Doctoral Programs on the light of the EHEA

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1 Doctoral Programs on the light of the EHEA Highlights of the reccomendations from the ad hoc WG on III cycle

2 1 Why a BFUG WG IIIcycle? According to the Bucharest Communiqué (2012) Taking into account the Salzburg II recommendations and the Principles for Innovative Doctoral Training, we will explore how to promote quality, transparency, employability and mobility in the third cycle, as the education and training of doctoral candidates has a particular role in bridging the EHEA and the ERA. Next to doctoral training, high quality second cycle programs are a necessary precondition for the success of linking teaching, learning and research. Keeping wide diversity and simultaneously increasing readability, we might also explore further possible common principles for master programs in the EHEA, taking account of previous work.

3 2 BFUG ad hoc WG IIIcycle Set up by the Bologna Follow up Group-BFUG as sub structure of the Structural Reforms WG with the mandate to formulate policy proposals to promote quality, transparency, employability and mobility in the third cycle, taking into account the developments foreseen within the ERA by Horizon 2020 and other EU initiatives; to improve the transition between the second and the third cycle, with the aim to strengthen the link between education and research. related to the third cycle, such as sustainable funding for third cycle education or candidate recruitment practices.

4 3 BFUG ad hoc WG IIIcycle Co chaired by Italy: Marzia Foroni and Romania: Cezar Haj and Horia Iovu Spain: Gloria Molero The membership of the group includes Armenia, Austria, Belgium/Flemish Community, Belgium/French Community, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, the Holy See, Hungary, Ireland, Moldova, Poland, Ukraine, United Kingdom, the European Commission, the EUA, EI, and EURODOC. The group has met five times in Rome in December 2012, in Bucharest in May 2013, in Madrid in October 2013, in Bucharest in February 2014 and in Rome in May 2014 The WG IIIcycle report has been delivered at the Structural reform group in the Summer 2014 will be discussed in a thematic session on Doctoral education at the next BFUG Meeting of November 27 th 2014

5 4 The European High Education Area

6 Interviewees revealed their individual positions along these dimensions, often strongly advocating their 5 What concerns do we have? Purpose Ph.D. is a research certification. Ph.D. requires broader professional preparation. To prepare students as academics. To prepare students for a variety of career options. Enrollment Ph.D. programs need to be very selective. Ph.D. programs should admit all qualified applicants.. Need to decrease the number of Ph.D.s Need to increase the number of Ph.D.s. U.S. students should be privileged. International students should be encouraged. Training Best preparation is the apprenticeship model. Other types of mentoring are needed. Funding practices work well. Funding practices need to change Current model attracts the Current model discourages the best and the brightest. "best and the brightest

7 6 Doctoral training or doctoral education? Doctoral programs are an integral part of the EHEA and of the ERA. Training to research through research must be the distinctive feature of any doctoral program Skills and competences are the outcomes of a doctoral training based on a researchdriven approach attention should be paid to proper definition, implementation and assessment of intended outcomes for the third cycle esearcher specific skills, professional/specialist knowledge and transferable competencies that the PhD candidate is expected to develop during the doctoral training with the help of the supervisor

8 7 Promoting quality and improving quality assurance Guidelines for QA in the III cycle should include principles that will guide institutions to: provide sufficient resources, critical mass of research, a supportive and inclusive research environment based on good supervision; include dedicated procedures in order to ensure retention and timely completion; Include in the internal QA framework provisions about the supervisors competencies and role in the candidates training support the involvement of doctoral candidates in improving the overall quality of the programme, as a key element to quality assurance within the third cycle; apply independent and external peer review to assess originality, creativity and independence of the research done during the Doctoral programme, with special attention to the thesis defence;

9 8 Development of transparency tools Diploma Supplement for the III cycle should be issued automatically and free of charge to all Doctoral graduates across the EHEA, in line with the existing format. be available also in a widely spoken European language encapsulate the doctoral programme description, specific learning activities, thesis title and assessment, as well as mobility experiences, transferable skills, international cooperation activities that the student has been involved in and research projects the student has been a part of. make visible all the competencies and skills achieved by candidates.

10 9 Development of transparency tools Not consensus on ECTS in the III cycle Pro s Con s ECTS for the third cycle describe the workload to achieve expected outcomes at the end of specific training/learning activities, allow doctorate holders to better promote their skills and competences to employers. could also be used as one of the transparency and QA tools for doctoral programs. facilitate the issuing of certification where doctoral students interrupt their studies or need valorization outside of the academia of the skills acquired. ECTS for the third cycle could generate a race for credit 'intended learning outcomes' at doctorate level cannot be as specifically defined as they can be in the first and second cycle levels. Doctoral degrees are based on individual research projects, which are difficult to divide in different parts to be assigned a certain number of credits.

11 10 Development of Doctoral Education Larger variation in the # of PhD students wrt University students

12 11 Employability Pool and Seewell, 2007 Motivation to enter Higher education Johnes, 2006 To study a specific discipline in depth, to gain a degree, get higher qualification and this get a good or better job The better qualified have far greater employment opportunities Employability is not simply to get a job in 6 months after graduation Employability Hillage and Pollard (1998) is about the capability to move self-sufficiently within the labor market to realize potential through sustainable employment Hinchcliffe, 2001 Having a set of skills, knowledge, understanding and personal attributes that make a person more likely to choose and secure occupations in which they can be satisfied and successful Generic or transferrable skills Bennet, Dunne & Carré, 1999 The skills which can support study in any discipline, and which can potentially be transferred to a range of contexts, in higher education or the work place York and Knight, 2002 The point of view of the employers: give us a bright and engaged graduate, and we will build specific expertise for this organization on top of that

13 12 Nature, 4 SEPTEMBER 2014 VOL EDITORIALS TOOLBOX Nature s latest guide to keep you up to date on technology p.6 WORLD VIEW Global power lists are unfair to Africa s scientists p.7 There is life after academia ROCKS Ice and GPS solve the mystery of shifting stones p.8 With high numbers of postdocs emerging from universities, prospective PhD students must be prepared for the fact that they will probably not end up with a career in research. W THIS WEEK But instead of culling graduate students or abandoning the PhD, why not rebrand it? Rather than being a first rung on a ladder that ends with tenure-track professor (unless you tumble off), doctorates could be treated more like a trail that feeds through to a number of different paths (some easier, some harder, some even rather scary).

14 13 Structured doctoral training/ programs Structured doctoral training leads to clearer governance structures and policies at the institutional level admission, quality assurance, assessment, supervision. Structured Doctoral programs institutions embed training activities in the discipline or in transferable skills Structured doctoral training/programs usually introduced through Doctoral Schools. Salzburg II Recommendations

15 14 Employability The outcome of doctoral programs a doctorate holder with a high level of research competences and a broad set of skills that help to develop his/her potential inside and outside the academic sector. HEI s shall increasingly : use of structured training and Doctoral schools to provide transferable skills, interdisciplinary, valorisation of research, self entrepreneurship and leadership The MORE2 Higher Education Survey: only 52% of PhD candidates and recent PhD received structured training implement doctoral programs in cooperation with non-academic entities allow research stays in non-academic environments include mentoring for career development in addition to supervision of the research provide lifelong learning opportunities to ensure a permanent update and improvement of competencies and skills on an ever dynamic employment market;

16 15 Introduce innovation in the curriculum development Governments should consider valuing Doctorate holders with regard to employment and career development in public institutions the negative impact of the wide spread use of temporary contracts in academia and its impact on the attractiveness of the careers in academic research. tenure track and open recruitment as more attractive careers paths towards academia and research institutions specific actions to make aware the society of how PhD holders can contribute to social progress, the advancement in knowledge, innovation and productivity

17 16 Internationalization and mobility HEI s should be encouraged: to increase mobility opportunities geographical as well as inter-sectorial functional to the research-based approach of Doctoral training. to develop programs and other forms of collaboration with international partners. co-tutelle, joint and double degrees,. to increase the number of scientific collaborations and to further diversify and enrich different academic environments. EHEA countries shall contribute, in a coordinate way, to data collection on offered Doctoral programs Joint or collaborative programs number of candidates and their profile candidates international mobility doctorate holder s employment.

18 17 Transition between II and III cycles EUA clearly states that The first two levels should be looked at also from the perspective of those who will continue on to pursue Doctoral education (EUA, TRENDS 2010). HEIs should All this, continue to develop II cycle programs based on learning outcomes related to research should supported this would be a help also for second cycle graduates who will not go in a Doctoral program, but who nevertheless would profit very much from a qualified, although necessarily short, period of research. sparking the interest of students towards research already at the II cycle encourage and facilitate the transition of students who demonstrate attitudes towards research from II to the III cycle. taking into account diversity in II cycle having clear that most of the Master graduates will go in the job market

19 18 Funding To ensure a sustainable development of the third cycle across EHEA, It is necessary to empower the research capacity of universities the appropriate budget for research should be allocated primarily from public funds, while assuring transparent systems of funds allocation. European level funding for doctoral programs should be awarded where European added value can be demonstrated and should not be used to replace national public investments.

20 19 Thank you for your attention

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