Grammar 2.3. Interrogatives and Demonstratives; Pronoun Agreement

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1 Grammar 2.3 Interrogatives and Demonstratives; Pronoun Agreement

2 Demonstrative Pronouns What type of sentence is an interrogative sentence? A sentence that asks a question. So where do you think you will find interrogative pronouns? In interrogative sentences, typically. Interrogative pronouns are used to introduce a question. Who used up all the water? Whose cup is this? Often, the antecedent of the interrogative pronoun will answer the question. Who used up all the water? Jim used up all the water. The antecedent of who is Jim. Interrogative Pronoun who, whom what which whose Use refers to people refers to things refers to people or things indicates ownership or relationship

3 Demonstrative Pron. (cont.) Who went to the store? refers to a person You threw the ball at whom? refers to a person What did you give her? refers to a thing Which of the baseball gloves did you pick? Which pitcher did you choose to start? refers to a person or thing Whose book are you borrowing? Whose mom are you hitching a ride home with? refers to ownership of a thing or a relationship with a person Notice whose sounds a lot like who s. It is very easy to confuse whose, which generally refers to possession or ownership, and who s, which is a contraction of who + is.

4 Demonstrative Pron. (cont.) The difference between who and whom can be difficult to tell. Who is always used as a subject or predicate pronoun. Subject: Who called the power company? Predicate pronoun: The electrician is who? Whom is always used as an object. Direct object: Whom did you tell? Indirect object: You gave whom the answer? Object of preposition: To whom did you give my name? (Who, Whom) will you see? 1. Rewrite the question as a statement. You will see (who, whom). 2. Decide if the pronoun is used as a subject or an object. Choose the correct form. You will see whom. 3. Use the correct form in the question. Whom will you see?

5 Demonstrative Pron. (cont.) Who vs. Whom 1. Who/Whom saw the movie? She saw the movie. Who. The antecedent of the pronoun in question is she. She is a subject pronoun and the subject of the 2nd sentence; therefore, who is used. 2. Who/Whom did Jon see? Jon saw her. Whom. The antecedent of the pronoun in question is her. Her is an object pronoun and the direct object of the 2nd sentence; therefore, whom is used. 3. Who/Whom did Mr. Rivera throw the sheep at? Mr. Rivera threw the sheep at Sally. Whom. The antecedent of the pronoun in question is Sally. Sally is the object of the preposition in the second sentence; therefore, whom is used.

6 Demonstrative Pron. (cont.) 1. of these tennis rackets is yours? Which. Refers to a question of things, so its either which or what. 2. is going to the mall with you? Who. Rewrite the sentence with any name: Jake is going to the mall with you. Jake is the antecedent of the pronoun in question. Jake is the subject. Must be who. 3. got hit by the ball? Who. Rewrite the sentence with any name: Betsy got hit by the ball. Betsy is the antecedent of the pronoun in question. Betsy is the subject. Must be who. 4. did the ball hit? Whom. Rewrite the sentence with any name: The ball hit Betsy. Betsy is the antecedent of the pronoun in question. Betsy is the direct object. Must be whom. 5. car is that? Whose. References ownership. Must be whose.

7 Demonstrative Pron. (cont.) Demonstrative pronouns: point out a person, a place, thing, or idea. They are used alone in a sentence and should not be confused with identifying adjectives. Pronoun: We like to play that. demonstrative pronoun takes the place of the noun. Adjective: We like to play that game. adjective that modifies game Singular Plural Close This These Further Away That Those Never use here or there with a demonstrative pronoun. The pronoun already tells which one or ones. This and these point out people or things that are near, or here. That and those point out people or things that are further away, or there. This here is a dead refrigerator. This is a dead refrigerator. That there is five pounds of rotting food. That is five pounds of rotting food.

8 Demonstrative Pron. (cont.) 1. (This, That, These, Those) are the players with real talent. These or Those are the players with real talent. The antecedent of the pronoun is plural, so it must be these or those. We don t know how close they are, so it could be either. 2. (This, That, These, Those) is the row where our seats should be. This or That is the row where our seats should be. The antecedent of the pronoun is row which is singular, so it must be either this or that. We don t know how close the row is, so it could be either. 3. Fix the sentence: This here is my favorite baseball card. This is my favorite baseball card. 4. Fix the sentence: Those there are my cards for trade. Those are my cards for trade. 5. Pronoun or adjective?: This cat is my favorite cat. Adjective. Specifies which cat. 6. Pronoun or adjective?: Let me try that. Pronoun.

9 Pronoun Agreement The antecedent is the noun or pronoun that a pronoun replaces or refers to. The antecedent and the pronoun can be in the same sentence or different sentences. Same sentence: Agatha Christie wrote her own mysteries. Agatha Christie Antecedent Her pronoun Different sentences: Agatha Christie was a talented author. Her stories will live on for generations. Agatha Christie Antecedent Her pronoun Pronouns must agree with their antecedents in number, person, and gender.

10 Pronoun Agreement (cont.) Agreement in Number: Use a singular pronoun to refer to a singular antecedent. My girlfriend has her own bakery. The wheel broke on its own volition. Jacob kept saying, I did so well on my test. Use a plural pronoun to refer to a plural antecedent. Jeanie, Kathryn, and I were so happy with our swimming trophies. 7th grade look at the back board. You have so much homework this weekend. Alexandra and Jake themselves finished their tests early.

11 Pronoun Agreement (cont.) Agreement in Person: The pronoun must agree in person with the antecedent. Louis likes his mysteries to have surprise ending. I like my own stories better. She has no one to thank but herself. Avoid switching from one person to another in the same sentence or paragraph. Incorrect: Readers know you shouldn t read the ending first. Correct: Readers know they shouldn t read the ending first. Readers is 3rd person. Try to stay in 3rd person.

12 Pronoun Agreement (cont.) Agreement in Gender: the gender of a pronoun must be the same as the gender of its antecedent. Personal pronouns have three gender forms: masculine (he, his, him); feminine (she, her, hers), and neuter (it, its). Agatha Christie sets many of her stories in England. Arthur Conan Doyle sets many of his stories in England. The hero has to use all his wits to solve the crime. The heroine has to use all her wits to solve the crime. Don t use only masculine or feminine pronouns when you mean to refer to both genders.

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