What are the verb tenses?

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1 Perfect tenses indicate that something happened or existed before a specific point in time. People often use the past, present perfect, and past perfect tenses incorrectly. Past Past Past Perfect Present Present Present Perfect Future Future Future Perfect She She Gwen will She has Gwen have had will plays played in guitar in the last violin a inconcert band ten year before a concerts jazz as tomorrow. well. three then. band. by years. April.

2 Past and past perfect The past tense expresses an action or a state of being that is over and done with. It could have happened at a single moment or lasted for years. In either case, the event is now history. The two friends shared the large swing. Elliot lived in Chicago for ten years. He no longer lives in Chicago.

3 Present and present perfect The present perfect tense refers to an event that began at some point in the past and continues to the present. is usually formed using the helping verb have or has plus the past participle (-ed form). Elliot has lived in Chicago for ten years. He still lives in Chicago. They have played in a band since they were in high school.

4 A helping verb (also called an auxiliary verb) is used with a main verb to create a verb phrase. Helping verb Main verb I was reading a novel book by Sandra Cisneros. Verb phrase *Perfect tense verbs use the helping verbs have, has, or had. Some commonly used helping verbs include is, are, has, had, did, does, can, could, should, and will.

5 Past and past perfect The past perfect tense refers to a particular event in the past that was completed before some more recent event took place. is usually formed using had plus the past participle Elliot had lived in Chicago for ten years before we met. He lived in Chicago ten years before he met the writer, and he may or may not live there still. She asked her dad about the time that he had been a lifeguard at the beach.

6 Choosing Between Present Perfect and Past Perfect Use present perfect tense to indicate that an past action continued over time until the present moment. Incorrect: We regretted our choice ever since we bought that car. Why? Past tense = regretted = We no longer regret the choice. Present perfect tense= have regretted = We still regret this choice. Correction: We have regretted our choice ever since we bought that car.

7 Choosing Between Present Perfect and Past Perfect Use past perfect tense to show that one event in the past was completed before a more recent past event took place. Incorrect: When we bought our house last year, it was empty for ten years. Why? Past tense = was = The house was empty (but when). Past perfect tense= had been= The house was empty before we bought it. Correction: When we bought our house last year, it had been empty for ten years.

8 On Your Own Change the tense of the verb in each sentence, as indicated in parentheses. 1. I do not miss the bus. (Change to future.) 2. Were they at the party? (Change to past perfect.) 3. By then, Keith had returned. (Change to future perfect.) 4. The team will practice for an hour with no break. (Change to present perfect.) 5. My sister dances well. (Change to past.) [End of Section]

9 Answers Change the tense of the verb in each sentence, as indicated in parentheses. 1. I do will not not miss miss the the bus. bus. (Change to future.) 2. Were Had they been at the at party? the party? (Change to past perfect.) 3. By then, Keith had will returned. have returned. (Change to future perfect.) 4. The team will has practiced for for an hour an hour with with no break. no break. (Change to future perfect progressive.) 5. My sister dances danced well. (Change to past.)

10 The End

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