# What does the mean mean?

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2 Constructivist approaches to teaching statistics have exhibited promise in this regard. For example, active learning exercises (Bartsch 2006; Dolinksy 2001; Helman and Horswill 2003), relating course content to students background knowledge (Dillbeck 1983), and encouraging students to focus on concepts rather than computation (Hastings 1982) can improve attitudes and performance in introductory statistics courses. According to constructivist pedagogy, the role of educators is to provide opportunities for students to build upon their own understanding of a particular concept (von Glasersfeld 1989). The opportunities that educators can present to students are directly related to the variety of ways in which students might conceptualize a particular topic. As a result, a task of educators is to: construct a hypothetical model of the particular conceptual worlds of the students they are facing. One can hope to induce changes in their ways of thinking only if one has some inkling as to the domains of experience, the concepts, and the conceptual relations the student possess at the moment. (von Glasersfeld 1996, p.7) Thus, according to constructivist pedagogy, statistics educators should develop hypotheses about their students current level of understanding and anticipate areas of the subject material that might be difficult to comprehend. The arithmetic mean is a fundamental statistical concept and is considered to be a core topic in introductory statistics courses (Landrum 2005). However, an intuitive understanding of the mean often escapes students (e.g. Russell and Mokros 1996; Watson 2006). For example, students are capable of defining the mean algorithmically, but they are unable to provide any conceptual insight (i.e. it is the value that minimizes the sum of squared deviations; the value of the mean might not be a member of the data set) (Matthews and Clarke 2007). Like other fundamental statistical concepts (e.g. the general linear model, see Chartier and Faulkner 2008), the mean can be conceptualized in a variety of ways. Consequently, it would be beneficial for students if statistics educators: (a) have at their disposal a variety of possible conceptualizations of the mean; and (b) develop hypotheses regarding how a student might conceptualize the mean. This would aid educators in developing an eclectic range of opportunities to present to students so that students can construct their own understanding of the mean rather than parrot the formula. The purpose of this article is to outline five conceptualizations of the mean and discuss how each conceptualization can be presented in the classroom. As a preliminary, it should be noted that the conceptualizations are presented in order of mathematical profundity. This ordering scheme follows what we consider to be an appropriate progression of insight into the mean for a social science student. Initially, the mean is conceptualized somewhat informally, relying less on a mathematical description and more on a figurative description. As the student progresses to more advanced courses in statistics, the mean is conceptualized in more formal, mathematical terms. For each conceptualization, we discuss the appropriate audience (e.g. introductory course, upper-year, or graduate level) and the recommended mathematics knowledge that would facilitate understanding. 2

3 2. The Socialist Conceptualization The socialist conceptualization is intended for students in an introductory statistics course in the social sciences. It requires an understanding of the basic arithmetic operators, with which social science students are generally comfortable. This conceptualization also makes use of anthropomorphism; human qualities are assigned to the mean in order to foster meaning. The mean can be described as a socialist measure of central tendency, that is - the mean is the value that each participant receives if the sum is divided equally among all members of the group (Gravetter and Wallnau 2002). Students are well aware that the formula for the mean involves summing the scores in the distribution and dividing the sum by the number of scores in the distribution: x However, they often wonder why summing the scores and dividing the sum by n produces a meaningful measure of central tendency. The socialist conceptualization provides an answer: dividing the sum by n is equivalent to determining how the sum can be equally proportioned to all of the scores in the distribution. From this point of view, the mean is an intuitively appealing measure of central tendency because it is the single value that is common to all scores. The etymology of mean and sum illustrates this point well. Sum originates from the Latin noun summa, which refers to the whole or the total of the parts (Partridge 1977). Thus, the sum of a distribution represents its whole. Dividing the sum by n is equivalent to partitioning the whole of the distribution equally to all of the scores. It is not surprising, then, to find that the etymology of mean contains a shared by all connotation (Onions 1966). 3. The Fulcrum Conceptualization n i 1 x i n. (1) The second conceptualization of the mean makes use of an engineering analogy and is also geared towards an introductory level statistics course. The mean can be described as the fulcrum that is unique to each distribution (Weinberg and Schumaker 1962). As Figure 1 illustrates, if the scores in a distribution are represented on a number line, then the value of the mean is the location on the number line where the sum of negative deviations from that location is equal to the sum of positive deviations from that location. Thus, the mean is equivalent to the balancing point of deviations in a distribution. 3

4 Figure 1. The mean conceptualized as a fulcrum. The distribution {1,1,1,3,3,6,7,10} is represented on a number line. Each grey box represents the existence of a score in the distribution. The number inside each box represents the deviation from the mean. The sum of negative deviations from the mean is equal to the sum of positive deviations from the mean. Thus, the mean acts as a balancing point in the distribution. Presenting the mean as a fulcrum allows students to visualize the location of the mean relative to all of the scores in the distribution. Consequently, several interesting properties of the mean can be discovered that might otherwise go unnoticed. For example, the fact that the sum of deviations from the mean will always be equal to zero is explicitly presented in the fulcrum conceptualization. Additionally, students may notice that the value of the mean is restricted to the range of scores in the distribution. Hence, they could realize that it is impossible for the value of the mean to be greater than the maximum score or less than the minimum score. Finally, students could discover that the location of the mean is not necessarily the middle of the distribution, which would be useful for helping to distinguish between the mean and the median. 4. Presenting the Socialist and Fulcrum Conceptualizations in the Classroom Taken together, the socialist and fulcrum conceptualizations capture several aspects of the meaning of the mean. The socialist conceptualization explicitly addresses the rationale behind the formula, whereas the fulcrum conceptualization addresses some of the consequences of using the mean as a representative value of the distribution (i.e. the sum of deviations from mean are equal to zero). Furthermore, the socialist and fulcrum conceptualizations require minimal recourse to mathematics, and as a result, are likely to appeal to students in introductory statistics courses that suffer from mathematics anxiety. Appendix A describes a sample activity that could be used to introduce the socialist and fulcrum conceptualizations in the classroom. Classroom discussions are well suited for fostering insight into statistical concepts (Garfield and Everson 2009). Consequently, the activity is in the form of a class discussion that centers on a grade comparison problem. Throughout the discussion students are encouraged to offer tentative solutions to the problem. The educator is responsible 4

5 for precluding certain solutions and encouraging others. Ultimately, the aim of the discussion is to guide students to arrive at the socialist and fulcrum conceptualizations on their own. Suggestions for doing so are in Appendix A. 5. The Algebraic form of the Least Squares Conceptualization The least squares criterion can be used to present the mean as a measure of central tendency. The algebraic and geometric forms of the least squares criterion are appropriate for students in upperyear statistics courses who have experience with mean deviations or with the fulcrum conceptualization. The algebraic form is particularly useful for providing a formal criterion as to why the mean is used as a measure of central tendency. If educators decide to present the proof of the least squares criterion, they should be aware that students are expected to know how to expand and differentiate a single variable quadratic polynomial and how to analyze a quadratic function in Cartesian space. Formally, the goal of least squares is to find the value of c that minimizes the quadratic function SS(c): SS (c) (x i c) 2. (2) Legendre, who was the first to present the criterion (Stigler 1986), noted that it could be used to determine a measure of central tendency: We see, therefore, that the method of least squares reveals, in a manner of speaking, the center around which the results of observations arrange themselves, so that the deviations from that center are as small as possible. (Legendre 1805, p.75, as cited in Stigler 1986, p.14) A suitable measure of central tendency should produce a value that is representative of the distribution. Legendre s insight suggests that representative can be formally defined as the value that minimizes the sum of squared deviations. Not surprisingly, the mean is the value that satisfies the least squares criterion. Returning to Equation 2, the proof that the mean is the value of c that minimizes SS(c) can be presented to students using a combination of algebra, calculus, and geometry. If SS(c) is expanded and rearranged, then SS(c) is equal to nc 2 n i 1 n i 1 2 c X i X i. (3) Note that Equation 3 has the general form of the quadratic formula, SS ( c) Ax 2 Bx C, where A n, B 2 X, C X, x c. (4) n i 1 2 n i 1 i n 2 i 1 i 5

6 As Figure 2 illustrates, a quadratic function takes the form of a parabola when graphed in Cartesian space. A parabola will open upward if the A coefficient of the quadratic function is positive. The vertex of a parabola that opens upward is located where the quadratic function reaches its minimum value. In the case of SS(c), the location of the vertex is the value that minimizes the sum of squared deviations. If the quadratic function is expressed in the general form, as demonstrated in Equation 4, then the coordinate of the vertex can be found by calculating the derivative of the function at equilibrium (i.e. where the slope of the parabola equals zero) and solving for x: d(ss (c)) dx x B 2A 2Ax B 0. (5) Figure 2. A graph of the quadratic function y = Ax 2 +Bx+C. The function is expressed in the general form of the quadratic formula. The A coefficient of the function is positive, which results in a parabola that opens upward. The vertex of the parabola is located where the derivative of the function is at equilibrium. Substituting the values of A, B, and x from Equation 4 into Equation 5, the value of c that minimizes the function SS(c) is then ( 2 n i 1 2n X i ) x. (6) 6

7 Simplifying Equation 6 reveals that the mean (Equation 1) minimizes the sum of squared deviations. Thus, the mean is the unique value in a distribution that satisfies the least squares criterion. There are advantages and disadvantages of presenting the least squares criterion. On the one hand, it introduces the method of least squares, which is useful for understanding other fundamental statistical concepts (e.g. variance, correlation, regression, normalization). On the other hand, it may deter students from attempting to understand the mean beyond the formula because the proof relies on recourse into geometry and calculus. While most university students in social science programs will have completed algebra and calculus courses at a secondary level, some could be discouraged by the mathematics and revert to memorizing the formula rather than learning the rationale behind the formula, which would be counter-productive to understanding. Thus, if educators decide to present the proof, they should do so alongside a review of the necessary mathematics. 6. The Geometric form of the Least Squares Conceptualization Alternatively, the least squares criterion can be presented geometrically. From this point of view, the mean is equivalent to the coordinates of a new origin in n-dimensional space that minimizes the length of the hypotenuse formed from combining vectors of independent observations. The benefit of presenting the geometry of the least squares criterion is that it provides visual representations of the mean and the method of least squares. The geometric form also illustrates how the Pythagorean Theorem, which is often referenced in popular culture (e.g. The Wizard of Oz, The Simpsons), can be used in the context of statistics. The rationale for this conceptualization is illustrated in Figure 3 with a distribution that contains two observations. As shown in Figure 3, a distribution with two independent observations can be represented in 2D space as orthogonal vectors originating from the standard origin. The two vectors can be joined to create a right triangle. The Pythagorean Theorem can be used to determine the length of the hypotenuse of the right triangle: x 2 x 1 2 y 2 y 1 2. (7) 7

8 Figure 3. A geometric representation of the least squares criterion. A distribution of two independent observations {8,16} can be represented as orthogonal vectors. Joining the two vectors produces a right triangle. The length of the hypotenuse of the triangle is the square root of the sum of squared deviations of the observations from the origin. The top graph demonstrates the length of the hypotenuse (dashed line) when the origin is set at (0,0). The bottom graph demonstrates the length of the hypotenuse (dashed line) when the origin is set at the value of the mean (12,12). If the mean is used as the origin, the length of the hypotenuse (i.e. sum of squared deviations) is at a minimum. 8

10 The exercise (see Appendix B) depicts, for a distribution of two data, how the sum of squared deviations varies as a function of the value of the mean, and similarly, how the length of a hypotenuse varies as a function of the value of the origin. When the appropriate value of the mean is selected, or when the value of the mean is used as the origin, students can discover that the sum of squared deviations or the length of the hypotenuse is at a minimum, respectively. We recommend that students complete the exercise only after the least squares conceptualizations have been discussed in the classroom. A worksheet for the exercise can be found in Appendix B. 8. The Vector Conceptualization Analytic geometry can be used to illustrate how fundamental concepts such as central tendency, variability, degrees of freedom, correlation, and regression are based on a small number of underlying principles that arise naturally from manipulating vectors in Euclidian n-dimensional space. Although some educators consider geometric representations to be more insightful for novices compared with algebraic representations (Margolis 1979; Bryant 1984; Saville and Wood 1986; Bring 1996), based on our experiences, we feel that the analytic geometry approach is not suitable for the majority of social science students at the undergraduate level because they become overwhelmed with the mathematics. Thus, the final conceptualization is intended for advanced undergraduate or graduate level students who are interested in learning how analytic geometry can be used to express statistical concepts. Within the context of analytic geometry, the mean can be conceptualized as a projection of an n- dimensional observation vector onto a one-dimensional subspace that contains vectors with a constant at each component (Wickens 1995). The vector in the subspace that has the shortest distance to the observation vector will have the value of the mean at each component. In the geometric approach, a distribution of scores is represented in participant space rather than in variable space. In participant space, each axis represents a participant rather than a variable. Variables are represented as vectors. The components or coordinates of a vector are analogous to the scores on a variable. For example, the distribution {2,3,6,4,4} is represented in participant space as a 5-dimensional vector with 5 components, each component representing a participant s score on a variable. In contrast, the distribution in variable space would be represented as 5 points on a single dimension (i.e. 5 points on a line). The vector that represents scores in a distribution is called an observation vector and is denoted by x. The number of scores dictates the dimensionality of x. If x contains n components, then x lies in n-dimensional participant space. Similarly, if every participant has the same score of 1, the vector will be specially denoted by 1. An ideal measure of central tendency should produce the same value for every participant in the distribution and it should produce a value that is closest to all of the scores in the distribution. With this in mind, discovering a measure of central tendency using analytic geometry amounts to finding a value (i.e. x ) that when multiplied by 1 produces the shortest distance between x and x 1. The distance between x and x 1 is represented by e: e x x1. (8) 10

11 As Figure 4 illustrates, the shortest distance between x and x 1 occurs when e and 1 are perpendicular, that is when e is at a right angle from 1 and forms a right triangle with x. Figure 4. An n-dimensional observation vector, x, is projected onto a one-dimensional subspace. The vector in the subspace that is closest to x is x 1, which is a scalar multiple of the identity vector 1. The difference between x and the orthogonally of e and x 1, that is - by evaluating the dot product of e and x 1, and solving for x. x 1 is represented by e. The value of the scalar can be determined by exploiting Because e and 1 are perpendicular, their dot product is equal to zero, as described by the following equation: e T 1 0. (9) Note that T represents the transpose operator. The value of x that minimizes the distance between x and x 1 can be determined by substituting Equation 8 into Equation 9 and solving for x, which results in the formula for the mean: (x x 1) T 1 0 (x T 1 x 1 T 1) 0 n i 1 x i x n 0 n x i i 1 x n. (10) We envision this conceptualization to be used in a graduate level course that explores the use of analytic geometry in statistics. By presenting the mean as the coordinates of a vector in a subspace, students are provided with a concrete example of how vector decomposition and projection can be used to express statistical concepts. Thus, the vector conceptualization of the mean can be used as a primer for presenting higher-level statistical analysis within the context of 11

12 analytic geometry. Indeed, students can apply the same rationale for the proof of the vector conceptualization of the mean to derive the formulae for regression coefficients. 9. Conclusion Obviously, certain conceptualizations will be more appealing to a student in an introductory course than others. The socialist conceptualization provides an intuitive explanation for the formula, and the fulcrum conceptualization explicitly reveals several mathematical properties of the mean. Moreover, both conceptualizations provide a foundation for learning the higher-level conceptualizations, and at the same time do not require an extensive recourse into mathematics. For these reasons, the socialist and fulcrum conceptualizations are likely to be the most accessible to a novice. The algebraic and geometric forms of the least squares criterion are suitable for students in upper-year courses who would like a formal proof as to why the mean is used as a measure of central tendency or who would like to know how the Pythagorean Theorem can be applied in a statistical context. Furthermore, these conceptualizations can be used as a primer when teaching the method of least squares. Finally, presenting the mean in the context of analytic geometry would be useful for introducing analytic geometry to advanced undergraduate or graduate level students, especially in multivariate statistics courses where linear algebra is ubiquitous. Links between conceptualizations can be highlighted in the classroom. For example, the socialist conceptualization presents the idea of distributing a sum of scores equally to all members of a group. The fulcrum conceptualization extends this idea by seeking to determine a point in the distribution that allows for the sum of deviations from that point to be equally distributed or balanced among all members of a group. The utility of calculating deviations from a point in a distribution in order to determine a method of central tendency can be used to bridge the gap between the fulcrum and least squares conceptualizations. Finally, the proof of the vector conceptualizations captures aspects of the socialist and fulcrum conceptualizations. In the former case, the vector conceptualization seeks to determine an equivalency between a vector that represents scores from participants (i.e. x) and a vector that represents a score that is common to all the participants (i.e. x 1). In the latter case, if e is squared and differentiated with respect to x, it would result in the same solution described in Equation 5. In summary, the mean can be characterized as a socialist, a fulcrum, a solution to the least squares criterion, a set of ideal coordinates of the origin in n-dimensional space, and the coordinates of a vector in a one-dimensional subspace of an n-dimensional participant space. Statistics educators can use these conceptualizations of the mean to foster a deeper level of understanding in the classroom and encourage students to internalize the semantics of the mean in addition to the formula. 12

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