Atomic Spectroscopy Basics. Fergus Keenan Thermo Fisher Scientific

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1 Atomic Spectroscopy Basics Fergus Keenan Thermo Fisher Scientific

2 The Periodic Table; Our Common Language H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn Fr Ra Ac Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lw AA/ICP/ICP-MS Not measurable ICP/ICP-MS Unstable elements ICP-MS 2

3 Elemental Analysis H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn Fr Ra Ac Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lw AA/ICP/ICP-MS Not measurable ICP/ICP-MS Unstable elements ICP-MS IC 3

4 Trace Elemental Analysis Product Range AA, ICP and ICP-MS Redefined icap 6000 Series ICP Performance ice 3000 Series AA X-Series ll ICP-MS Element 2 ICP-MS Investment 4

5 Performance Characteristics Magnetic Sector ICP-MS Quadrupole ICP-MS Furnace AA ICP-OES Flame AA 1 ppq 1 ppt 1 ppb 1 ppm 1,000 ppm 100% Detection Limit / Range 5

6 ICP-OES Technology

7 Atomic Emission Theory This high-temperature atomisation source provides sufficient energy to promote the atoms into high energy levels. When the atoms decay back to lower levels, they simultaneously emit light in the form of a photon Atom Ion M M + + photon State I + photon State II 7

8 Atomic Emission explained Atomic Emission the wavelength regions Spectral Region Vacuum UV Ultra-Violet Visible Near IR Wavelength = nm Lower wavelengths are shorter and have more energy, higher wavelengths e.g. in the Visible region, are longer and have less energy 8

9 Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Quartz torch surrounded by induction coil Magnetic coupling to ionized gas High temperature equivalent to 10,000k 9

10 Plasma Advantages High Temperature allows for full dissociation of sample components Argon is Inert non reactive with sample Linearity analysis of samples from ppb to ppm range in the same method Matrix tolerance robust and flexible design with Duo and Radial options 10

11 Sample Transport Solid Solution MX M M + Gas Atom M * M +* + photon + photon State I Ion State II 11

12 Simultaneous Optics Echelle Spectrometer Detector Prism Grating ICP-Source 12

13 What you get Full, continuous wavelength coverage; never miss an analyte 13

14 Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry Fergus Keenan Thermo Fisher Scientific

15 ICP-MS Process: Quadrupole ICP-MS 5 Basic Stages 1. Sample Introduction and Ion Generation 2. Ion Extraction 3. Ion Focussing 4. Separation of Analyte Ions in Quadrupole Mass Filter 5. Ion Detection Detector M + detected M + Li, Be, B. Pb, Bi, U. Quad M + Li-U Ion Lens Interface M + Li-U Plasma Sample 15

16 ICP-MS in a nutshell Sample intro ICP Sampling interface Ion optics and mass spectrometer Ion detection Most elements possible (around 80) Elemental and isotopic information given Concentration range ppq (pg/l) to mid-ppm (100s mg/l) Rapid analysis 2-6 minutes per sample Good precision ~2% RSDs 16

17 ICP-MS: characteristic mass spectrum ICP-AES Spectrum - Vanadium 10 mg/l ICP-MS Spectrum - Vanadium ( 51 V) Many emission lines High continuum background Simple spectra (primarily M+ ions) - Simple interpretation Very high signal to background - Low detection limits 17

18 Characteristics of ICP-MS Elemental and isotopic information 56 Fe 54 Fe 57 Fe 18

19 Characteristics of ICP-MS Low limits of detection Wide dynamic range X Series ICP- XSERIES 2 ICP-MS ICP-AES ICP-AES GFAAS GFAAS AAS AAS 1 ppq 1 ppt 1 ppb 1 ppm 1,000 ppm 100% 19

20 History of ICP-MS VG Elemental~

21 First commercial ICP-MS VG Elemental PlasmaQuad Pittcon

22 1995 Fully Automated ICP-MS VG Elemental PQ3 Winter Plasma Conference

23 First commercial Collision Cell ICP-MS VG Elemental PQ ExCell Winter Plasma Conference

24 XSERIES 2 Routine Trace Element Analysis ppt to ppm levels Smallest ICP-MS Collision Cell Technology 24

25 Typical Application Areas Environmental Drinking Water Sludges & Soils Semiconductor Process Chemicals Organics, Gasses, VPD Nuclear Hot Waste Uranium Fuel Production Nuclear-Environmental Ground Water, Soils & Air Urine & Blood, Metals, Materials and Chemicals High Temperature Alloys High Purity Metals and Solid Sampling Earth Science Igneous Rocks Climatology, Sediments, Seawater, Biological (plants) Life Sciences Blood, Urine Drugs Tissues, Food/Agriculture 25

B I N G O B I N G O. Hf Cd Na Nb Lr. I Fl Fr Mo Si. Ho Bi Ce Eu Ac. Md Co P Pa Tc. Uut Rh K N. Sb At Md H. Bh Cm H Bi Es. Mo Uus Lu P F.

B I N G O B I N G O. Hf Cd Na Nb Lr. I Fl Fr Mo Si. Ho Bi Ce Eu Ac. Md Co P Pa Tc. Uut Rh K N. Sb At Md H. Bh Cm H Bi Es. Mo Uus Lu P F. Hf Cd Na Nb Lr Ho Bi Ce u Ac I Fl Fr Mo i Md Co P Pa Tc Uut Rh K N Dy Cl N Am b At Md H Y Bh Cm H Bi s Mo Uus Lu P F Cu Ar Ag Mg K Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility - Office of cience ducation

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