On Dominant Characteristics of Residential Broadband Internet Traffic

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1 On Dominant Characteristics of Residential Broadband Internet Traffic Gregor Maier TU-Berlin / T-Labs Anja Feldmann TU-Berlin / T-Labs Vern Paxson UC Berkeley / ICSI Mark Allman ICSI Internet Measurement Conference IMC'09 1 1

2 Motivation Motivation Residential broadband access popular/widespread Residential traffic is "underexamined" Differs from well-studied campus and enterprise traffic o Not subject to acceptable-use policies Focus on broad range of dominant characteristics Questions o DSL session characteristics / IP-reassignment o Popular protocols / applications (is P2P dominating?) o Performance characteristics IMC'09 2

3 Outline Outline Data sets Dominant characteristics o DSL session characteristics o Application usage o HTTP usage o Performance/path characteristics Summary IMC'09 3

4 Outline Outline Data sets Dominant characteristics o DSL session characteristics o Application usage o HTTP usage o Performance/path characteristics Summary IMC'09 4

5 Data sets Data sets (1) Large European ISP (>10M customers in total) Anonymized packet level traces o Covering >20,000 DSL customers o One urban area Overview of packet level traces o 14 x 90min; twice per day over 1 week in Aug 2008 o 24hr in Sep 2008 (>4TB) o 24hr in Apr 2009 (>4TB) Bro Intrusion Detection System for analysis IMC'09 5

6 Data sets Data sets (2) Anonymized DSL session traces o DSL connect / disconnect times o Anonymized line-card ID o Access bandwidth o Augments packet data Overview of session traces o One for each packet trace o 10 day in Feb 2009 IMC'09 6

7 Outline Outline Data sets Dominant characteristics o DSL session characteristics o Application usage o HTTP usage o Performance/path characteristics Summary IMC'09 7

8 DSL session characteristics Background Radius is used for IP leases o New IP address for every session (round-robin) 24hr session timeout enforced by ISP o Home routers can immediately reconnect No idle timeout enforced by ISP No traffic shaping (e.g., P2P) Access bandwidths: 1 16 Mbps (downstream) IMC'09 8

9 Concurrent DSL sessions IMC'09 9

10 DSL session characteristics Aggregate throughput IMC'09 10

11 DSL session characteristics Session results Only 40% of lines always-on Sessions are short o Median minutes o Likely due to small default idle timeouts on home routers o >80% of sessions terminated by user request High IP address churn o 50% of IPs assigned twice in 24h o Up to 5% of IPs assigned more than 10 times IMC'09 11

12 Outline Outline Data sets Dominant characteristics o DSL session characteristics o Application usage o HTTP usage o Performance/path characteristics Summary IMC'09 12

13 Application Usage Methodology Using Bro's Dynamic Protocol Detection (DPD) o Protocol semantics and/or o Signatures 85% of bytes classified, another 3.6% on wellknown ports No dominant day-of-week effects Verification o With NetFlow data (port based) o With commercial DPI system at different location IMC'09 13

14 Application Usage Application usage per hour unclassified well-known other DPD NNTP edonkey BitTorrent HTTP IMC'09 14

15 Application usage per b/w unclassified well-known other DPD NNTP edonkey BitTorrent HTTP IMC'09 15

16 Application Usage Key results HTTP dominates : 57% of bytes P2P less than 14% Unclassified: 11% Other significant protocols o NNTP 2 5% o Streaming (non-http) 5% o Voice-over-IP 1.3% Port based classification works well for non-p2p protocols Erman et al. found very similar results in cotemporaneous work presented at WWW'09 IMC'09 16

17 Outline Outline Data sets Dominant characteristics o DSL session characteristics o Application usage o HTTP usage o Performance/path characteristics Summary IMC'09 17

18 HTTP Usage Motivation & methodology Why is HTTP so popular (again)? o HTTP offers popular high-volume content? o HTTP as transport protocol for other applications? Anonymized HTTP headers extracted via Bro Determine content-type o Content-type header o libmagic Second level domain (from Host header) User-Agent header IMC'09 18

19 HTTP Usage Key results Popular content-types by volume flash-video 25.2% RAR 14.7% image 11.5% video 7.6% other 23.4% Flash-Video clearly dominates unclass. 17.6% Domain popularity: o One-click-hoster is top domain: 15% of HTTP bytes o Video portals (using flash-video) follow No significant hiding / tunneling via HTTP HTTP dominance due to popular high-volume content IMC'09 19

20 Outline Outline Data sets Dominant characteristics o DSL session characteristics o Application usage o HTTP usage o Performance/path characteristics Summary IMC'09 20

21 Performance/Path Characteristics Performance/path characteristics Analyze TCP option usage o Per host o Per connection TCP loss/reordering o Out-of-sequence transmission Bandwidth utilization Round-trip-times (RTT) IMC'09 21

22 Performance/Path Characteristics TCP options / performance Selective Acknowledgement (SACK) widely used (90%) Explicit Congestion Notification: non existent Window scaling o Approx. 50% of host advertise scaling; most non-zero o Maximal advertised window often 64KB Loss/reordering in 10% of connections o Corresponds with SACKs observered Bandwidth-delay product > max. rcv. window o Affects 44% of connections with >50KB volume (downstream) Most lines only use small fraction of bandwidth IMC'09 22

23 Performance/Path Characteristics Round-trip-times (RTT) Assessed during TCP handshake o Local component dominates (DSL interleaving) o Median: 74ms o 99th perc: 1328ms o Wireless equipment can cause significant delays IMC'09 23

24 Performance/Path Characteristics Achieved Throughput Most lines only use small fraction of bandwidth Throughput by application and flow o HTTP, NNTP have order of magnitude higher throughput than P2P Mean number of parallel flows o P2P has 5 times as many as HTTP o P2P and NNTP similar IMC'09 24

25 Application Usage Achieved flow throughput IMC'09 25

26 Link Utilization (5 min) IMC'09 26

27 Outline Outline Data sets Dominant characteristics o DSL session characteristics o Application usage o HTTP usage o Performance/path characteristics Summary IMC'09 27

28 Summary Summary High IP address churn (4% assigned > 10 times) HTTP dominates traffic: >57% o P2P only 14% o NNTP noticeable Flash-video (video portals) most popular in HTTP: >25% o RAR-archives (One-click-hosters): >14% Performance o DSL bandwidth in general not fully utilized o Selective ACK widespread o Window advertisements might limit performance o Local RTT component dominates (DSL interleaving) IMC'09 28

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