ARE Chapter 4 Clean Air Act - Part 1

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1 - Part 1 Chapter 4 The (CAA) Part 1: Air Pollutants & Sources Slide 4-1 Slide 4-2 What You Should Know Two basic physical forms of air pollution Two major sources of air pollution What is a primary/secondary air pollutant Criteria pollutants Descriptions and major sources Non-criteria air problems Two Basic Physical Forms of Air Pollution Particles Small, discrete masses of solid or liquid matter Examples: Dust, smoke, mists and fly ash Gases Widely separated molecules in rapid motion Examples: Carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide Slide 4-3 Slide 4-4 Primary & Secondary Pollutants Primary Pollutants Emitted into the atmosphere directly from identifiable sources Found in the atmosphere in the same chemical form as when emitted from the source Primary Pollutant Example Carbon Monoxide (CO) Secondary Pollutants Undergo chemical changes in the atmosphere as a result of reactions among two or more pollutants Slide 4-5 Slide 4-6 Chapter 4 Part 1- Page 1

2 - Part 1 Secondary Pollutant Example In the presence of sunlight Oxygen (O 2 ) reacts with Nitrogen oxides (NO X ) and Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) To produce ozone (O 3 ) Slide 4-7 Slide 4-8 Air Pollution Source Categories Stationary or Mobile Stationary or Mobile Combustion or Non-Combustion Point or Area Slide 4-9 Slide 4-10 Combustion or Non-Combustion Point or Area Slide 4-11 Slide 4-12 Chapter 4 Part 1- Page 2

3 - Part 1 Five Emission Generation Categories Transportation Stationary Source Fuel Combustion Industrial Processes Solid Waste Disposal Miscellaneous Forest Fires, Fugitive Dust Slide 4-13 Slide 4-14 Not So Obvious Air Pollution Sources Air Pollutant Ammonia Emission From Hog Farms Slide 4-15 Slide 4-16 The Major Air Pollutants Criteria Pollutants Why Criteria Pollutants? Sulfur Dioxides (SO 2 ) Particulate Matter (PM 10 ) Carbon Monoxide (CO) Ozone (O 3 ) Nitrogen Oxides (NO x ) Lead (Pb) Slide 4-17 Slide 4-18 Chapter 4 Part 1- Page 3

4 - Part 1 Criteria Pollutants Sulfur Dioxide (SO 2 ) Pollutant Form Type Sulfur dioxide gaseous Primary Particulate matter particulate Primary Carbon monoxide gaseous Primary Ozone gaseous Secondary Nitrogen oxides gaseous Primary Lead particulate Primary Colorless Highly corrosive gas Formed when fuels containing sulfur are burned Coal Oil Slide 4-19 Slide 4-20 Sulfur Dioxide (SO 2 ) Particulate Matter Microscopic Airborne Soots Size Matters Total Suspended Particulate > 50 micrometers PM-10 - Coarse particles < 10 micrometers PM Fine particles < 2.5 micrometers Heath Effects TSP (settles out of air) PM-10 & PM-2.5 (inhalable) Slide 4-21 Slide 4-22 Particulate Matter Particulate Matter - Sources Microscopic Airborne Soots Size Matters Total Suspended Particulate > 50 micrometers PM-10 - Coarse particles < 10 micrometers PM Fine particles < 2.5 micrometers Heath Effects TSP (settles out of air) PM-10 & PM-2.5 (inhalable) Coarse -- Unpaved roads, materials handling, and crushing and grinding operations, as well as windblown dust. Fine particles -- Fuel combustion Slide 4-23 Slide 4-24 Chapter 4 Part 1- Page 4

5 - Part 1 Particulate Matter (PM-10) Carbon Monoxide (CO) Visible smoke from leaf and trash fires is made up almost entirely of particulate matter Colorless, odorless, tasteless gas Formation: Formed when carbon in fuel is not burned completely Sources Motor Vehicles - 60% Natural Sources - 40 %» Wild fires Slide 4-25 Slide 4-26 Ozone (O 3 ) Ozone (O 3 ) Primary ingredient of smog Formation: Secondary pollutant formed by the reaction of NOx and VOC s in heat & sunlight Sources: Nitrogen oxides from motor vehicles, power plants, and other sources of combustion VOCs from a variety of sources, including motor vehicles, chemical plants, refineries, factories, consumer and commercial products, and other industrial sources Good and Bad Ozone Slide 4-27 Slide 4-28 Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) Defined: Substances containing carbon and different proportions of other elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, sulfur, or nitrogen; these substances easily become vapors or gases Sources: Paints, paint strippers, and other solvents; wood preservatives; aerosol sprays; Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) Two gases Nitric Oxide (NO) Nitrogen Dioxide (NO 2 ) Sources Natural Sources (50%) Man-Made Sources: High-temperature combustion processes, such as those occurring in automobiles and power plants Slide 4-29 Slide 4-30 Chapter 4 Part 1- Page 5

6 - Part 1 Lead (Pb) Gray metal Formation: Naturally occurring material Sources: Burning leaded gasoline Paints and leaded pipes Slide 4-31 Slide 4-32 Very small pieces of liquid or solid matter Secondary pollutant that forms when hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides react in the presence of heat and sunlight. Slide 4-33 Slide 4-34 Grey metal: gasoline and paint formerly contained this material. Colorless, odorless and tasteless gas: One major source is the automobile engine Slide 4-35 Slide 4-36 Chapter 4 Part 1- Page 6

7 - Part 1 Colorless gas. One major source is the fossilfuel combustion. The pass-through pollutant Two harmful gases of nitrogen. About 50% comes from natural sources. Of human sources, motor vehicles are the largest source. Slide 4-37 Slide 4-38 How Are We Doing on Controlling Criteria Pollutants Slide 4-39 Slide 4-40 Slide 4-41 Slide 4-42 Chapter 4 Part 1- Page 7

8 - Part 1 Generic Air Quality Problems Acid Rain Acid Rain Greenhouse Gases Ozone Depletion Regional Haze Slide 4-43 Slide 4-44 Acid Rain Acid Rain Sunlight Criteria Pollutants NOx SO 2 Water Vapor Nitric Acid Sulfuric Acid Slide 4-45 Slide 4-46 How Do We Measure Acid Rain? ph = 5.6 The ph scale measures acidity Controlling Acid Rain Control the sources SO 2 sources? NOx sources? Slide 4-47 Slide 4-48 Chapter 4 Part 1- Page 8

9 - Part 1 Greenhouse Effect Greenhouse Effect Slide 4-49 Slide 4-50 Greenhouse Gases (Both natural & man-made) Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) Methane Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) Halocarbons Generating Greenhouse Gases Using energy from fossil fuels Vegetation cover Farming Breakdown of wastes Industrial processes Slide 4-51 Slide 4-52 Greenhouse Effect Greenhouse Effect Good? There is a greenhouse effect, but, if there were not, we would all be dead! Bad? Global Warming is different Slide 4-53 Slide 4-54 Chapter 4 Part 1- Page 9

10 - Part 1 Global Warming Greenhouse Gases Global warming is the name given to an expected increase in the magnitude of the greenhouse effect, whereby the surface of the Earth will almost inevitably become hotter than it is now Criteria Pollutants? Slide 4-55 Slide 4-56 Regional Haze What Is Haze Great Smoky Mountains Clear When sunlight encounters tiny particles in the air Some light is absorbed, some is scattered Hazy Amount of light reaching viewer is reduced Slide 4-57 Slide 4-58 Haze Pollutants Regional Haze - Pollutants Particulate matter SO 2 SO 2 forming Sulfates Sulfates absorb more light Slide 4-59 Slide 4-60 Chapter 4 Part 1- Page 10

11 - Part 1 Controlling Regional Haze Ozone Depletion Process Control the source SO 2 sources Particulate sources CFC Released CFC rise into ozone layer UV releases chlorine from CFC Chlorine destroys ozone Depleted ozone allows more UV More UV = more skin cancer Slide 4-61 Slide 4-62 CFC Chloroflurocarbons Chlorine Fluorine Carbon Commonly used as: refrigerants solvents, foam blowing agents Slide 4-63 Slide 4-64 Controlling Ozone Depletion Control the production of Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS) CFCs Halon Methyl chloroform Slide 4-65 Chapter 4 Part 1- Page 11

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