# QoS optimization for an. on-demand transportation system via a fractional linear objective function

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1 QoS optimization for an Load charge ratio on-demand transportation system via a fractional linear objective function Thierry Garaix, University of Avignon (France) Column Generation 2008 QoS optimization for an on-demand transportation system via a fractional linear objective function p. 1

2 Plan On-demand transportation system (DARP) Load charge ratio Column generation for the DARP Maximization of the loading rate Computational results and observations QoS optimization for an on-demand transportation system via a fractional linear objective function p. 2

3 Dial-a-ride Problem (DARP) Pick-Up & Delivery with Time Windows + QoS constraints A road-network: travel times, distances... Introduction DARP Classical method QoS Load charge ratio R requests r pick-up r +, drop-off r points load F r, time windows [T inf r, T sup r ] K vehicles type k depots k +, k, quantity K k, capacity F k, km cost, speed 10: :55 9: :00 10:00 8: :25 13:00 9: :10 11:50 12:00 QoS optimization for an on-demand transportation system via a fractional linear objective function p. 3

4 Master problem min ω Ω C ω λ ω Introduction DARP Classical method QoS Load charge ratio subject to λ ω ρ ωr = 1 ω Ω λ ω K k ω Ω k λ ω integer r = 1,..., R k = 1,..., K ω Ω Ω k : feasible routes with vehicle type k, Ω = K k=1 Ω k Objective function minimizes total inconvenience ρ ωr {0,1} : request r is in route ω QoS optimization for an on-demand transportation system via a fractional linear objective function p. 4

5 Introduction DARP Classical method QoS Load charge ratio Slave problems RC ω = C ω = (i,j) ω (i,j) ω C ij (C ij π ij ) ω: arcs of ω, π ij : well defined dual cost We model slave problem as an ESPPRC solved by dynamic programming Label L is a partial path ending in v L at time T L with open requests O L, closed requests that are still time reachable S L and a cost C L Dominance rule: v L = v M, T L T M, O L O M and S L S M O M T M and C L C M ; T M are time reachable requests for M QoS optimization for an on-demand transportation system via a fractional linear objective function p. 5

6 Quality of service We develop an algorithm using robust accelerations (LDS, heuristic... ). We solve instances with 100 requests Introduction DARP Classical method QoS Load charge ratio Adaptation to new QoS criteria? time lost for inbound and outbound requests Cost resource extension fonction is not non-decreasing distance Working network is a p-graph of non-dominated (distance/time) paths loading rate Fractional linear objective function QoS optimization for an on-demand transportation system via a fractional linear objective function p. 6

7 Loading rate Definition Iterative method Loading rate: number of passengers times their travel time divided by the total travel time of vehicles max P P ω Ω N ωλ ω ω Ω D ωλ ω = N(λ) D(λ) f ij (variables): passenger flow N ω = (i,j) ω f ijt ij D ω = (i,j) ω T ij T ij (data): travel time. We exclude waiting times Practical interests: Good indicator for local authorities, that prefer full-loaded vehicles on road A social impact QoS optimization for an on-demand transportation system via a fractional linear objective function p. 7

8 Direct algorithm Charnes-Cooper (62) Change of variable x = 1/ ω Ω D ωλ ω : max x ω Ω N ωλ ω Direct method Iterative method s.t. x ω Ω λ ωρ ωr = x, r = 1,..., R x ω Ω k λ ω xk k x ω Ω D ωλ ω = 1 xλ ω 0 x 0, k = 1,..., K, ω Ω λ ω xλ ω : max ω Ω N ωλ ω s.t. ω Ω λ ωρ ωr = x, r = 1,..., R ω Ω k λ ω xk k, k = 1,..., K ω Ω D ωλ ω = 1 λ ω 0, ω Ω x 0 QoS optimization for an on-demand transportation system via a fractional linear objective function p. 8

9 Direct algorithm slave problem ESPPRC: min ω Ω N ωλ ω Direct method Iterative method C ω = (i,j) ω f it ij RC ω = C ω (i,j) ω (π ij + µt ij ) New dominance rule: v L = v M, T L T M, O L O M C L C M and S L S M O M T L become C L C M + r O M \O L det(r, T M ) + r S L \(S M O M T M ) min{det(r+, T M ) + det(r, T M ),0} QoS optimization for an on-demand transportation system via a fractional linear objective function p. 9

10 Direct algorithm slave problem Lower bounds on detours by vertex v Direct method Iterative method Compare each feasible arc (u, w) with path (u, v, w) det(v, t) = min u,w V ( µ f u )(T uv + T vu T uw ) F v T vw π uv Durations observe triangular inequality Pre-preprocessing max f u depending on u,v and w type, since other values are constant at each iteration QoS optimization for an on-demand transportation system via a fractional linear objective function p. 10

11 Iterative algorithm Dinkelbach(67) P = {λ R + : ω Ω λ ωρ ωr = 1 r = 1,..., R; ω Ω k λ ω K k k = 1,..., K} Iterative method MP: max λ P q(λ) = N(λ)/D(λ) Introduce F(x) = max λ P N(λ) xd(λ) Propertie: λ is optimal for MP F(q(λ )) = 0 Find λ n s.t. q(λ ) q(λ n ) < δ, δ > 0 Find λ n s.t. F(q(λ n )) < ε, ε > 0 Since F(x) is decreasing and F(q(λ )) = 0 Proof: q(λ 0 ) = N(λ 0 )/D(λ 0 ) F(q(λ 0 )) 0 F(q(λ 0 )) = 0 0 > N(λ) q(λ 0 )D(λ), λ q(λ 0 ) = max λ P N(λ)/D(λ) QoS optimization for an on-demand transportation system via a fractional linear objective function p. 11

12 Iterative algorithm Iterative method Sequence (λ n ): λ n+1 is defined as the optimal solution of F(q(λ n )) = max λ P N(λ) q(λ n )D(λ) Sequence (q n ) = q(λ n ) = N(λ n 1 )/D(λ n 1 ) increases and converges Algorithm builds (λ n ) and stops when F(q n ) < ε Two schemes integrate column generation (CG): Apply Dinkelbach algorithm on MP Apply Dinkelbach algorithm on each RMP Branch-and-Bound scheme is based on q n values QoS optimization for an on-demand transportation system via a fractional linear objective function p. 12

13 Iterative algorithm λ 0 = λ 1 Ω {λ i } Ω {λ i } λ 0 = λ 1 Iterative method Solve LP F(q 0 ) = max λ P N(λ) q 0 D(λ) q 1 = N(λ 1 )/D(λ 1 ) F(q 0 ) = N(λ 1 ) q 0 D(λ 1 ) Solve LP F(q 0 ) = max λ P N(λ) q 0 D(λ) q 1 = N(λ 1 )/D(λ 1 ) F(q 0 ) = N(λ 1 ) q 0 D(λ 1 ) λ i with positive reduced cost? no yes F(q 0 ) ε? no yes yes F(q 0 ) ε? no yes λ i with positive reduced cost? no STOP STOP QoS optimization for an on-demand transportation system via a fractional linear objective function p. 13

14 Iterative algorithm slave problem ESPPRC: min F(q 0 ) = q 0 D(λ) N(λ) Iterative method C ω = (i,j) ω q0 T ij f i T ij RC ω = C ω (i,j) ω π ij Same remarks as for the direct algorithm and lower bounds on detours: det(v, t) = min u,w V (q 0 f u )(T uv + T vu + T uw ) F v T vw π uv Pre-preprocessing max f u QoS optimization for an on-demand transportation system via a fractional linear objective function p. 14

15 Instances Iterative method Two benchmarks Li and Lim ( 50 requests) from Solomon s Cordeau (from 16 to 96 requests) One vehicle type Modifications We compute new tight time windows T sup T inf = 1.5T r r + r + r QoS optimization for an on-demand transportation system via a fractional linear objective function p. 15

16 Results on random Li & Lim s Iterative method instance loading rate cpu sec. name min D(λ) max N(λ)/D(λ) direct iterative r r r r r r r r r r r r QoS optimization for an on-demand transportation system via a fractional linear objective function p. 16

17 Results on cluster Li & Lim s Iterative method instance loading rate cpu sec. name min D(λ) max N(λ)/D(λ) direct iterative c c c c c c c c c QoS optimization for an on-demand transportation system via a fractional linear objective function p. 17

18 Results on random/cluster Li & Lim s Iterative method instance loading rate cpu sec. name min D(λ) max N(λ)/D(λ) direct iterative rc rc rc rc rc rc rc rc QoS optimization for an on-demand transportation system via a fractional linear objective function p. 18

19 Iterative method Results on Cordeau s instance loading rate cpu sec. name min D(λ) max N(λ)/D(λ) direct iterative b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b QoS optimization for an on-demand transportation system via a fractional linear objective function p. 19

20 Conclusions Iterative method Generic schemes managing fractional linear objective function with column generation They succeed in solving our problem Travel time minimization also (almost) optimizes loading rate We could implement many of classical acceleration methods in the proposed algorithm have to be carried out with less bounded numerator and denominator in order to test the convergence speed QoS optimization for an on-demand transportation system via a fractional linear objective function p. 20

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