Evolution: Change in population characteristics over generations OUTLINE. Central tenets of evolution. Goals: Be able to

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1 Evolution: Change in population characteristics over generations OUTLINE Evolution and common descent History of evolutionary thought Evidence for evolution Evaluating models Evolutionary novelty Goals: Be able to Explain the central tenets of evolution. Explain how natural selection leads to evolution. Describe how Darwin came up with the theory of common descent. Central tenets of evolution 1. Populations have changed over time into the different species we see today 2. Theory of Common Descent: These populations changed from a common ancestor 1

2 Natural selection is a mechanism of evolution Mixed lice Resistant lice survive Resistant lice Apply permethrin Microevolution: Change over short periods Fig 9.2 Fig 9.1 Speciation: formation of new species Natural selection OUTLINE Evolution and common descent History of evolutionary thought Evidence for evolution Evaluating models Evolutionary novelty Fig 9.2 Historical ideas about evolution: Separate ( special ) creation: Species are fixed on a scale of complexity with humans on top. The world is perfect. -- Plato, Aristotle 2

3 Theory of Common Descent 1. Views of Lamarck (evolutionist) 2. Views of Lyell (geologist) 3. Fossil evidence 4. Travels to Galapagos Lamarck: Organisms change over generations Fossils of dinosaurs: some species don t make it Lyell Due to the Biblical flood? Or, due to gradual changes over very long time periods? Result: Earth is much > 10,000 yo Result: The world is not perfect 5 year expedition around the world Galapagos giant tortoises Fig 9.4 Different kinds of giant tortoises on different islands Result: Giant tortoises must be related, but diverged over time 3

4 Darwin published On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection in 1859 Giant Alfred Russell Wallace Darwin Fig 9.2 True/False: Fossils of species that don t exist today, in combination with a lack of fossils of modern species, support the idea that organisms have NOT evolved over time. 1. True 2. False OUTLINE Evolution and common descent History of evolutionary thought Evidence for evolution Evaluating models Evolutionary novelty Goals: Be able to Describe how classification, homology, biogeography, and fossils all provide evidence for the theory of common descent. Differentiate between analogy and homology. Apply your knowledge of radiometric dating to problems. Discuss evidence refuting various alternative hypotheses of evolution. Describe 3 ways in which evolutionary novelty can be generated by small changes. Do you agree or disagree with the statement: Human beings, as we know them, developed from earlier species of animals. 1. Agree 2. Disagree 3. Don t know 4

5 Agree Disagree Human beings, as we know them, developed from earlier species of animals. Hypothesis 1: Static model Hypothesis 2: Transformation Hypothesis 3: Separate types Independent origins 5

6 Hypothesis 4: Common descent Scientists investigate evolution, because Common origin of life 1. It is the only acceptable scientific explanation for the observed patterns of change in organisms over time. 2. They are not spiritual or religious people. 3. They want to disprove the existence of (a) Creator(s). 4. All of the above. Evidence for Evolution 1. Biological classification 2. Homology of features 3. Biogeography 4. Fossils! Classification suggests relatedness Why are we able to put organisms into groups? Fig 9.9 Ancestry represented using trees More closely related = more recent common ancestor Fig 9.11 Evidence for Evolution 1. Biological classification 2. Homology of features 3. Biogeography 4. Fossils! 6

7 Homology: Similarity of features due to common ancestry Vestigial structures: evolutionary baggage Homology Fig 9.12 Fig 9.13 Vestigial structures Similar genetic sequences Fig 9.17 True/False: A fish fin and a whale flipper are homologous structures. 1. True 2. False Evidence for Evolution 1. Biological classification 2. Homology of features 3. Biogeography: Geographic distributions 4. Fossils! 7

8 Marsupials: Young develop in pouches Placentals Marsupials Analogy: similarity due to common function Porpoise: mammal Icthyosaur: reptile Evidence for Evolution 1. Biological classification 2. Homology of features 3. Biogeography 4. Fossils! Convergent evolution: similar features arise due to common environmental pressure, not ancestry. Transitions in the fossil record Transitions in the fossil record Archaeopteryx: transitional bird-lizard Fig

9 Fossilization: minerals replace organic matter Age of the Earth Radioactive elements decay at a predictable rate. Decay causes parent elements to turn into daughter elements How do we know how old fossils are? Uranium Lead Half-life is the time it takes for ½ of the parts to decay Fig 9.21 Age of the Earth Age of the Earth 100% left 50% left 25% left 12.5% left 1 half-life = 1 million yr 200 years ago 150 years ago 100 years ago 50 years ago What is the half-life of this element? 19% left = 2.5 half-lives Fig 9.24 Age of the Earth Method Carbon/ Nitrogen Potassium/ Argon Half-lives 5,730 yrs 1.3 billion yrs Materials dated Shells, Limestone, organics Volcanic rock If an element has a half-life of 20 million years, and there is 25% of it remaining in a rock, how old is the rock? 1. 5 million years million years million years million years Rubidium/ Strontium 47 billion yrs Micas Uranium/Lead 4.5 billion yrs Zircon 9

10 Group Problem: M&Mite decay M&Mite spontaneously decays into the daughter product beanus over time 1. Using your samples (baggies), graph # of M&Mite molecules vs. Number of half-lives. 2. If your oldest sample is 1000 years old, what is the half-life of M&Mite? OUTLINE Evolution and common descent History of evolutionary thought Evidence for evolution Evaluating models Evolutionary novelty Hypothesis 1: Static model Hypothesis 2: Transformation What evidence refutes this theory? What evidence refutes this theory? Hypothesis 3: Separate types Hypothesis 4: Common descent What evidence refutes this theory? Independent origins Common origin of life 10

11 We can reject the static hypothesis, because 1. We usually do not find fossils record that are exactly the same as living organisms. 2. Example Fossil evidence indicates that many organisms have gone short extinct. answer: 3. List Many 2 pieces diverse of features evidence share that refute a basic the structure static hypothesis. (bat wing & For whale each flipper piece, bones). state which aspect 4. of We the can status find hypothesis fossils transitional is refuted. between different organisms that are currently alive. 5. All of the above. OUTLINE Evolution and common descent History of evolutionary thought Evidence for evolution Evaluating models Evolutionary novelty Exaptations: Features originally performed a different function than they currently do. Generation of evolutionary novelty Exaptation Developmental mutations Intermediate forms Mutations in developmental genes Intermediate forms Amphistoma larva Pigment cells Eyecup Pinhole eye Primitive lens Complex camera eye Have widespread effects Axolotl adult 11

12 True/False: Both bird feathers and the human eye are irreducibly complex 1. True 2. False Example short answer: In 1-2 sentences, describe how feathers on birds may have evolved. Group Problem: Birds on Islands A C B A = Red feathers, blue beaks B = Red feathers, black beaks C = Yellow feathers, blue beaks 1. Draw 2 possible phylogenetic trees for these 3 species. 2. What specific evidence would help you choose between these 2 hypotheses? Goals: Be able to Describe features that 1) we share with other primates, 2) differentiate apes from other primates, and 3) differentiate us from apes. Describe the environment in which primate features evolved. Explain why Lucy was such an important find. Discuss hypotheses about the origins of bipedalism and big brains. Tell me when modern humans arose, and about their Homo ancestors. Primates Grasping hands Forward-facing eyes Large brains Why? Adaptation for forest life Prosimians: Lemurs and tarsiers Earliest diverging Monkeys and apes Opposable thumb! 12

13 Apes No tail Long forelimbs Larger brains Fig 9.11 Orangutans Gorillas Chimpanzees Bonobos What human features were probably adaptations for forest life? Example 1. Fingernails short answer: List 2. Forward-facing 2 human features eyes that were originally adaptations 3. Opposable for thumbs forest life. 4. Lack of hair -OR and 3 Give 6. All 2 ways of the in above which apes are distinct from other primates. What does it mean to be human? 1) Large brain 2) Bipedalism 3) Short jaw 4) Reduced sexual differences 5) Monogamy 13

14 Comparing humans vs. chimps Hominins: Most closely related to us. Diverged from chimpanzee line: 5-7 mya? Fig 9.22 Fig 9.25 What features separate humans from other apes? Enlarging brain Example 1. Forward-facing short answer: eyes What 2. Opposable are the most thumbs critical 2 ways in which human 3. Long anatomy arms differs from other apes? 4. Largest brain Fig 9.27 Looking for 2 major features: Bipedal posture Enlarged brain How did they evolve? Early ideas: + Dry savanna provides more complexity? Bipedal posture Brain size + 14

15 Along came Lucy Problem: Bipedal with small brain Fig 9.23 ~ 3.5 mya: Australopithecus afarensis Homo sapiens Fig 9.23 Australopithecus afarensis Early theories: Bipedal posture + Brain size Why bipedalism? Environmental change dry savannas Why might bipedalism be favorable in a savanna (as opposed to forest) environment? + Bipedal posture is the key!!! Why bipedalism? Environmental change dry savannas Not using hands for tree climbing? Easier to see far away? Easier to carry things? Prevent overheating? Bipedalism paved the way for large brain? Babies born smaller due to pelvis Longer care of infants more culture? Hands free to create tools? 15

16 True/False: Looking at human evolution, we can see that bipedalism developed before large brain size. 1. True 2. False Genus: Homo Example short answer: What did the fossil Lucy demonstrate about the order of evolution of bipedalism and big brains? Fig 9.25 Homo habilis: handy-man First tool-maker Brain size: 47% of ours Homo erectus Specialized tools Brain size: 71% Neanderthals: 500,000 30,000 years ago? Homo sapiens neanderthalensis Homo erectus colonized Asia and Europe Brain size: 12% larger 16

17 Homo sapiens sapiens: 100,000 years ago. Origins of agriculture begin 9500 BC Cultural evolution Homo floresiensus: The Hobbit Alive 13,000 years ago Example short answer: What scientific support is there that humans share a common ancestor with chimpanzees? What do you think about the statement: God created man pretty much in his present form at one time within the last 10,000 years. 17

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