Axial Flow Compressor Mean Line Design


 Eric McCarthy
 1 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 Axial Flow Compressor Mean Line Design Niclas Falck February 2008 Master Thesis Division of Thermal Power Engineering Department of Energy Sciences Lund University, Sweden
2 Niclas Falck 2008 ISSN ISRN LUTMDN/TMHP 08/5140 SE Printed in Sweden Lund 2008
3 Preface This master thesis has been conducted at the division of Thermal Power Engineering, department of Energy Science, Lund University, Sweden. This experience has been very educational in terms of modeling and computing thermal energy devices. This thesis has been about axial flow compressors, but the approach and methodic that I have implemented in this thesis will also be useful in my future career as an Engineer regardless of branch. I want to thank my supervisor Magnus Genrup for his support and expertise in the field of turbomachinery. I also want to thank the rest of the department of Energy Science, especially my fellow master thesis workers, for an enjoyable time here in Lund.
4 Abstract The main objective in this thesis is creating a method on how one can model an axial flow compressor. The calculation used in this thesis is based on common thermodynamics and aerodynamics principles in a mean stream line analyses. Calculations based on one stream line i.e. one dimension, is a good first start to model a compressor. Most of the correlations and thermodynamics are based on one stream line, or they can be modified to work on one stream line. By just a handful of design specifications an accurate model can be generated. These specifications can be mass flow, rotational speed, number of stages, pressure ratio etc. The pressure ratio is also the one parameter that the calculation aims to satisfy. If the calculation results in a pressure ratio that is not what was specified in the beginning an adjustment must be made on one parameter. In this case the stage load coefficient is selected. By changing the stage loading coefficient and keeping the other parameters constant the pressure ratio will vary. This is done in an iterative process until the pressure ratio is converged. The purposes of modeling compressors based on correlations and thermodynamics and not model them in a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation program at once is that it takes a long time for a calculation to converge in a CFD program. Finding better correlations and methods on how one can model a compressor will result in fewer hours fine tuning them in advanced fluid dynamic programs and hence same time and not to mention money.
5 Content Nomenclature... 4 Introduction Background Gas turbine Compressor Stagnation property Compressor Fundamentals Compressor operation Blade to Blade Flow path Rothalpy Compressor Losses Profileloss Endwallloss Blade geometry Dimensionless Parameters Stage load coefficient Stage flow coefficient Stage reaction de Haller number Pressure rise coefficient Efficiency Isentropic efficiency Polytropic efficiency Operating Limits Methods of Calculation State properties Incidence and Deviation Incidence Angle
6 Content Axial Flow Compressor Mean Line Design Deviation Angle Diffusion Factor and Diffusion Ratio Losses Profile loss model Endwall loss model Total loss Pitch Chord ratio Diffusion Factor Method Hearsey Method McKenzie Method Stall/Surge Calculation procedure Input parameters Main specification Detailed specification Inlet specification Parameter variations throughout the compressor Calculation limitations Mean stream line analyses Convergence criteria s Structure of the calculation Module Module Module Module NewtonRhapson Method Calculation process Module 0, Inlet geometry Module 1, Rotorinlet Module 2, Rotoroutlet/statorinlet Module 2.1 start Module Module 2.2 start
7 Axial Flow Compressor Mean Line Design Content Module Module 3, Statoroutlet Module 3.1 start Module Module 3.2 start Module Outlet Guide Vane, OGV Blade angles calculation Result LUAXC Structure of the program User Guide to LUAXC References Appix A, polynomial coefficients for the graphs B, MATLAB script for the calculations B.1 Main Calculation B.2 Inlet geometry calculation B.3 Pitch chord ratio B.4 Diffusion Factor and Diffusion Ratio B.5 Compressor losses B.6 Blade angles Appix C
8 Nomenclature Symbol Unit Description a [m/s] Speed of sound A [m2] Area c p [kj/kgk] Specific heat at constant pressure c v [kj/kgk] Specific heat at constant volume c [m] Chord C [m/s] Absolute velocity C [m/s] Tangential absolute velocity C m [m/s] Meridional velocity C p [] Static pressure rise coefficient DF [] Diffusion factor D eq [] Equivalent diffusion ratio h [kj/kg] Static enthalpy h 0 [kj/kg] Stagnation enthalpy H [m] Blade height i [ ] Incidence I [] Rothalpy m [kg/s] Massflow Ma [] Machnumber N [rev/s] Rotational speed p [bar] Static pressure p 0 [bar] Stagnation pressure r [m] Radius R [J/kgK] Gas constant s [kj/kg] entropy S [m] Staggered spacing t [m] Maximum blade thickness T [K] Static temperature T 0 [K] Stagnation temperature U [m/s] Blade velocity W [m/s] Relative velocity W [m/s] Tangential relative velocity 4
9 Axial Flow Compressor Mean Line Design Nomenclature Symbol Unit Description [ ] Angle between absolute velocity and axial direction [ ] Angle between relative velocity and axial direction [ ] Stagger angle [ ] Deviation [m] Endwall clearance [%] Efficiency [] Heat capacity ratio, Isentropic exponent Heat conductivity [Kg/m2] Density [m2/s] Kinematic viscosity Pressure loss coefficient [ ] Camber angle [] Stage load coefficient [] Stage flow coefficient 5
10 Introduction The development of gas turbines has in the recent years come a long way. Serious development began during the Second World War with the key interest of shaft power, but attention was shortly transferred to the turbojet engine for aircraft propulsion. The gas turbine began to compete successfully in other fields in the mid 1950s, since then it has made a successful impact in an increasing variety of applications. When combining a gas turbine with a heat recovery steam generator the heat, that otherwise would be wasted from the gas turbine outlet, can be extracted. Together with a conventional steam generator this will form a combined cycle. The efficiency of a combined cycle power plant is far better than regular gas turbine power plants. The question is than, how could we improve the efficiency of a gas turbine? One can either focus on the compressor, the combustion chamber or the turbine. In this thesis the compressor, especially the axial flow compressor, will be investigated. When designing a new compressor, a good start is to create a base design for the compressor. By just a handful of design specifications an accurate model can be generated. The modelling techniques used are based on combinations of thermodynamic and aerodynamic correlations. This base design will make up for about % of the finished design. In this first stage in designing a new compressor, designs that would not work or have pore efficiency can be avoided. Further on in the process powerful CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation programs are being used. A CFD calculation takes a long time and hence cost a lot of money. The solution to cutting down the number of simulations is then to make the base design more accurate. 6
11 1 Background 1.1 Gas turbine A gas turbine consists mainly by three components, the compressor, the combustion chamber and the turbine, see Figure 1.1. The compressor is one a part of the entire gas turbine, but never the less, an important and probably the most complicated component to design in an aerodynamic point of view. The working fluid enters an inlet duct and continues to the compressor. The compressor pressurises the fluid and will also lead to an increase in temperature. Deping on the application it can either have a radial or an axial design deping on mass flow and pressure ratio. After the compressor, the pressure of the working fluid will have increased to bar, even above 40 in aero engines, and will have a temperature of about 500 C. By combustion of fuel in the combustion chamber, energy is added to the working fluid. A gas turbine is very flexible in terms of what sort of fuels can be used. The working fluid which now has a temperature of about C enters the last stage in the process, the turbine. Here the fluid expands and thus transferring its energy to the turbine blade in form of mechanical work. The turbine is connected to the compressor by a shaft and this lead the mechanical work from the turbine to the compressor. If the gas turbine is to be used in a multishaft configuration, the work provided by the turbine will just be enough to drive the compressor otherwise a load can be connected like a pump, a propeller or a generator. Combustion chamber Load Compressor Turbine Figure 1.1, Schematic figure over the main components in a gas turbine 7
12 1 Background Axial Flow Compressor Mean Line Design 1.2 Compressor There are two types of compressor designs, radial and axial flow compressors, see Figure 1.3 and Axial flow compressors are divided in a series of stages, each stage consistss of a rotating rotor and a stationary one called stator. It is difficult to get a high pressuree rise in a single stage. Unlike axial flow compressor rs, the radial compressor often consists of a single stage. It is possible to obtain a higher pressure rise over one stage in a radial compressor. An axial flow compressor can handle a much larger mass flow compared to a radial flow compressor. If one would like to have a small compact compressor a radial design is the best choice. But if high power is required, for an examplee in a jet engine for a big airliner, an axial flow is not just the best but probably the only choice. An example of a radial compressor in an aircraft is the Swedish aircraft SAAB J29 also known as Tunnan (in eng. The Barrel ) ). This has a very wide fuselagee because of the large radial compressor design, see Figure 1.2. Figure 1.2, SAAB J29 A deeper insight of the axial flow compressors construction and its design will follow and be discussed in this thesis. Figure 1.3, Axial flow compressor 8
13 Axial Flow Compressor Mean Line Design 1 Background Figure 1.4, Radial flow compressor 1.3 Stagnation property When the kinetic and potential energies of a given fluid are negligible, as is often the case, the enthalpy represents the total energy of the fluid. For high speed flows, M>0.4, the kinetic energy is highly noticeable, but the potential energy is still negligible. It is the convenient to combine the kinetic energy with the enthalpy of the fluid into a single term called stagnation (or total) enthalpy h 0, which is defined as. (1.1) If the kinetic energy is negligible the enthalpy is the referred as the static enthalpy, h. Consider a duct such as a nozzle or a diffuser where a fluid is flowing through, see Figure 1.5. The flow takes place under an adiabatic process where there is no work input or output. Assuming there is no potential energy difference through the duct for the fluid, the energy balance can then be reduced to. or 9
14 1 Background Axial Flow Compressor Mean Line Design 2 1 Figure 1.5, Steady flow of a fluid through an adiabatic duct The stagnation enthalpy will not change through a duct if there is no heat or work done to the system. Flows through nozzles or diffusers usually satisfy these conditions, and any changes in the fluid velocity will create a change in the static enthalpy of the fluid. Substituting the enthalpy with temperature instead results in the following expression or (1.2) C p represents the specific heat value for the fluid for an ideal gas. T 0 is called stagnation (or total) temperature. The term V 2 /2C p is called the dynamic temperature and corresponds to the temperature rise during an adiabatic process. The pressure a fluid obtains when brought to rest is called stagnation pressure, P 0. For ideal gases with constant specific heats, P 0 is related to the static pressure of the fluid by, represents the specific heat ratio, C p /C v. 10
15 2 Compressor Fundamentals 2.1 Compressor operation A typical axial flow compressor consists of a series of stages; each stage has a row of moving rotor blades followed by a row of stator blades which is stationary, see Figure 2.1. The rotor blades accelerates the working fluid thus gaining energy, this kinetic energy is then converted into static pressure by decelerating the fluid in the stator blades. The process is then repeated as many times as necessary to get the required pressure ratio. The number of stages in a compressor is important especially when the engine will be used in an aircraft. The main reason is that too many stages will result in an increase in weight and a large core engine length. For land based gas turbines the main reason is the cost, which will increase when adding more stages. Some different compressors used in aircrafts are shown in Table 2.1, and here one can see how compressor improvement has come along over the years. Figure 2.1, Crosssection view over a compressor flow path Engine Date Thrust Pressure Stages [kn] ratio Avon Spey RB Trent Table 2.1, Compressor evolution, aircraft engine 11
16 2 Compressor Fundamentals Axial Flow Compressor Mean Line Design As discussed earlier all the power is absorbed in the rotor and the stator transforms the kinetic energy which has been absorbed by the rotor into an increase in static pressure. The stagnation temperature remains constant throughout the stator since there is no work feed into the fluid. Figure 2.2 shows a sketch of a typical compressor stage. T 02, T 03 Temperature, T T 03 p 02 p 3 p 03 p 2 T p 01 T 01 T 1 p 1 R S Entropy, s Figure 2.2, Compressor stage and Ts diagram The stagnation pressure rise occurs wholly in the rotor, but in practice, there will be some losses in the stator due to fluid friction which will result in a decrease in stagnation pressure. There are also some losses in the rotor and the stagnation pressure rise will be less than of an isentropic compression. 2.2 Blade to Blade Flow path To get a clear picture in how a compressor works, blade to blade flow path analysis is the most fundamental part. The velocity components of the working fluid can be expressed in two velocity vectors, absolute and relative velocity. The fluid enters the rotor with an absolute velocity, C 1, and has an angle, 1, from the axial direction. Combining the absolute velocity with the blade speed, U, gives the relative velocity, W 1, with its angle 1. The mechanical energy from the rotating rotors will be transferred to the working fluid. This energy absorption will increase the absolute velocity of the fluid. After leaving the rotor the fluid will have a relative velocity, W 2, with an angle, 2, determined by the blade outlet angle. The fluid leaving the rotor is consequently the air entering the stator where a similar change in velocity will occur. Here the relative 12
17 Axial Flow Compressor Mean Line Design 2 Compressor Fundamentals velocity, W 2, will be diffused and leaving the stator with a velocity, C 3, at an angle, 3. Typically the velocity leaving the stator will be the same as the velocity entering the rotor in the next row, C 3 = C 1 and 3 = 1. By creating so called velocity triangles, see Figure 2.3, will make it easier to visualize the change of velocities and angles in a compressor stage [1]. 1 C 1 W C 1 C a1 C 1 U 2 C 2 W 2 C C a2 C 2 C Rothalpy Figure 2.3, Velocity triangles for one stage The work, W, is expressed as the enthalpy change. For adiabatic machines the heat flux, Q, is zero. Introducing the Euler equation and expanding the stagnation enthalpy gives after rearrangement. Consider the lefthand side, expanding C 2 2 as C C x2 2 + C R2 2 and then expressing the absolute tangential velocity in terms of that in the moving frame of reference C 2 = W 2 + U 2. After some manipulation to the lefthand side of the equation one obtains. This can then be used for obtaining the difference between the inlet and outlet. 13
18 2 Compressor Fundamentals Axial Flow Compressor Mean Line Design Or alternatively The term (h 02 ) rel is the stagnation enthalpy in the relative frame of reference. The rothalpy is defined as the quantity (2.1) In rotating blade rows rothalpy has properties analogous to stagnationn enthalpy in stationary passages. If the same concept of rothalpy is applied to a stationary blade row the equation reverts to conservation of stagnation enthalpy [2]. 2.4 Compressor Losses The flow in a compressor is complicated 3D, unsteady and dominated by viscous effects, see Figure 2.4. This dissipative nature increases the entropy and a loss in pressuree occurs due to the flow effects. Figure 2.4, Flow fields in a cascade 14
19 Axial Flow Compressor Mean Line Design 2 Compressor Fundamentals The individual losses are lumped into profile and walllosses. These pressure losses are depent on a numerous parameters which include tip clearance, blade aspect ratio, pitch chord ratio, thickness chord ratio, Mach number and Reynolds number. The different loss models are based on mid radius and will be modelled individually for the rotor/stator Profileloss Profilelosses are based on the effect of blade boundary layer growth (including separated flow) and wakes through turbulent and viscous dissipation. The effect of these losses is an increase of entropy due to the heat developed by the mechanical energy within the boundary layers. This results in a stagnation pressure loss [3] Endwallloss In addition to the losses which arise from the blade surfaces, i.e. profile losses, additional losses generated on the walls. These are often called secondary losses which arises from wall boundary layer build up, secondary flow and tip clearance. When a flow that is parallel but nonuniform in velocity and density is made to follow a curved path, the result is a threedimensional motion with velocity normal to the overall flow direction. Crossflow of this type is referred as secondary flow. A good analogy of this is a simple teacup. When stirring the tea in a teacup, the tea leafs will move towards the center of the cup driven by the secondary flow. The formation, development, diffusion and dissipation of these vortices as well as the kinetic energy in secondary velocities generate secondary flow losses. Somewhere between 5070% of the losses may come from wall losses, deping of the type of turbo machinery [3]. 15
20 2 Compressor Fundamentals Axial Flow Compressor Mean Line Design 2.5 Blade geometry 1 W 1 t b1 C Profile Camber line W 2 2 b2 S Figure 2.5, Cascade notation 1 b1 2 b2 i c S t Relative air inlet angle Blade inlet angle Relative air outlet angle Blade outlet angle Stagger angle Camber angle Incidence angle, 1  b1 Deviation angle, 2  b2 Chord length Staggered spacing Maximum thickness Solidity, c/s Table 2.2, Cascade notation 2.6 Dimensionless Parameters Introducing a set of dimensionless parameters will give a useful guidance in designing a compressor stage. These dimensionless performance parameters define the performance of a single stage in a compressor. 16
21 Axial Flow Compressor Mean Line Design 2 Compressor Fundamentals Stage load coefficient The total enthalpy rise through a rotor blade row is expressed by the wellknown Euler turbine equation, i.e. (2.2) where H is the total enthalpy rise through the rotor. It is often useful to introduce dimensionless stage performance parameters for a repeating stage, i.e. the rotorinlet (station 1) and the statoroutlet (station 3) from the previous stage has identical velocity diagrams. Then, the stage load coefficient,, can be defined as (2.3) Stage flow coefficient The stage flow coefficient,, is defined as followed. (2.4) This expresses the ratio between the meridional velocity and the blade velocity. A high stage flow coefficient indicated a high flow through the stage relative to the blade velocity. A low whirl velocity change in a stage would also indicate a high stage flow coefficient and vice versa [1] Stage reaction The stage reaction, R, is defined as the fraction of the rise in static enthalpy in rotor compared to the rise in stagnation enthalpy throughout the entire stage. (2.5) If a compressor stage would have a stage reaction of 1.0 or 100%, the rotor would do all of the diffusion in the stage. Similar if the stage reaction is 0 than the stator will do all of the diffusion of the working fluid. It is never good to have either a stage reaction of 1.0 or 0. The literature, reference 1, suggest that a stage reaction about 0.5 i.e. the diffusion is equally divided between the two blade rows. But in practice a higher stage reaction is preferred. Increasing the stage reaction results in a decrease in whirl prior to the rotor. A smaller whirl will create a larger relative inlet velocity to the rotor row, at a constant C p, and hence make it easier for the rotor to increase the static pressure de Haller number In most compressor stages both the rotors and the stators are designed to diffuse the fluid, and hence transform its kinetic energy into an increase in static enthalpy and static pressure. The more the fluid is decelerated, the bigger pressure rise, but boundary layer growth and wall stall is limiting the process. To avoid this, de Haller proposed that the 17
22 2 Compressor Fundamentals Axial Flow Compressor Mean Line Design overall deceleration ratio, i.e. W 2 /W 1 and C 2 /C 3 in a rotor and stator respectively, should not be less than 0.72 (historic limit) in any row [1] Pressure rise coefficient Another parameter is the pressure rise coefficient. (2.6) (2.7) If axial velocity is assumed constant and the working fluid is assumed to be incompressible, then the pressure rise coefficient can also be expressed as a function of the dehaller number. This is done by applying Bernoulli s principle. (2.8) 2.7 Efficiency The term efficiency finds very wide application in turbo machinery. For all machines or stages, efficiency is defined as. There are several different ways of evaluating efficiency and these reveal different information. Two of the most widely used efficiencies are the isentropic efficiency and the polytropic efficiency Isentropic efficiency The isentropic efficiency can be expressed as the ratio between enthalpy change in an ideal compressor and the actual enthalpy change. An ideal compressor which is both adiabatic and reversible cannot alter the entropy of the gas flowing through it. These types of compressors are usually referred to as isentropic. Since there will be some 18
23 Axial Flow Compressor Mean Line Design 2 Compressor Fundamentals losses which generates an entropy rise, the actual work into the compressor will differ from an ideal one. The efficiency can then be described as, (2.9) The subscript s denotes entropy held constant. Figure 2.6 shows a typical schematic diagram over a reversible adiabatic compression. Temperature T p 02 2s 2 p 01 1 Entropy S Figure 2.6, isentropic compression The constant pressure lines in the TS diagram, Figure 2.6, have a slope proportional to the temperature and diverge as the temperature increases. For a given pressure rise the work input needed is greater for the later stages in a compressor, this because the temperature is higher and also that the work input required by the later stages is raised because of the previous stages. The isentropic efficiency therefore gets lower as the overall pressure ratio is increased. To cope with this problem, another efficiency the socalled polytropic or smallstage efficiency may be used instead [2] Polytropic efficiency The definition of polytropic efficiency is as follows. By applying Gibbs law and the relationship between temperature and enthalpy it can be rewritten so it deps on temperatures and pressures instead. 19
24 2 Compressor Fundamentals Axial Flow Compressor Mean Line Design Integrating the expression on pressure, p leads to the following equation. (2.10) One can also assume that the specific heat capacity is constant, which is not the case in this thesis. If this is assumed, the following expression can be found [2]. (2.11) 2.7 Operating Limits There are mainly two phenomena that can cause a compressor to break down, rotating stall and surge. Gas turbines, for example, may encounter severe performance and durability problems if the compressor is not able to avoid stall and surge. In preliminary designs there is a need for reliable methods for computing the compressors stall margin capability. This because it is difficult to correct and change the compressor stall margin after its basic design has been chose. In a typical compressor it is normal that if the mass flow is reduced the pressure rise increases. At a certain point in an operating range the pressure rise is at its maximum, in a further reduction in mass flow will lead to an abrupt and definite change in flow pattern in the compressor. This change in flow pattern is known as surge and can cause the flow to start oscillating backwards and forwards, and after a while the compressor will break down. A mild version of surge causes the operating point to orbit around the point of maximum pressure rise. An audible burble is a clear indicator when the compressor is on the limit of the more severe surge [2]. The other phenomena that one should be looking for is stall. If the mass flow is reduced the axial velocity will, according to the continuity equation, also decrease. This will increase the air inlet angle and, due to the difference in air inlet angle and blade inlet angle, create incidence. With an increasing incidence angle the flow will eventually separate from the surface at the trailing edge. The separation will grow with a further 20
25 Axial Flow Compressor Mean Line Design 2 Compressor Fundamentals increase of incidence angle, and finally cover the whole upper blade. This phenomenon is called stall, and will change the performance of a compressor drastically. Rotating stall means that the stall is moved from one blade to another and an uninformed pattern will occur, see Figure 2.7. The annulus then contains regions of stalled flow, usually referred as cells, and regions of unstalled flow. Rotating stall is a mechanism which allows the compressor to adapt to a mass flow which is too small. Instead of trying to share the limited flow over the whole annulus the flow is shared unequally, so that some areas have a larger mass flow than other. The overall mass flow remains constant but the local mass flow varies as the rotating cell passes the point of observation. The cells always rotate in the direction of the rotor. Partspan cells very often rotate at close to 50 percent of the rotor speed, fullspan cells usually rotate more slowly in the range of percent. Fullspan cells ext axially through the whole compressor while partspan cells can exist in a single blade row [2]. Cell Unstalled flow Fullspan stall Partspan stall Figure 2.7, Different types of rotating stall 21
26 3 Methods of Calculation 3.1 State properties In order to calculate the state of a fluid, an approach according to the GibbsDalton is used. The model used is the NASA SP273, and by integration, the enthalpy and entropy are known. The specific heat is expressed as fifth order polynomial. The reference values are set to zero at kpa and K. as seen in the equations above. As seen in the equation above, the temperature and the pressure must be known if the entropy and enthalpy are to be found. If let say that the enthalpy and the temperature are known instead, an iterative process is needed since the specific heat value is expressed as a fifth order polynomial. This iterative procedure uses the standard Newton method, see chapter 4.5 Newton Rhapson Method. Introduction of other property libraries are straightforward, as long as they are semiperfect (specific heat only a function of temperature) [11]. 3.2 Incidence and Deviation There are several different methods on how to get the blade angles in a cascade. In this thesis, one method is used to calculate the angles based on a number of input variables. Howard, see reference 4, has put together a number of correlations and equations based on Johnsen and Bullock (1965), which commonly is referred to as NASA SP36 correlations. These correlations are largely based on low speed cascade test; he also introduces some correlations for advanced transonic compressor blades by Köning, et al (1996), but this will not be taken in consideration in this thesis. 22
27 Axial Flow Compressor Mean Line Design 3 Methods of Calculation Incidence Angle Incidence is the difference between the inlet blade angel and the inlet flow angle. As the fluid flows towards the leading edge it will experience induced incidence. There is one pressure surface and one suction surface at a given blade. This different of pressure will change the ingoing flow angle as it approaches the leading edge, see Figure 3.1. _ + Figure 3.1, induced incidence By performing experimental tests on a given cascade, the incidence can be established. This incidence angle is referred as reference incidence. When testing a given cascade at different inlet flow angles, the loss coefficient,, varies with incidence. There will be an increase in both positive and negative incidence angles with a range of low values for. The pressure loss at twice the minimum loss will be the range in which the reference incidence will be located. Outside this range stall blade stall occurs. If this range of incidence is split in the middle, the point of reference incident angle will be found, see Figure 3.2. Pressure loss, Reference incidence angle i/2 i/2 Min. loss 2 x Min. loss Incidence angle, i Figure 3.2, Definition of reference incidence angle 23
High Speed Aerodynamics Prof. K. P. Sinhamahapatra Department of Aerospace Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
High Speed Aerodynamics Prof. K. P. Sinhamahapatra Department of Aerospace Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Module No. # 01 Lecture No. # 06 Onedimensional Gas Dynamics (Contd.) We
More informationCOMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS (CFD) ANALYSIS OF INTERMEDIATE PRESSURE STEAM TURBINE
Research Paper ISSN 2278 0149 www.ijmerr.com Vol. 3, No. 4, October, 2014 2014 IJMERR. All Rights Reserved COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS (CFD) ANALYSIS OF INTERMEDIATE PRESSURE STEAM TURBINE Shivakumar
More informationKeywords: CFD, heat turbomachinery, Compound Lean Nozzle, Controlled Flow Nozzle, efficiency.
CALCULATION OF FLOW CHARACTERISTICS IN HEAT TURBOMACHINERY TURBINE STAGE WITH DIFFERENT THREE DIMENSIONAL SHAPE OF THE STATOR BLADE WITH ANSYS CFX SOFTWARE A. Yangyozov *, R. Willinger ** * Department
More informationME 239: Rocket Propulsion. Nozzle Thermodynamics and Isentropic Flow Relations. J. M. Meyers, PhD
ME 39: Rocket Propulsion Nozzle Thermodynamics and Isentropic Flow Relations J. M. Meyers, PhD 1 Assumptions for this Analysis 1. Steady, onedimensional flow No motor start/stopping issues to be concerned
More informationUniversity Turbine Systems Research 2012 Fellowship Program Final Report. Prepared for: General Electric Company
University Turbine Systems Research 2012 Fellowship Program Final Report Prepared for: General Electric Company Gas Turbine Aerodynamics Marion Building 300 Garlington Rd Greenville, SC 29615, USA Prepared
More informationRelevance of Modern Optimization Methods in Turbo Machinery Applications
Relevance of Modern Optimization Methods in Turbo Machinery Applications  From Analytical Models via Three Dimensional Multidisciplinary Approaches to the Optimization of a Wind Turbine  Prof. Dr. Ing.
More informationNUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF WIND ON BUILDING STRUCTURES
Vol. XX 2012 No. 4 28 34 J. ŠIMIČEK O. HUBOVÁ NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF WIND ON BUILDING STRUCTURES Jozef ŠIMIČEK email: jozef.simicek@stuba.sk Research field: Statics and Dynamics Fluids mechanics
More informationCompressor and turbines
Compressor and turbines In this chapter, we will look at the compressor and the turbine. They are both turbomachinery: machines that transfer energy from a rotor to a fluid, or the other way around. The
More informationCFD Analysis of Swept and Leaned Transonic Compressor Rotor
CFD Analysis of Swept and Leaned Transonic Compressor Nivin Francis #1, J. Bruce Ralphin Rose *2 #1 Student, Department of Aeronautical Engineering& Regional Centre of Anna University Tirunelveli India
More informationTheory of turbo machinery / Turbomaskinernas teori. Chapter 3
Theory of turbo machinery / Turbomaskinernas teori Chapter 3 D cascades Let us first understand the facts and then we may seek the causes. (Aristotle) D cascades High hubtip ratio (of radii) negligible
More informationTheory of turbo machinery / Turbomaskinernas teori. Chapter 4
Theory of turbo machinery / Turbomaskinernas teori Chapter 4 AxialFlow Turbines: MeanLine Analyses and Design Power is more certainly retained by wary measures than by daring counsels. (Tacitius, Annals)
More informationCO 2 41.2 MPa (abs) 20 C
comp_02 A CO 2 cartridge is used to propel a small rocket cart. Compressed CO 2, stored at a pressure of 41.2 MPa (abs) and a temperature of 20 C, is expanded through a smoothly contoured converging nozzle
More informationINTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS
INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS SIXTH EDITION ROBERT W. FOX Purdue University ALAN T. MCDONALD Purdue University PHILIP J. PRITCHARD Manhattan College JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. CONTENTS CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
More informationFluid Mechanics Prof. S. K. Som Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
Fluid Mechanics Prof. S. K. Som Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture  20 Conservation Equations in Fluid Flow Part VIII Good morning. I welcome you all
More informationTHE EVOLUTION OF TURBOMACHINERY DESIGN (METHODS) Parsons 1895
THE EVOLUTION OF TURBOMACHINERY DESIGN (METHODS) Parsons 1895 RollsRoyce 2008 Parsons 1895 100KW Steam turbine Pitch/chord a bit too low. Tip thinning on suction side. Trailing edge FAR too thick. Surface
More informationLecture 6  Boundary Conditions. Applied Computational Fluid Dynamics
Lecture 6  Boundary Conditions Applied Computational Fluid Dynamics Instructor: André Bakker http://www.bakker.org André Bakker (20022006) Fluent Inc. (2002) 1 Outline Overview. Inlet and outlet boundaries.
More informationPushing the limits. Turbine simulation for nextgeneration turbochargers
Pushing the limits Turbine simulation for nextgeneration turbochargers KWOKKAI SO, BENT PHILLIPSEN, MAGNUS FISCHER Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has matured and is now an indispensable tool for
More informationPractice Problems on Boundary Layers. Answer(s): D = 107 N D = 152 N. C. Wassgren, Purdue University Page 1 of 17 Last Updated: 2010 Nov 22
BL_01 A thin flat plate 55 by 110 cm is immersed in a 6 m/s stream of SAE 10 oil at 20 C. Compute the total skin friction drag if the stream is parallel to (a) the long side and (b) the short side. D =
More informationChapter 10. Flow Rate. Flow Rate. Flow Measurements. The velocity of the flow is described at any
Chapter 10 Flow Measurements Material from Theory and Design for Mechanical Measurements; Figliola, Third Edition Flow Rate Flow rate can be expressed in terms of volume flow rate (volume/time) or mass
More informationDifferential Relations for Fluid Flow. Acceleration field of a fluid. The differential equation of mass conservation
Differential Relations for Fluid Flow In this approach, we apply our four basic conservation laws to an infinitesimally small control volume. The differential approach provides point by point details of
More informationDesign and testing of a high flow coefficient mixed flow impeller
Design and testing of a high flow coefficient mixed flow impeller H.R. Hazby PCA Engineers Ltd., UK M.V. Casey PCA Engineers Ltd., UK University of Stuttgart (ITSM), Germany R. Numakura and H. Tamaki IHI
More informationCOMPARISON OF COUNTER ROTATING AND TRADITIONAL AXIAL AIRCRAFT LOWPRESSURE TURBINES INTEGRAL AND DETAILED PERFORMANCES
COMPARISON OF COUNTER ROTATING AND TRADITIONAL AXIAL AIRCRAFT LOWPRESSURE TURBINES INTEGRAL AND DETAILED PERFORMANCES Leonid Moroz, Petr Pagur, Yuri Govorushchenko, Kirill Grebennik SoftInWay Inc. 35
More informationDimensional analysis is a method for reducing the number and complexity of experimental variables that affect a given physical phenomena.
Dimensional Analysis and Similarity Dimensional analysis is very useful for planning, presentation, and interpretation of experimental data. As discussed previously, most practical fluid mechanics problems
More informationChapter 5 MASS, BERNOULLI AND ENERGY EQUATIONS
Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications, 2nd Edition Yunus A. Cengel, John M. Cimbala McGrawHill, 2010 Chapter 5 MASS, BERNOULLI AND ENERGY EQUATIONS Lecture slides by Hasan Hacışevki Copyright
More informationdu u U 0 U dy y b 0 b
BASIC CONCEPTS/DEFINITIONS OF FLUID MECHANICS (by Marios M. Fyrillas) 1. Density (πυκνότητα) Symbol: 3 Units of measure: kg / m Equation: m ( m mass, V volume) V. Pressure (πίεση) Alternative definition:
More informationFLUID FLOW STREAMLINE LAMINAR FLOW TURBULENT FLOW REYNOLDS NUMBER
VISUAL PHYSICS School of Physics University of Sydney Australia FLUID FLOW STREAMLINE LAMINAR FLOW TURBULENT FLOW REYNOLDS NUMBER? What type of fluid flow is observed? The above pictures show how the effect
More informationFLUID MECHANICS. TUTORIAL No.7 FLUID FORCES. When you have completed this tutorial you should be able to. Solve forces due to pressure difference.
FLUID MECHANICS TUTORIAL No.7 FLUID FORCES When you have completed this tutorial you should be able to Solve forces due to pressure difference. Solve problems due to momentum changes. Solve problems involving
More informationAnalysis of the entire surge cycle of a multistage highspeed compressor
Center for Turbulence Research Annual Research Briefs 2008 205 Analysis of the entire surge cycle of a multistage highspeed compressor By S. Teramoto 1. Motivation and objectives Both surge and rotating
More informationChapter 17. For the most part, we have limited our consideration so COMPRESSIBLE FLOW. Objectives
Chapter 17 COMPRESSIBLE FLOW For the most part, we have limited our consideration so far to flows for which density variations and thus compressibility effects are negligible. In this chapter we lift this
More informationEXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH ON FLOW IN A 5STAGE HIGH PRESSURE ROTOR OF 1000 MW STEAM TURBINE
Proceedings of 11 th European Conference on Turbomachinery Fluid dynamics & Thermodynamics ETC11, March 2327, 2015, Madrid, Spain EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH ON FLOW IN A 5STAGE HIGH PRESSURE ROTOR OF 1000
More informationDynamic Process Modeling. Process Dynamics and Control
Dynamic Process Modeling Process Dynamics and Control 1 Description of process dynamics Classes of models What do we need for control? Modeling for control Mechanical Systems Modeling Electrical circuits
More informationFundamentals of Fluid Mechanics
Sixth Edition. Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics International Student Version BRUCE R. MUNSON DONALD F. YOUNG Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics THEODORE H. OKIISHI Department
More informationNatural Convection. Buoyancy force
Natural Convection In natural convection, the fluid motion occurs by natural means such as buoyancy. Since the fluid velocity associated with natural convection is relatively low, the heat transfer coefficient
More informationIdeal Jet Propulsion Cycle
Ideal Jet ropulsion Cycle Gasturbine engines are widely used to power aircrafts because of their lightweight, compactness, and high powertoweight ratio. Aircraft gas turbines operate on an open cycle
More informationComparative Analysis of Gas Turbine Blades with and without Turbulators
Comparative Analysis of Gas Turbine Blades with and without Turbulators Sagar H T 1, Kishan Naik 2 1 PG Student, Dept. of Studies in Mechanical Engineering, University BDT College of Engineering, Davangere,
More informationTransient Performance Prediction for Turbocharging Systems Incorporating Variablegeometry Turbochargers
22 Special Issue Turbocharging Technologies Research Report Transient Performance Prediction for Turbocharging Systems Incorporating Variablegeometry Turbochargers Hiroshi Uchida Abstract Turbocharging
More informationModelling and CFD Analysis of Single Stage IP Steam Turbine
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering, ISSN:20513232, Vol.42, Issue.1 1215 Modelling and CFD Analysis of Single Stage IP Steam Turbine C RAJESH BABU Mechanical Engineering Department, Gitam
More informationO.F.Wind Wind Site Assessment Simulation in complex terrain based on OpenFOAM. Darmstadt, 27.06.2012
O.F.Wind Wind Site Assessment Simulation in complex terrain based on OpenFOAM Darmstadt, 27.06.2012 Michael Ehlen IB Fischer CFD+engineering GmbH Lipowskystr. 12 81373 München Tel. 089/74118743 Fax 089/74118749
More informationUnderstanding Plastics Engineering Calculations
Natti S. Rao Nick R. Schott Understanding Plastics Engineering Calculations Handson Examples and Case Studies Sample Pages from Chapters 4 and 6 ISBNs 978569905098569905096 HANSER Hanser Publishers,
More informationMass and Energy Analysis of Control Volumes
MAE 320Chapter 5 Mass and Energy Analysis of Control Volumes Objectives Develop the conservation of mass principle. Apply the conservation of mass principle to various systems including steady and unsteadyflow
More informationChapter 6 Energy Equation for a Control Volume
Chapter 6 Energy Equation for a Control Volume Conservation of Mass and the Control Volume Closed systems: The mass of the system remain constant during a process. Control volumes: Mass can cross the boundaries,
More informationTurbulence Modeling in CFD Simulation of Intake Manifold for a 4 Cylinder Engine
HEFAT2012 9 th International Conference on Heat Transfer, Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics 16 18 July 2012 Malta Turbulence Modeling in CFD Simulation of Intake Manifold for a 4 Cylinder Engine Dr MK
More informationA LAMINAR FLOW ELEMENT WITH A LINEAR PRESSURE DROP VERSUS VOLUMETRIC FLOW. 1998 ASME Fluids Engineering Division Summer Meeting
TELEDYNE HASTINGS TECHNICAL PAPERS INSTRUMENTS A LAMINAR FLOW ELEMENT WITH A LINEAR PRESSURE DROP VERSUS VOLUMETRIC FLOW Proceedings of FEDSM 98: June 5, 998, Washington, DC FEDSM98 49 ABSTRACT The pressure
More informationEngineering Software P.O. Box 2134, Kensington, MD 20891 Phone: (301) 9199670 Web Site:
Engineering Software P.O. Box 2134, Kensington, MD 20891 Phone: (301) 9199670 EMail: info@engineering4e.com Web Site: http://www.engineering4e.com Brayton Cycle (Gas Turbine) for Propulsion Application
More informationHeat Transfer Prof. Dr. Ale Kumar Ghosal Department of Chemical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati
Heat Transfer Prof. Dr. Ale Kumar Ghosal Department of Chemical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati Module No. # 04 Convective Heat Transfer Lecture No. # 03 Heat Transfer Correlation
More informationNUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF WELLS TURBINE FOR WAVE POWER CONVERSION
Engineering Review Vol. 32, Issue 3, 141146, 2012. 141 NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF WELLS TURBINE FOR WAVE POWER CONVERSION Z. 1* L. 1 V. 2 M. 1 1 Department of Fluid Mechanics and Computational Engineering,
More informationTwinMesh Grid Generator and CFD Simulation with ANSYS CFX
TwinMesh Grid Generator and CFD Simulation with ANSYS CFX 2nd Short Course on CFD in Rotary Positive Displacement Machines London, 5th 6th September 2015 Dr. Andreas SpilleKohoff Jan Hesse Rainer Andres
More informationCOMPUTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR WITH GROOVES ON CASING
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET) International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN ISSN 0976 6340 (Print) ISSN 0976
More informationCFturbo Modern turbomachinery design software
COMPRESSOR Tech Magazine CFturbo Modern turbomachinery design software Designing new compressors from scratch and compressor redesign By RalphPeter Mueller & Gero Kreuzfeld RalphPeter Mueller and Gero
More informationAN EFFECT OF GRID QUALITY ON THE RESULTS OF NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF THE FLUID FLOW FIELD IN AN AGITATED VESSEL
14 th European Conference on Mixing Warszawa, 1013 September 2012 AN EFFECT OF GRID QUALITY ON THE RESULTS OF NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF THE FLUID FLOW FIELD IN AN AGITATED VESSEL Joanna Karcz, Lukasz Kacperski
More informationEngineering Problem Solving as Model Building
Engineering Problem Solving as Model Building Part 1. How professors think about problem solving. Part 2. Mech2 and BrainFull Crisis Part 1 How experts think about problem solving When we solve a problem
More informationME 6404 THERMAL ENGINEERING. PartB (16Marks questions)
ME 6404 THERMAL ENGINEERING PartB (16Marks questions) 1. Drive and expression for the air standard efficiency of Otto cycle in terms of volume ratio. (16) 2. Drive an expression for the air standard efficiency
More informationFluid Mechanics Prof. T. I. Eldho Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay. Lecture No. # 36 Pipe Flow Systems
Fluid Mechanics Prof. T. I. Eldho Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay Lecture No. # 36 Pipe Flow Systems Welcome back to the video course on Fluid Mechanics. In today
More informationMechanical Design of Turbojet Engines. An Introduction
Mechanical Design of Turbomachinery Mechanical Design of Turbojet Engines An Introduction Reference: AERO00151  MECHANICAL DESIGN OF TURBOMACHINERY  5 ECTS  J.C. GOLINVAL University of Liege (Belgium)
More informationChapter 8: Flow in Pipes
Objectives 1. Have a deeper understanding of laminar and turbulent flow in pipes and the analysis of fully developed flow 2. Calculate the major and minor losses associated with pipe flow in piping networks
More informationCRANFIELD UNIVERSITY ELEFTHERIOS ANDREADIS DESIGN OF A LOW SPEED VANEAXIAL FAN SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING. MPhil THESIS
CRANFIELD UNIVERSITY ELEFTHERIOS ANDREADIS DESIGN OF A LOW SPEED VANEAXIAL FAN SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING MPhil THESIS CRANFIELD UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF POWER ENGINEERING AND PROPULSION
More informationNUMERICAL ANALYSIS FOR TWO PHASE FLOW DISTRIBUTION HEADERS IN HEAT EXCHANGERS
NUMERICAL ANALYSIS FOR TWO PHASE FLOW DISTRIBUTION HEADERS IN HEAT EXCHANGERS B.Babu 1, Florence.T 2, M.Punithavalli 3, B.R.Rohit 4 1 Assistant professor, Department of mechanical engineering, Rathinam
More informationMacroscopic Balances for Nonisothermal Systems
Transport Phenomena Macroscopic Balances for Nonisothermal Systems 1 Macroscopic Balances for Nonisothermal Systems 1. The macroscopic energy balance 2. The macroscopic mechanical energy balance 3. Use
More informationTurbine Design for Thermoacoustic
Turbine Design for Thermoacoustic Generator Design of a bidirectional turbine to convert acoustic power into electricity 8/20/2012 Company: FACTFoundation Author: Tim Kloprogge Student number: 443943
More informationME 239: Rocket Propulsion. Over and Underexpanded Nozzles and Nozzle Configurations. J. M. Meyers, PhD
ME 239: Rocket Propulsion Over and Underexpanded Nozzles and Nozzle Configurations J. M. Meyers, PhD 1 Over and Underexpanded Nozzles Underexpanded Nozzle Discharges fluid at an exit pressure greater
More informationModule 6 Case Studies
Module 6 Case Studies 1 Lecture 6.1 A CFD Code for Turbomachinery Flows 2 Development of a CFD Code The lecture material in the previous Modules help the student to understand the domain knowledge required
More informationJet Propulsion. Lecture2. Ujjwal K Saha, Ph.D. Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati 1
Lecture2 Prepared under QIPCD Cell Project Jet Propulsion Ujjwal K Saha, Ph.D. Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati 1 Simple Gas Turbine Cycle A gas turbine that
More informationBattery Thermal Management System Design Modeling
Battery Thermal Management System Design Modeling GiHeon Kim, Ph.D Ahmad Pesaran, Ph.D (ahmad_pesaran@nrel.gov) National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado, U.S.A. EVS October 8, 8, 006 Yokohama,
More informationApplied Fluid Mechanics
Applied Fluid Mechanics 1. The Nature of Fluid and the Study of Fluid Mechanics 2. Viscosity of Fluid 3. Pressure Measurement 4. Forces Due to Static Fluid 5. Buoyancy and Stability 6. Flow of Fluid and
More informationCFD Analysis of a butterfly valve in a compressible fluid
CFD Analysis of a butterfly valve in a compressible fluid 1 G.TAMIZHARASI, 2 S.KATHIRESAN 1 Assistant Professor,Professor,Departmentment of Electronics and Instrumentation,Bharath university, chennai.
More informationEffect of Pressure Ratio on Film Cooling of Turbine Aerofoil Using CFD
Universal Journal of Mechanical Engineering 1(4): 122127, 2013 DOI: 10.13189/ujme.2013.010403 http://www.hrpub.org Effect of Pressure Ratio on Film Cooling of Turbine Aerofoil Using CFD Vibhor Baghel
More informationHEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS IN A 3D SQUARE CHANNEL LAMINAR FLOW WITH USING BAFFLES 1 Vikram Bishnoi
HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS IN A 3D SQUARE CHANNEL LAMINAR FLOW WITH USING BAFFLES 1 Vikram Bishnoi 2 Rajesh Dudi 1 Scholar and 2 Assistant Professor,Department of Mechanical Engineering, OITM, Hisar (Haryana)
More informationBoston University BRAYTON CYCLE EXPERIMENT JET ENGINE
Boston University ENG EK 304 Energy and Thermodynamics Laboratory Exercise II BRAYTON CYCLE EXPERIMENT JET ENGINE (Based on an instruction set provided by Turbine Technologies Limited, 2002 Modified by
More informationChapter 7 Energy and Energy Balances
CBE14, Levicky Chapter 7 Energy and Energy Balances The concept of energy conservation as expressed by an energy balance equation is central to chemical engineering calculations. Similar to mass balances
More informationFREESTUDY HEAT TRANSFER TUTORIAL 3 ADVANCED STUDIES
FREESTUDY HEAT TRANSFER TUTORIAL ADVANCED STUDIES This is the third tutorial in the series on heat transfer and covers some of the advanced theory of convection. The tutorials are designed to bring the
More informationPerformance prediction of a centrifugal pump working in direct and reverse mode using Computational Fluid Dynamics
European Association for the Development of Renewable Energies, Environment and Power Quality (EA4EPQ) International Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality (ICREPQ 10) Granada (Spain), 23rd
More informationLift and Drag on an Airfoil ME 123: Mechanical Engineering Laboratory II: Fluids
Lift and Drag on an Airfoil ME 123: Mechanical Engineering Laboratory II: Fluids Dr. J. M. Meyers Dr. D. G. Fletcher Dr. Y. Dubief 1. Introduction In this lab the characteristics of airfoil lift, drag,
More informationLecture 3 Fluid Dynamics and Balance Equa6ons for Reac6ng Flows
Lecture 3 Fluid Dynamics and Balance Equa6ons for Reac6ng Flows 3. 1 Basics: equations of continuum mechanics  balance equations for mass and momentum  balance equations for the energy and the chemical
More informationGT2011 46090 ANALYSIS OF A MICROGASTURBINE FED BY NATURAL GAS AND SYNTHESIS GAS: MGT TEST BENCH AND COMBUSTOR CFD ANALYSIS
ASME Turbo Expo 2011 June 6 10, 2011 Vancouver, Canada GT 2011 46090 ANALYSIS OF A MICROGASTURBINE FED BY NATURAL GAS AND SYNTHESIS GAS: MGT TEST BENCH AND COMBUSTOR CFD ANALYSIS M. Cadorin 1,M. Pinelli
More informationUsing CFD to improve the design of a circulating water channel
27 December 27 Using CFD to improve the design of a circulating water channel M.G. Pullinger and J.E. Sargison School of Engineering University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, 71 AUSTRALIA Abstract Computational
More informationTHERMAL POWER PLANTS Vol. III  Steam Turbine Impulse and Reaction Blading  R.A. Chaplin STEAM TURBINE IMPULSE AND REACTION BLADING
STEAM TURBINE IMPULSE AND REACTION BLADING R.A. Chaplin Department of Chemical Engineering, University of New Brunswick, Canada Keywords: Steam Turbines, Turbine Blades, Velocity Diagrams, Impulse, Reaction,
More informationINLET AND EXAUST NOZZLES Chap. 10 AIAA AIRCRAFT ENGINE DESIGN R0107/11/2011
MASTER OF SCIENCE IN AEROSPACE ENGINEERING PROPULSION AND COMBUSTION INLET AND EXAUST NOZZLES Chap. 10 AIAA AIRCRAFT ENGINE DESIGN R0107/11/2011 LECTURE NOTES AVAILABLE ON https://www.ingegneriaindustriale.unisalento.it/scheda_docente//people/antonio.ficarella/materiale
More information(b) 1. Look up c p for air in Table A.6. c p = 1004 J/kg K 2. Use equation (1) and given and looked up values to find s 2 s 1.
Problem 1 Given: Air cooled where: T 1 = 858K, P 1 = P = 4.5 MPa gage, T = 15 o C = 88K Find: (a) Show process on a Ts diagram (b) Calculate change in specific entropy if air is an ideal gas (c) Evaluate
More informationPlatform Technology for Computational Fluid Dynamics Supporting Design of System Products
Hitachi Review Vol. 61 (2012), No. 6 244 Platform Technology for Computational Fluid Dynamics Supporting Design of System Products from Power Plants and Industrial Machinery to Home Appliances Shigehisa
More informationUNIVERSITY ESSAY QUESTIONS:
UNIT I 1. What is a thermodynamic cycle? 2. What is meant by air standard cycle? 3. Name the various gas power cycles". 4. What are the assumptions made for air standard cycle analysis 5. Mention the various
More informationPerformance Comparison of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine using Commercial and Open Source Computational Fluid Dynamics based Codes
Performance Comparison of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine using Commercial and Open Source Computational Fluid Dynamics based Codes Taimoor Asim 1, Rakesh Mishra 1, Sree Nirjhor Kaysthagir 1, Ghada Aboufares
More informationChapter 2. Derivation of the Equations of Open Channel Flow. 2.1 General Considerations
Chapter 2. Derivation of the Equations of Open Channel Flow 2.1 General Considerations Of interest is water flowing in a channel with a free surface, which is usually referred to as open channel flow.
More informationApplication of CFD Simulation in the Design of a Parabolic Winglet on NACA 2412
, July 24, 2014, London, U.K. Application of CFD Simulation in the Design of a Parabolic Winglet on NACA 2412 Arvind Prabhakar, Ayush Ohri Abstract Winglets are angled extensions or vertical projections
More informationAPPLIED THERMODYNAMICS TUTORIAL 1 REVISION OF ISENTROPIC EFFICIENCY ADVANCED STEAM CYCLES
APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS TUTORIAL 1 REVISION OF ISENTROPIC EFFICIENCY ADVANCED STEAM CYCLES INTRODUCTION This tutorial is designed for students wishing to extend their knowledge of thermodynamics to a more
More informationThe Viscosity of Fluids
Experiment #11 The Viscosity of Fluids References: 1. Your first year physics textbook. 2. D. Tabor, Gases, Liquids and Solids: and Other States of Matter (Cambridge Press, 1991). 3. J.R. Van Wazer et
More informationSupporting document to NORSOK Standard C004, Edition 2, May 2013, Section 5.4 Hot air flow
1 of 9 Supporting document to NORSOK Standard C004, Edition 2, May 2013, Section 5.4 Hot air flow A method utilizing Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes for determination of acceptable risk level
More informationTwinMesh for Positive Displacement Machines: Structured Meshes and reliable CFD Simulations
TwinMesh for Positive Displacement Machines: Structured Meshes and reliable CFD Simulations 05.06.2014 Dipl.Ing. Jan Hesse, Dr. Andreas SpilleKohoff CFX Berlin Software GmbH KarlMarxAllee 90 A 10243
More informationOUTCOME 3 TUTORIAL 5 DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS
Unit 41: Fluid Mechanics Unit code: T/601/1445 QCF Level: 4 Credit value: 15 OUTCOME 3 TUTORIAL 5 DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS 3 Be able to determine the behavioural characteristics and parameters of real fluid
More informationG U I D E T O A P P L I E D O R B I T A L M E C H A N I C S F O R K E R B A L S P A C E P R O G R A M
G U I D E T O A P P L I E D O R B I T A L M E C H A N I C S F O R K E R B A L S P A C E P R O G R A M CONTENTS Foreword... 2 Forces... 3 Circular Orbits... 8 Energy... 10 Angular Momentum... 13 FOREWORD
More informationChapter 3.5: Fans and Blowers
Part I: Objective type questions and answers Chapter 3.5: Fans and Blowers 1. The parameter used by ASME to define fans, blowers and compressors is a) Fan ration b) Specific ratio c) Blade ratio d) Twist
More informationBasic Equations, Boundary Conditions and Dimensionless Parameters
Chapter 2 Basic Equations, Boundary Conditions and Dimensionless Parameters In the foregoing chapter, many basic concepts related to the present investigation and the associated literature survey were
More informationA Comparison of Analytical and Finite Element Solutions for Laminar Flow Conditions Near Gaussian Constrictions
A Comparison of Analytical and Finite Element Solutions for Laminar Flow Conditions Near Gaussian Constrictions by Laura Noelle Race An Engineering Project Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of Rensselaer
More informationExecutive summary. Nationaal Lucht en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR
UNCLASSIFIED Nationaal Lucht en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR Executive summary Engine performance prediction for varied low pressure turbine vane geometry utilizing test rig
More informationThis chapter deals with three equations commonly used in fluid mechanics:
MASS, BERNOULLI, AND ENERGY EQUATIONS CHAPTER 5 This chapter deals with three equations commonly used in fluid mechanics: the mass, Bernoulli, and energy equations. The mass equation is an expression of
More informationDEVELOPMENT OF HIGH SPEED RESPONSE LAMINAR FLOW METER FOR AIR CONDITIONING
DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH SPEED RESPONSE LAMINAR FLOW METER FOR AIR CONDITIONING Toshiharu Kagawa 1, Yukako Saisu 2, Riki Nishimura 3 and Chongho Youn 4 ABSTRACT In this paper, we developed a new laminar flow
More informationFUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS
FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS System: Quantity of matter (constant mass) or region in space (constant volume) chosen for study. Closed system: Can exchange energy but not mass; mass is constant
More information1. Fluids Mechanics and Fluid Properties. 1.1 Objectives of this section. 1.2 Fluids
1. Fluids Mechanics and Fluid Properties What is fluid mechanics? As its name suggests it is the branch of applied mechanics concerned with the statics and dynamics of fluids  both liquids and gases.
More informationLecture 11 Boundary Layers and Separation. Applied Computational Fluid Dynamics
Lecture 11 Boundary Layers and Separation Applied Computational Fluid Dynamics Instructor: André Bakker http://www.bakker.org André Bakker (20022006) Fluent Inc. (2002) 1 Overview Drag. The boundarylayer
More informationApplication Information
Moog Components Group manufactures a comprehensive line of brushtype and brushless motors, as well as brushless controllers. The purpose of this document is to provide a guide for the selection and application
More informationSteam turbine power generation is a Rankine Cycle, best plotted on a temperature/entropy [T/s] diagram : Critical Point
Cogeneration Thermodynamics Revisited Dr Mike Inkson and Ben Misplon Thermal Energy Systems Abstract Whilst most engineers understand that higher HP steam conditions result in a more efficient power station,
More information