression constant molal boiling-point elevation constant A absorbance a molar absorptivity b path length c concentration Q reaction quotient I current (amperes) q charge (coulombs) t time (seconds) E standard reduction potential equilibrium constant OXIDATION-REDUCTION; ELECTROCHEMISTRY E [ C] [ D] Q, where a A b B c C d D a b [ A] [ B] I log c q t E RT - ln Q E n - ne d i log 5 C n cell cell cell -1-1 Gas constant, R 831 J mol L atm mol volt coulomb mol Boltzmann's constant, k J -1 or H O 186 kg mol b or HO 051 kg mol 1atm 760mm Hg 760 torr STP C and atm Faraday's constant, 96, 500 coulombs per mole o electrons 5 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

6 004 AP CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS CHEMISTRY Section II (Total time 90 minutes) Part A Time 40 minutes YOU MAY USE YOUR CALCULATOR FOR PART A CLEARLY SHOW THE METHOD USED AND THE STEPS INVOLVED IN ARRIVING AT YOUR ANSWERS It is to your advantage to do this, since you may obtain partial credit i you do and you will receive little or no credit i you do not Attention should be paid to signiicant igures Be sure to write all your answers to the questions on the lined pages ollowing each question in the booklet with the pink cover Do NOT write your answers on the green insert Answer Question 1 below The Section II score weighting or this question is 0 percent 1 Answer the ollowing questions relating to the solubilities o two silver compounds, Ag CrO 4 and Ag 3 PO 4 Silver chromate dissociates in water according to the equation shown below Ag CrO 4 (s) Ag (aq) CrO 4 (aq) sp at 5 C (a) Write the equilibrium-constant expression or the dissolving o Ag CrO 4 (s) (b) Calculate the concentration, in mol L 1, o Ag (aq) in a saturated solution o Ag CrO 4 at 5 C (c) Calculate the maximum mass, in grams, o Ag CrO 4 that can dissolve in 100 ml o water at 5 C (d) A 0100 mol sample o solid AgNO 3 is added to a 100 L saturated solution o Ag CrO 4 Assuming no volume change, does [CrO 4 ] increase, decrease, or remain the same? Justiy your answer In a saturated solution o Ag 3 PO 4 at 5 C, the concentration o Ag (aq) is M The equilibriumconstant expression or the dissolving o Ag 3 PO 4 (s) in water is shown below sp [Ag ] 3 [PO 4 3 ] (e) Write the balanced equation or the dissolving o Ag 3 PO 4 in water () Calculate the value o sp or Ag 3 PO 4 at 5 C (g) A 100 L sample o saturated Ag 3 PO 4 solution is allowed to evaporate at 5 C to a inal volume o 500 ml What is [Ag ] in the solution? Justiy your answer Copyright 004 by College Entrance Examination Board All rights reserved Visit apcentralcollegeboardcom (or AP proessionals) and wwwcollegeboardcom/apstudents (or AP students and parents) 6 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

7 004 AP CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS Answer EITHER Question below OR Question 3 printed on page 8 Only one o these two questions will be graded I you start both questions, be sure to cross out the question you do not want graded The Section II score weighting or the question you choose is 0 percent Fe(s) 3 O (g) Fe O 3 (s) DH 84 kj mol 1 Iron reacts with oxygen to produce iron(iii) oxide, as represented by the equation above A 750 g sample o Fe(s) is mixed with 115 L o O (g) at 66 atm and 98 (a) Calculate the number o moles o each o the ollowing beore the reaction begins (i) Fe(s) (ii) O (g) (b) Identiy the limiting reactant when the mixture is heated to produce Fe O 3 (s) Support your answer with calculations (c) Calculate the number o moles o Fe O 3 (s) produced when the reaction proceeds to completion (d) The standard ree energy o ormation, DG, o Fe O 3 (s) is 740 kj mol 1 at 98 (i) Calculate the standard entropy o ormation, DS, o Fe O 3 (s) at 98 Include units with your answer (ii) Which is more responsible or the spontaneity o the ormation reaction at 98, the standard enthalpy o ormation, DH, or the standard entropy o ormation, DS? Justiy your answer The reaction represented below also produces iron(iii) oxide The value o mole o Fe O 3 (s) ormed DH or the reaction is 80 kj per FeO(s) 1 O (g) Fe O 3 (s) (e) Calculate the standard enthalpy o ormation, DH, o FeO(s) Copyright 004 by College Entrance Examination Board All rights reserved Visit apcentralcollegeboardcom (or AP proessionals) and wwwcollegeboardcom/apstudents (or AP students and parents) 7 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

8 004 AP CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS 3 The irst-order decomposition o a colored chemical species, X, into colorless products is monitored with a spectrophotometer by measuring changes in absorbance over time Species X has a molar absorptivity constant o cm 1 M 1 and the path length o the cuvette containing the reaction mixture is 100 cm The data rom the experiment are given in the table below [X] ( M ) Absorbance Time (min)? ? (a) Calculate the initial concentration o the colored species (b) Calculate the rate constant or the irst-order reaction using the values given or concentration and time Include units with your answer (c) Calculate the number o minutes it takes or the absorbance to drop rom 0600 to 0075 (d) Calculate the hal-lie o the reaction Include units with your answer (e) Experiments were perormed to determine the value o the rate constant or this reaction at various temperatures Data rom these experiments were used to produce the graph below, where T is temperature This graph can be used to determine the activation energy, E a, o the reaction (i) Label the vertical axis o the graph (ii) Explain how to calculate the activation energy rom this graph STOP I you inish beore time is called, you may check your work on this part only Do not turn to the other part o the test until you are told to do so Copyright 004 by College Entrance Examination Board All rights reserved Visit apcentralcollegeboardcom (or AP proessionals) and wwwcollegeboardcom/apstudents (or AP students and parents) 8

9 004 AP CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS CHEMISTRY Part B Time 50 minutes NO CALCULATORS MAY BE USED FOR PART B Answer Question 4 below The Section II score weighting or this question is 15 percent 4 Write the ormulas to show the reactants and the products or any FIVE o the laboratory situations described below Answers to more than ive choices will not be graded In all cases, a reaction occurs Assume that solutions are aqueous unless otherwise indicated Represent substances in solution as ions i the substances are extensively ionized Omit ormulas or any ions or molecules that are unchanged by the reaction You need not balance the equations Example: A strip o magnesium is added to a solution o silver nitrate (a) A solution o copper(ii) sulate is spilled onto a sheet o reshly polished aluminum metal (b) Dimethyl ether is burned in air (c) A 01 M nitrous acid solution is added to the same volume o a 01 M sodium hydroxide solution (d) Hydrogen iodide gas is bubbled into a solution o lithium carbonate (e) An acidic solution o potassium dichromate is added to a solution o iron(ii) nitrate () Excess concentrated aqueous ammonia is added to a solution o nickel(ii) bromide (g) A solution o sodium phosphate is added to a solution o aluminum nitrate (h) Concentrated hydrochloric acid is added to a solution o sodium sulide Copyright 004 by College Entrance Examination Board All rights reserved Visit apcentralcollegeboardcom (or AP proessionals) and wwwcollegeboardcom/apstudents (or AP students and parents) 9 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

10 004 AP CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS Your responses to the rest o the questions in this part o the examination will be graded on the basis o the accuracy and relevance o the inormation cited Explanations should be clear and well organized Examples and equations may be included in your responses where appropriate Speciic answers are preerable to broad, diuse responses Answer BOTH Question 5 below AND Question 6 printed on page 11 Both o these questions will be graded The Section II score weighting or these questions is 30 percent (15 percent each) 5 In a laboratory class, a student is given three lasks that are labeled Q, R, and S Each lask contains one o the ollowing solutions: 10 M Pb(NO 3 ), 10 M NaCl, or 10 M CO 3 The student is also given two lasks that are labeled X and Y One o these lasks contains 10 M AgNO 3, and the other contains 10 M BaCl This inormation is summarized in the diagram below (a) When the student combined a sample o solution Q with a sample o solution X, a precipitate ormed A precipitate also ormed when samples o solutions Q and Y were combined (i) Identiy solution Q (ii) Write the chemical ormulas or each o the two precipitates (b) When solution Q is mixed with solution R, a precipitate orms However, no precipitate orms when solution Q is mixed with solution S (i) Identiy solution R and solution S (ii) Write the chemical ormula o the precipitate that orms when solution Q is mixed with solution R (c) The identity o solution X and solution Y are to be determined using only the ollowing solutions: 10 M Pb(NO 3 ), 10 M NaCl, and 10 M CO 3 (i) Describe a procedure to identiy solution X and solution Y (ii) Describe the observations that would allow you to distinguish between solution X and solution Y (iii) Explain how the observations would enable you to distinguish between solution X and solution Y Copyright 004 by College Entrance Examination Board All rights reserved Visit apcentralcollegeboardcom (or AP proessionals) and wwwcollegeboardcom/apstudents (or AP students and parents) 10 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

11 004 AP CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS 6 An electrochemical cell is constructed with an open switch, as shown in the diagram above A strip o Sn and a strip o an unknown metal, X, are used as electrodes When the switch is closed, the mass o the Sn electrode increases The hal-reactions are shown below Sn (aq) e Sn(s) E 014 V X 3 (aq) 3 e X(s) E? (a) In the diagram above, label the electrode that is the cathode Justiy your answer (b) In the diagram above, draw an arrow indicating the direction o the electron low in the external circuit when the switch is closed (c) I the standard cell potential, X 3 /X electrode? (d) Identiy metal X Ecell, is 060 V, what is the standard reduction potential, in volts, or the (e) Write a balanced net-ionic equation or the overall chemical reaction occurring in the cell () In the cell, the concentration o Sn is changed rom 10 M to 050 M, and the concentration o X 3 is changed rom 10 M to 010 M (i) Substitute all the appropriate values or determining the cell potential, (Do not do any calculations) (ii) On the basis o your response in part () (i), will the cell potential, equal to the original Ecell? Justiy your answer E cell E cell, into the Nernst equation, be greater than, less than, or Copyright 004 by College Entrance Examination Board All rights reserved Visit apcentralcollegeboardcom (or AP proessionals) and wwwcollegeboardcom/apstudents (or AP students and parents) 11 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

12 004 AP CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS Answer EITHER Question 7 below OR Question 8 printed on page 13 Only one o these two questions will be graded I you start both questions, be sure to cross out the question you do not want graded The Section II score weighting or the question you choose is 15 percent 7 Use appropriate chemical principles to account or each o the ollowing observations In each part, your response must include speciic inormation about both substances (a) At 5 C and 1 atm, F is a gas, whereas I is a solid (b) The melting point o NaF is 993 C, whereas the melting point o CsCl is 645 C (c) The shape o the ICl 4 ion is square planar, whereas the shape o the BF 4 ion is tetrahedral (d) Ammonia, NH 3, is very soluble in water, whereas phosphine, PH 3, is only moderately soluble in water Copyright 004 by College Entrance Examination Board All rights reserved Visit apcentralcollegeboardcom (or AP proessionals) and wwwcollegeboardcom/apstudents (or AP students and parents) 1 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

13 004 AP CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS 8 Answer the ollowing questions about carbon monoxide, CO(g), and carbon dioxide, CO (g) Assume that both gases exhibit ideal behavior (a) Draw the complete Lewis structure (electron-dot diagram) or the CO molecule and or the CO molecule (b) Identiy the shape o the CO molecule (c) One o the two gases dissolves readily in water to orm a solution with a ph below 7 Identiy the gas and account or this observation by writing a chemical equation (d) A 10 mole sample o CO(g) is heated at constant pressure On the graph below, sketch the expected plot o volume versus temperature as the gas is heated (e) Samples o CO(g) and CO (g) are placed in 1 L containers at the conditions indicated in the diagram below (i) Indicate whether the average kinetic energy o the CO (g) molecules is greater than, equal to, or less than the average kinetic energy o the CO(g) molecules Justiy your answer (ii) Indicate whether the root-mean-square speed o the CO (g) molecules is greater than, equal to, or less than the root-mean-square speed o the CO(g) molecules Justiy your answer (iii) Indicate whether the number o CO (g) molecules is greater than, equal to, or less than the number o CO(g) molecules Justiy your answer END OF EXAMINATION Copyright 004 by College Entrance Examination Board All rights reserved Visit apcentralcollegeboardcom (or AP proessionals) and wwwcollegeboardcom/apstudents (or AP students and parents) 13

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