Ad-Hoc Networks. Manet: Mobile Ad-hoc Networking. Problems of Traditional Routing Algorithms. Traditional Routing Algorithms.

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1 d-oc Networks Standard Mobile IP needs an infrastructure ome gent/oreign gent in the fixed network NS, routing etc. are not designed for mobility Sometimes there is no (stable) infrastructure! Wireless backbone, ad-hoc meetings, disaster areas cost can also be an argument against an infrastructure! Main topic: routing No default router available very node should be able to do forwarding Manet: Mobile d-hoc Networking Mobile Router Mobile evices ixed Network Manet Mobile IP, P Router nd system d-hoc network: each mobile device also is a mobile router Wireless mesh networks: backbone of designated wireless routers, usually not mobile 1 2 Traditional Routing lgorithms Problems of Traditional Routing lgorithms istance Vector Periodic exchange of messages with all physical neighbors that contain information about who can be reached at what distance Selection of the shortest path if several paths available Inefficient in ad-hoc networks Link State Periodic notification of all routers about the current state of all physical links Router get a complete picture of the network ompletely fails in ad-hoc networks eneral classification of routing protocols Proactive: frequent updates, complete routing tables Reactive: update only on demand ybrid: mix of proactive and reactive schemes symmetric connection The transmission quality in both directions can differ heavily If a route in one direction exists, maybe it does not hold for the other direction Redundant links Maybe a whole mesh of connections exists complex network, thus high computation overhead for routers Limited performance of mobile systems Periodic update of routing tables needs energy without contributing to the transmission of user data, sleep modes difficult to realize Limited bandwidth of the system is reduced even more due to the exchange of routing information Interference ata loss rate ut also can be useful to learn about the topology 3 4

2 Problems of Traditional Routing lgorithms ynamic of topology Largest problem: frequent changes of connections, connection quality, participants! N 1 N 4 N 2 N 5 N 3 time = t 1 time = t 2 good connection bad connection N 1 N 4 N 2 N 5 N 3 Possible Routing Protocols Many protocols have been proposed, partly adapted versions of Internet routing protocols, partly new inventions for MNTs but no single protocol works well in all environments: Reactive Protocols ynamic Source Routing (SR) d hoc On-demand istance Vector (OV) Temporally Ordered Routing lgorithm (TOR) Proactive Protocols (e.g., traditional link-state and distance-vector routing protocols) estination Sequenced istance Vector (SV) Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) isheye State Routing (SR) ybrid Protocols Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP) 5 6 Which Protocol to choose? irst pproach: ynamic Source Routing Latency of route discovery Proactive protocols may have lower latency in finding paths to a destination since routes are maintained at all times Reactive protocols may have higher latency because a route from X to Y will be found only when X attempts to send to Y Overhead of route discovery/maintenance Reactive protocols may have lower protocol overhead since routes are determined only if needed Proactive protocols can (but not necessarily) result in higher overhead due to continuous route updating Which approach achieves a better trade-off of latency and overhead depends on the traffic and mobility patterns ut why not simply using flooding? Split routing into discovering a path and maintaining a path during usage iscover a path Only if a path for sending packets to a certain destination is needed and no path is currently available roadcast a packet with destination address and unique I (flooding) risk of collisions of route request messages coming in over different paths If a station receives a broadcast packet If the station is the receiver (i.e., has the correct destination address) then return the packet to the sender (path was collected in the packet) If the packet has already been received earlier (identified via I) then discard the packet Otherwise, append own address and broadcast packet Sender receives packet with the current path (address list) The destination can read out the path and answer the same way (symmetric paths!) or starts the same procedure in the other direction 7 8

3 ynamic Source Routing ynamic Source Routing Use and maintain a path When sending a packet, fill in the whole path information (IP header options) fter sending a packet Wait for a layer 2 acknowledgement (if applicable) Listen into the medium to detect if other stations forward the packet (if possible) Request an explicit acknowledgement If a station encounters problems it can inform the sender of a packet or look-up a new path locally Only while the path is in use one has to make sure that it can be used continuously 9 10 Modifications of SR dvantages and isadvantages of SR lot of modifications are proposed to improve the mechanism Nodes could sense the medium to learn about the topology from passing control messages Restriction of the forwarding of route requests by defining a maximum range of the request messages (TTL) if the path length to the receiver is known, this can avoid flooding the whole network in all directions aching of path information using passing route requests/replies caching all route information for a certain time can help in many ways: Speed up route discovery (usage for own or foreign path choice) Reduces flooding of route requests When an error is detected, try to locally change the source-designated route ut: route reply storms since many nodes know an answer use random delays for route replies to avoid interference at the receiving node dvantages No periodic updates needed, a path only is searched on demand reduced overhead for route maintenance ast route discovery if route caching is applied Several redundant paths due to several intermediate nodes replying with cached information isadvantages elay before a sending and after problems arose Packet header size grows with length of the route looding of route request maybe loads the whole network (if path length to the receiver is unknown and no TTL can be used) Increase delay of route request/reply by random times to avoid collisions, or live with data loss ached route entries can become invalid and may pollute other caches timeouts needed, but need to be adaptive, based on link stability 11 12

4 OV OV d hoc On emand istance Vector routing (OV) Very popular routing protocol Same basic idea as SR for route discovery procedure: Route requests are forwarded in a manner similar to SR (using TTL to reduce the broadcasting range) When a node broadcasts a route request, it sets up a reverse path pointing towards the source (OV assumes symmetric links!) When the destination receives a route request, it replies with a route reply Route reply travels along the reverse path set-up when route request is forwarded Main difference to SR: nodes maintain routing tables instead of using source routing (IP options not needed, smaller headers) Nodes remember from where a packet came and fill in routing tables with such information. n entry for a route which is not active for a certain time, is deleted. lso, hello messages are used periodically to test link availability In these cases, all neighbors are sent a link failure reports to invalid their own entries 13 Sequence numbers are added to the request packets to only get an answer for intermediate nodes having the most current path information. In each route request for a destination the sequence number is increased, only nodes with at least this number are allowed to reply. It also prevents the network from loops: ssume that does not know about the failure of link - because the link failure report sent by is lost Now performs a route discovery for. Node receives the request (say, via path --) Node will reply since knows a route to via node Results in a loop (for instance, ---- ) 14 OLSR OLSR orwarding Process Links State Routing means broadcasting of knowledge about costs to neighbors Optimized Link State Routing adapts this scheme: The overhead of flooding link state information is reduced by requiring fewer nodes to forward the information, i.e. perform broadcasting only on a reduced topology broadcast from node X is only forwarded by its multipoint relays Multipoint relays of node X are its neighbors such that each two-hop neighbor of X is a one-hop neighbor of at least one multipoint relay of X ach node selects a minimal dominating set of multipoint relays for its two-hop neighborhood Immense reduction of broadcasted control traffic ach node transmits its neighbor list in periodic beacons, so that all nodes know their 2-hop neighbors, in order to choose the multipoint relays ombine link-state protocol & topology control 1. Node has nodes and as multipoint relay and broadcasts its information 3. Node has nodes and as multipoint relay and broadcasts its information 2. Only nodes and have to forward the received information 4. Only node goes on forwarding the information 15 16

5 SV nhancement of istance Vector Routing ( estination Sequenced ) ach host manages a distance table which contains the number of hops to other hosts (or maybe some costs due to another metric) Routing tables are exchanged if changes occur (full dump and incremental dump) ach node appends a sequence number to its own entry, counted up with each exchange Routing entries are only updated with the information received from the neighbors, if their sequence number is newer than the one considered before gain: discovery and maintenance of a path, but only counting of number of hops to a destination Sequence number for each path update uarantee for correct order of all updates void loops and inconsistencies Slow down of changes Storage of the time between first and best announcement of a path elay of an update if the path probably is not stable (basing on the stored time) isheye State Routing ases on Link State Routing Load caused by information exchange is reduced: Logically subdivide the nodes in zones which centrically surround a node. The exchange frequency decreases with increasing zone distance Information exchange like in SV Much more pproaches xamples for Interference-ased Routing.g. routing based on assumptions about interference between signals: S 1 N 1 N 3 N2 1 Least Interference Routing (LIR) alculate the cost of a path based on the number of stations that can receive a transmission LIR is very simple to implement, only information from direct neighbors is necessary Max-Min Residual apacity Routing (MMRR) alculate the cost of a path based on a probability function of successful transmissions and interference N 4 S 2 N 5 N 6 2 Least Resistance Routing (LRR) alculate the cost of a path based on interference, jamming and other transmissions Neighbors (i.e. in radio range) Interference N 7 N 8 N

6 Reduction of looding by Position Information lustering of d-oc Networks ierarchical structure needed for large networks (scalability, as in the Internet): lso possible: use geographic position information of neighbors and destination to choose the next node, e.g. by PS RM istance Routing ffect lgorithm for Mobility eoast eographic ddressing and Routing LR Location-ided Routing reedy Perimeter Stateless Routing (PSR) base station Internet cluster access point cluster super cluster SR lusterhead-ateway Switch Routing SR ierarchical State Routing LNMR Landmark d oc Routing onclusion Transfer protocols The network layer is the Internet IP has central role or a mobile IP: no changes of existing systems, only adding mobility to the classical IP P supports Mobile IP Many topics are still under research (security, QoS, ) change to IPv6 would make easier many things Routing protocols d-hoc networks give additional requirements to routing algorithms lat approaches only for small networks, otherwise hierarchical routing is needed No optimal algorithm known for all situations urrent research topic nything more? The network layer is the highest layer involved in network aspects do we need to do a look to the transport layer also? 23

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