# Overview. Orientation of the Night Sky

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Overview You will be measuring the position of the Moon over the course of the semester as a means to measure its orbital period around the Earth. By recording the date, time, and phase of the Moon of each observation you will be able to predict the Moon phase on the last day of class (or on any other day). This is accomplished by determining the angle between the Moon and the Sun. This angle is called the Moon s elongation angle. By observing how the elongation angle and the Moon phase changes over the semester you will gain an understanding of the relationship between these quantitates. Orientation of the Night Sky Visualize the sky in terms of the celestial sphere; remember, we're inside it. Imagine that you're facing south, looking up at the sky. Each day or night, celestial objects rise in the east (to your left), cross the sky along the curved paths shown in the figure below, and set in the west (to your right). Of course this behavior is really caused by Earth's eastward rotation. Figure 1: The sketch in the above figure represents a huge curved view. The top edge is almost at the zenith (straight overhead) and the eastern and western horizons are directly to your east and west, respectively. Stars and other celestial objects follow the curved paths parallel to the celestial equator as they move across the sky each night or day. ASTRONOMICAL MERIDIAN This is an invisible line extending North-South across the sky, from the south point on the horizon and passing straight overhead. Stars cross the meridian from left to right if you're facing south. A star is highest in the sky at the time when it is on the meridian. Another way of thinking of meridian is this: It is the projection of the longitude line which passes through your zenith nd is projected out into space. CELESTIAL EQUATOR The celestial equator is the projection of the Earth's equator out into space. This is similar to the concept of astronomical meridian (see above). Our view of the celestial equator's location in the sky is also shown in Figure 1. It extends from directly east on the horizon to directly west on the opposite horizon. As seen from Laramie, the celestial equator is tilted upward at an angle of 49 (90-41 ) from the southern horizon.

2 MOON'S HOUR ANGLE and SUN'S HOUR ANGLE In this project we'll try to estimate the Moon's orbital rate more accurately, in more or less the same way that ancient astronomers did. We will need to relate the daily motion of the Moon across our sky to its elongation. To do this we will measure the angle on the sky between the Moon and meridian (remember we are imaging the arc across the sky from the imaginary Northto-South line, or Meridian). The Moon's rotation angle from the meridian is called Hour Angle or H.A., see Figure 2. HA Figure 2: If you stand and wait a while, you will notice the Moon appears to move across the sky to the West. Thus, the H.A. of a star, planet, the Sun, or the Moon continuously increases by about 15 degrees per hour (360 in 24 hours due to Earth s rotation) as it moves westward across the sky. We define hour angle to be negative (backwards in time) on the left side of the meridian, i.e., in the eastern half of the sky and positive (forwards in time) on the right side of the meridian, i.e., in the western half of the sky where celestial objects set. It is this parameter, the H.A. of the Moon you will be measuring. To figure out the Sun's Hour Angle, note the following: The Sun crosses the meridian ( H.A. = 0 ) at a time called "astronomical noon" or "local apparent noon". This is somewhat different than normal Civil Noon, but we will be using Civil Noon instead of astronomical noon because that is what our clocks show us. The Sun's hour angle increases by 15 degrees per hour. A simple formula that agrees with both of these facts is: Sun's H.A = ( MST in hours - 12 (noon) ) * 15 /hour Note that the Sun's H.A. is negative (East) before noon and a positive value (West) after noon. Example: What is the Sun's hour angle at 9:30 a.m. (daylight savings time; MDT)? 9:30 MDT is 8:30 MST 8:30 MST or 8.5 hours. Therefore the Sun's H.A. at the specified time is ( 8.5 h - 12 h ) 15 = = -53

3 The negative sign indicates that the Sun is east of the meridian. In other words, if you were looking directly South at 8:30 AM on July 4, the Sun would be 53 East (to your left) of the meridian along the ecliptic. BEWARE of daylight savings time! By moving the clocks forward (adding an hour), the Sun is no longer on the Meridian at noon! It is on the Meridian at 1 p.m. To get an accurate angle between the Moon and the Sun, we have to subtract 1 hour from your recorded time: MST = MDT 1 hour ELONGATION Standing on the Earth, you could measure the H.A. of both the Moon and the Sun. The difference between these two angles must be the Elongation angle of the Moon. This can be seen more clearly in Figure 3. Figure 3: In Figure 3 we have chosen the time of day to be just after Sunset so that the Sun's hour angle is about +95 degrees and we placed the Moon at +30 degrees. Note that the Moon's elongation, the angle between the Sun and the Moon, is the difference between these two hour angles. If you get a negative number, just add 360 degrees. Moon's Elongation = H.A. of the Sun - H.A. of the Moon This formula can be used to find the Moon's elongation (angular distance from the Sun), even at night when we cannot see the Sun. This is possible because we know where the Sun is because we know the time of day. At midnight, for example, the Sun is on the other side of the Earth (H.A is about 180 ), out of view. At sunset the Sun is on the Western Horizon (H.A. is about 90 ). We can easily calculate its hour angle at any given time!

4 Another way of interpreting elongation is this: The Moon's elongation is the Moon's orbital position around the Earth from a bird's eye (top-down) view fixing the Sun to a single spot; to the right in this case: Making Angular Measurements on the Sky An important part of this project is identifying your location and making sure face DUE SOUTH. Two ways to do this is to use a map and find a street that is aligned North-South or use a compass. Most streets in Laramie marked N-S are actually a few degrees off of actual N-S, so using a compass is the most accurate. Apparent distances on a star map or in our view of the sky are arcs on the celestial sphere. These represent angles subtended at Earth just as if you measured the angle between two lines on a piece of paper with a protractor. However, angles on the sky are a little harder to measure.

5 One method to measure angles on the sky is to hold an object length L at a distance D from your eye: D L, then the angle of object of length L is given by: Angle (degrees) = ( degrees radian ) L D Where the parenthesis indicate units, the 57.3 factor is a conversion between radians (a standard unit of an angle) and L/D is the ratio of length of an object to the distance it is away. This formula is accurate if D is at least twice as large as L. A convenient angle measuring device like this is your hand. Holding your clenched fist at arm s length and using the equation above, provides the means to measure angles on the night sky. For most people, the angular distance of your fist is 10 degrees and the angular distance of your pinky finger is 1 degree as shown by:

6 This a general rule for most people, but may not be accurate for all people. Every person can calibrate their hand using the following steps: 1. Stand at a place where two distant directions 90 degrees apart are easy to identify; perhaps at the intersection of two long, straight sidewalks or walls that are perpendicular to each other. 2. Hold out your fist at an arms distance and carefully rotate your body, keeping your arm stiff, to exactly how many fist-widths fit into the 90 degree angle. a. Example: Say it takes 8 of my fists to cover the 90 degree angle. Then we have: 90/8 = 11 (degrees/fist) 3. Repeat the measurement to see how reliable it is. Moon Phase Measurement The phase of the Moon is decribed by the portion of the Moon which is illuminated. You will observe he phase and relae it to a numbering scheme referred to as the phase number. Record the appearance of the moon on a scale of 0 to 8, referring to the figure below. Intermediate values are necessary for accuracy. For instance, a moon phase of 1.5 would describe a crescent that s fatter than number 1 in the diagram. 0 or

7 MOON PHASE Making Graphs The end goal of this project is to see for yourselves if the Moon phase is a consequence of the Moon s elongation angle (aka the illumination of the Moon given the relative Earth-Moon-Sun geometry). A relationship between the Moon s elongation and the Moon s phase can be verified if the data form a straight line (not all relationships require a linear description; a straight line). You will plot each of your observation s elongation angle and Moon phase to verify this relationship. You will also plot day number and elongation angle to predict the moon phase on the last day of class. Elongation vs. Moon Phase Example: the figure below is a plot of elongation angle and Moon phase. This figure has 2 observations plotted onto it: 1. Elongation angle=45 & Moon phase=1 2. Elongation angle=270 & Moon phase= , , ELONGATION ANGLE Elongation Angle vs. Day Number In a similar method to Moon phase vs. elongation angle, you will plot the day of the year vs. the Moon elongation angle. You will discover that there is also a linear relationship between day number and elongation angle for each orbital period (each month). For this graph you will plot the day of the year (between 0 and 365 days). During the first month of observations the elongation angle will have linear relationship with the day number. However, after the moon

8 starts a new orbit (lunar cycle), this relationship will start over and you will need to add 360 degrees to your elongation angles. This is shown in the example day number vs. elongation angle figure below. Day Number vs. Elongation Angle Day Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

9 MOON'S ELONGATION ANGLE Day Number vs. Elongation Angle Month Month DAY NUMBER

11 Phase Number column: - I highly encourage you to use decimal phase numbers for the 'in-between' phases. By doing this, you will end up with better results on the graphs you will do for your final project. Hands/Fists column: the moon is not quite full = phase 3.8 the moon has just passed 3rd quarter = phase Don't know how to take an observation? Either check back to Observing project Lab. - Write down how many fists East (left) or West (right) of South you measured the Moon's position. - Make VERY sure that you record the direction you went - either to the right or the left of south (left [East] = negative) Moon's H.A. column: - The Moon's HA column should have the number of degrees the moon is away from south. To convert: Day Number column: my hand spans 15 degrees, my fist 10 degrees observation 1: moon 4.0 hands right (West) of south --> 4.0 hands * 15 degrees per hand = 4 * 15 = 60 degrees observation 2: moon 2.3 hands left (East) of south --> -2.3 hands * 15 degrees per hand = -2.3 * 15 = degrees - This is the number of days from the beginning of the year (i.e. January 1st). For example, Jan 1 = Day 1, Jan 2 = Day 2, Jan 31 = Day 31, Feb 1 = Day 32, etc... Sun's H.A. column: - Sun's Hour Angle is where the sun is in relation to 0 degrees South (just like the moon). Therefore, if the Sun's H.A. is 0, the time is 12 noon - The equation goes as this: [(MST) ] * 15 = SUN'S H.A. You have CST from your observations. It MUST be in the 24 hour clock AND THE MINUTES MUST BE IN DECIMALS (see the third point in the 'MST column' section). If the minutes are not in decimals, your future calculations WILL BE WRONG (and points deducted). ex: observed at 9:30 pm (MDT) so,

12 MST = 20.5, and = 8.5, so Sun's HA = 8.5 * 15 = 128 ex: observed 6:30 am (MDT) so, MST = 5.5 and = -6.5, so Sun's HA = -6.5 * 15 = -98 ex: observed 12:59 am (MST) so, MST = 0.98 and = , so Sun's HA = * 15 = -165 example of WRONG: obs at 12:59 am (MST) ~~ so then I (wrongly) say MST = 0.59, so = , so Sun's HA = * 15 = WRONG Elongation column: - The equation goes as this: (Sun's H.A.) - (Moon's H.A.) = ELONGATION - You have the Sun's H.A. from above and the Moon's H.A. is what you calculated from your hands/fists. REMEMBER, if Moon's H.A. is negative, keep it that way and when you subtract a negative number, it turns positive. ex: Sun's H.A. = 128, Moon's H.A. = -13 ~~ Elongation = (-13) = = 141 ex: Sun = -5, Moon = -90 ~~ Elongation = -5 - (-90) = = 85 ex: Sun = -128, Moon = -13 ~~ Elongation = (-13) = = This brings up a situation: ELONGATION MUST BE POSITIVE. If you get a negative number for elongation, then add 360 degrees until you get a number between 0 and 360 (sometimes you may come up with a rather large negative number). Do NOT just change the - sign to a + sign. This rule doesn't apply to H.A.'s, only the elongation. ex: Elong = -115, so = 245 degrees

### Worksheet Motion of the Sun and Moon

Worksheet Motion of the Sun and Moon Apparent Motion of the Sun 1. The Earth makes one complete orbit around the Sun in one year. From the point of view of someone on the Earth this makes the Sun appear

### Lesson 1: Phases of the Moon

Lesson 1: Phases of the Moon The moon takes 29.5 days to revolve around the earth. During this time, the moon you see in the sky appears to change shape. These apparent changes, which are called phases,

### Activity 3: Observing the Moon

Activity 3: Observing the Moon Print Name: Signature: 1.) KEY. 2.). 3.). 4.). Activity: Since the dawn of time, our closest neighbor the moon has fascinated humans. In this activity we will explore the

### EDMONDS COMMUNITY COLLEGE ASTRONOMY 100 Winter Quarter 2007 Sample Test # 1

Instructor: L. M. Khandro EDMONDS COMMUNITY COLLEGE ASTRONOMY 100 Winter Quarter 2007 Sample Test # 1 1. An arc second is a measure of a. time interval between oscillations of a standard clock b. time

### Aphelion The point in the orbit of a planet or other celestial body where it is furthest from the Sun.

SKYTRACK Glossary of Terms Angular distance The angular separation between two objects in the sky as perceived by an observer, measured in angles. The angular separation between two celestial objects in

### Lunar Phase Simulator Student Guide

Name: Lunar Phase Simulator Student Guide Part I: Background Material Answer the following questions after reviewing the background pages for the simulator. Page 1 Introduction to Moon Phases Is there

### Time, Day, Month, and the Moon

Time, Day, Month, and the Moon Announcements o First Homework will start on Tue Sept 20st; due on Thu, Sept 29th. o Accessible through SPARK Assigned Reading n Units 7 and 8 Goals for Today n To discuss

### OBJECT: To become familiar with some of the motions of the stars, Sun, Moon and planets as seen from the surface of the Earth.

INSIDE LAB 2: Celestial Motions OBJECT: To become familiar with some of the motions of the stars, Sun, Moon and planets as seen from the surface of the Earth. DISCUSSION: As seen from a point of view centered

### Aileen A. O Donoghue Priest Associate Professor of Physics

SOAR: The Sky in Motion y Life on the Tilted Teacup Ride Phases of the Moon Aileen A. O Donoghue Priest Associate Professor of Physics Kiva December 1997 October 27, 2009 Celestial Coordinates Right Ascension

### CELESTIAL CLOCK - THE SUN, THE MOON, AND THE STARS

INTRODUCTION CELESTIAL CLOCK - THE SUN, THE MOON, AND THE STARS This is a scientific presentation to provide you with knowledge you can use to understand the sky above in relation to the earth. Before

### CELESTIAL MOTIONS. In Charlottesville we see Polaris 38 0 above the Northern horizon. Earth. Starry Vault

CELESTIAL MOTIONS Stars appear to move counterclockwise on the surface of a huge sphere the Starry Vault, in their daily motions about Earth Polaris remains stationary. In Charlottesville we see Polaris

### APS 1010 Astronomy Lab 63 Motions of the Moon MOTIONS OF THE MOON

APS 1010 Astronomy Lab 63 Motions of the Moon MOTIONS OF THE MOON SYNOPSIS: The objective of this lab is to become familiar with the motion of the Moon and its relation to the motions of the Sun and Earth.

### Celestial Observations

Celestial Observations Earth experiences two basic motions: Rotation West-to-East spinning of Earth on its axis (v rot = 1770 km/hr) (v rot Revolution orbit of Earth around the Sun (v orb = 108,000 km/hr)

### Douglas Adams The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy

There is a theory which states that if ever anybody discovers exactly what the Universe is for and why it is here, it will instantly disappear and be replaced by something even more bizarre and inexplicable.

### THE STARRY SKY AST MESA COMMUNITY COLLEGE

NAME: DATE: INTRODUCTION This lab exercise introduces the arrangement and motions of the stars, constellations, and other objects of the night sky. LEARNING GOALS Describe the motions of stars during a

### Exercise 5.0 LUNAR MOTION, ELONGATION, AND PHASES

Exercise 5.0 LUNAR MOTION, ELONGATION, AND PHASES I. Introduction The Moon's revolution in orbit around the center of gravity (barycenter) of the Earth- Moon System results in an apparent motion of the

### ASTRONOMY 161. Introduction to Solar System Astronomy

ASTRONOMY 161 Introduction to Solar System Astronomy Seasons & Calendars Monday, January 8 Season & Calendars: Key Concepts (1) The cause of the seasons is the tilt of the Earth s rotation axis relative

### Astromechanics. 1 solar day = 1.002737909350795 sidereal days

Astromechanics 13. Time Considerations- Local Sidereal Time The time that is used by most people is that called the mean solar time. It is based on the idea that if the Earth revolved around the Sun at

### The Seasons on a Planet like Earth

The Seasons on a Planet like Earth As the Earth travels around the Sun, it moves in a giant circle 300 million kilometers across. (Well, it is actually a giant ellipse but the shape is so close to that

### ASTR 1030 Astronomy Lab 65 Celestial Motions CELESTIAL MOTIONS

ASTR 1030 Astronomy Lab 65 Celestial Motions CELESTIAL MOTIONS SYNOPSIS: The objective of this lab is to become familiar with the apparent motions of the Sun, Moon, and stars in the Boulder sky. EQUIPMENT:

### The Celestial Sphere. Questions for Today. The Celestial Sphere 1/18/10

Lecture 3: Constellations and the Distances to the Stars Astro 2010 Prof. Tom Megeath Questions for Today How do the stars move in the sky? What causes the phases of the moon? What causes the seasons?

### Orientation to the Sky: Apparent Motions

Chapter 2 Orientation to the Sky: Apparent Motions 2.1 Purpose The main goal of this lab is for you to gain an understanding of how the sky changes during the night and over the course of a year. We will

### Phases of the Moon. Preliminaries:

Phases of the Moon Sometimes when we look at the Moon in the sky we see a small crescent. At other times it appears as a full circle. Sometimes it appears in the daylight against a bright blue background.

### Measuring Size from Images: A wrangle with angles and image scale

Measuring Size from Images: A wrangle with angles and image scale Purpose: To learn how to make measurements of angular size on images from MicroObservatory telescopes. While we can't take a measuring

### Coordinate Systems. Orbits and Rotation

Coordinate Systems Orbits and Rotation Earth orbit. The earth s orbit around the sun is nearly circular but not quite. It s actually an ellipse whose average distance from the sun is one AU (150 million

### ASTR 310 Tutorial 2: Phases of the Moon

ASTR 310 Tutorial 2: Every month, the Moon appears to change shape in the sky as it goes through phases from new Moon to full Moon and then back to new. Ancient civilizations used the phases of the Moon

### The Four Seasons. A Warm Up Exercise. A Warm Up Exercise. A Warm Up Exercise. The Moon s Phases

The Four Seasons A Warm Up Exercise What fraction of the Moon s surface is illuminated by the Sun (except during a lunar eclipse)? a) Between zero and one-half b) The whole surface c) Always half d) Depends

### Night Sky III Planetary Motion Lunar Phases

Night Sky III Planetary Motion Lunar Phases Astronomy 1 Elementary Astronomy LA Mission College Spring F2015 Quotes & Cartoon of the Day Everything has a natural explanation. The moon is not a god, but

### APS 1030 Laboratory 1 Motions of the Moon MOTIONS OF THE MOON

APS 1030 Laboratory 1 Motions of the Moon MOTIONS OF THE MOON SYNOPSIS: The objective of this lab is to become familiar with the motion of the Moon and its relation to the motions of the Sun and Earth.

### The changing phases of the Moon originally inspired the concept of the month

The changing phases of the Moon originally inspired the concept of the month Motions of the Moon The Moon is in orbit around the Earth, outside the atmosphere. The Moon `shines via reflected light (12%)

### Produced by Billy Hix and Terry Sue Fanning. As part of the TeachSpace Program. For more ideas and an image of the current phase of the moon, visit:

The Moon Phase Book Produced by Billy Hix and Terry Sue Fanning As part of the TeachSpace Program For more ideas and an image of the current phase of the moon, visit: www.teachspace.us Printing Date: 10/29/2010

### 3 Phases of the Moon. 3.1 Introduction. Name(s): Date:

Name(s): Date: 3 Phases of the Moon 3.1 Introduction Every once in a while, your teacher or TA is confronted by a student with the question Why can I see the Moon today, is something wrong?. Surprisingly,

### Moon Phases and Eclipses

Lecture 11 Moon Phases and Eclipses Full Moon near Saturn The Moon will be full on Sunday, 4/17/11 so on Saturday and Sunday night it will be near Saturn, which reached opposition last week and, like the

### Solar Angles and Latitude

Solar Angles and Latitude Objectives The student will understand that the sun is not directly overhead at noon in most latitudes. The student will research and discover the latitude ir classroom and calculate

### Tropical Horticulture: Lecture 2

Lecture 2 Theory of the Tropics Earth & Solar Geometry, Celestial Mechanics The geometrical relationship between the earth and sun is responsible for the earth s climates. The two principal movements of

### Ch. 2 Discovering the Universe for Yourself. Moon Phases & Eclipse

Test 1 is coming up. Wed Feb 22 (no classes on Feb 13, 15, 20) Start preparing! Go over the slides, LTs, and the multiple choice questions at the end of relevant chapters. 50 questions, multiple choice,

### The Size & Shape of the Galaxy

name The Size & Shape of the Galaxy The whole lab consists of plotting two graphs. What s the catch? Aha visualizing and understanding what you have plotted of course! Form the Earth Science Picture of

### The following questions refer to Chapter 19, (PAGES 259 278 IN YOUR MANUAL, 7 th ed.)

GEOLOGY 306 Laboratory Instructor: TERRY J. BOROUGHS NAME: Locating the Planets (Chapter 19) and the Moon and Sun (Chapter 21) For this assignment you will require: a calculator, colored pencils, a metric

### AST101: Our Corner of the Universe Lab 2: The Sun and Phases of The Moon

AST101: Our Corner of the Universe Lab 2: The Sun and Phases of The Moon Name: NetID (your SU email address, without the @syr.edu): Lab section number: 1 Introduction Objectives The first part of this

### Finding Stars and Constellations Earth & Sky

Finding Stars and Constellations Earth & Sky Name: Introduction If you carefully watched the night sky over a period of time, you would notice that it s not always the same. There are certain changes that

### Motions of Earth, Moon, and Sun

Motions of Earth, Moon, and Sun Apparent Motions of Celestial Objects An apparent motion is a motion that an object appears to make. Apparent motions can be real or illusions. When you see a person spinning

### Celestial Sphere. Celestial Coordinates. Lecture 3: Motions of the Sun and Moon. ecliptic (path of Sun) ecliptic (path of Sun)

Lecture 3: Motions of the and Moon ecliptic (path of ) ecliptic (path of ) The 23.5 degree tilt of Earth s spin axis relative to its orbital axis around the causes the seasons Celestial Sphere Celestial

### Student Guide to the Lunar Phase Explorer Applet

Nebraska Astronomy Applet Project Student Guide to the Lunar Phase Explorer Applet Pre-test in EDU Before working through the student guide, take the EDU pre-test and record your score at right. Background

### Astronomy 1140 Quiz 1 Review

Astronomy 1140 Quiz 1 Review Prof. Pradhan September 15, 2015 What is Science? 1. Explain the difference between astronomy and astrology. (a) Astrology: nonscience using zodiac sign to predict the future/personality

### FIRST GRADE 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

FIRST GRADE 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES UNIVERSE CYCLE OVERVIEW OF FIRST GRADE UNIVERSE WEEK 1. PRE: Describing the Universe. LAB: Comparing and contrasting bodies that reflect light. POST: Exploring

### Activity 10 - Universal Time

Activity 10 - Universal Time Teacher s Guide Scientists use the Universal Time reference to talk about data that is taken around the globe. Universal Time is the time kept in the time zone centered on

### Earth In Space Chapter 3

Earth In Space Chapter 3 Shape of the Earth Ancient Greeks Earth casts a circular shadow on the moon during a lunar eclipse Shape of the Earth Ancient Greeks Ships were observed to disappear below the

### Rising and Setting of the Moon

Rising and Setting of the Moon Activity UCIObs 6 Grade Level: 3 5 Source: Copyright (2009) by Tammy Smecker-Hane. Contact tsmecker@uci.edu with questions. Standards: This activity addresses these California

### Cycles in the Sky. Teacher Guide: Cycles in the Sky Page 1 of 8 2008 Discovery Communications, LLC

Cycles in the Sky What is a Fun damental? Each Fun damental is designed to introduce your younger students to some of the basic ideas about one particular area of science. The activities in the Fun damental

### The Lunar Phase Wheel

The Lunar Phase Wheel A lunar phase wheel is a simple device to help you to visualize the positions of the Earth, Moon, and Sun at various times of the day or month, and then predict the phases and the

### Lab Activity on the Causes of the Seasons

Lab Activity on the Causes of the Seasons 2002 Ann Bykerk-Kauffman, Dept. of Geological and Environmental Sciences, California State University, Chico * Objectives When you have completed this lab you

### The Analemma for Latitudinally-Challenged People

The Analemma for Latitudinally-Challenged People Teo Shin Yeow An academic exercise presented in partial fulfillment for the degree of Bachelor of Science with Honours in Mathematics Supervisor : Associate

### The ecliptic - Earth s orbital plane

The ecliptic - Earth s orbital plane The line of nodes descending node The Moon s orbital plane Moon s orbit inclination 5.45º ascending node celestial declination Zero longitude in the ecliptic The orbit

### The Revolution of the Moons of Jupiter Student Manual

The Revolution of the Moons of Jupiter Student Manual A Manual to Accompany Software for the Introductory Astronomy Lab Exercise Document SM 1: Circ.Version 1.1.1 Department of Physics Gettysburg College

### Motions of the Earth. Stuff everyone should know

Motions of the Earth Stuff everyone should know Earth Motions E W N W Noon E Why is there day and night? OR Why do the Sun and stars appear to move through the sky? Because the Earth rotates around its

### Activities: The Moon is lit and unlit too

Activities: The Moon is lit and unlit too Key objectives: This activity aims to help student to: Identify the different phases of the Moon Know that the Moon does not produce its own light, but reflects

### Basic Coordinates & Seasons Student Guide

Name: Basic Coordinates & Seasons Student Guide There are three main sections to this module: terrestrial coordinates, celestial equatorial coordinates, and understanding how the ecliptic is related to

### Renewable Energy. Solar Power. Courseware Sample 86352-F0

Renewable Energy Solar Power Courseware Sample 86352-F0 A RENEWABLE ENERGY SOLAR POWER Courseware Sample by the staff of Lab-Volt Ltd. Copyright 2009 Lab-Volt Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this

### Shadows, Angles, and the Seasons

Shadows, Angles, and the Seasons If it's cold in winter, why is Earth closer to the Sun? This activity shows the relationship between Earth-Sun positions and the seasons. From The WSU Fairmount Center

### Exam # 1 Thu 10/06/2010 Astronomy 100/190Y Exploring the Universe Fall 11 Instructor: Daniela Calzetti

Exam # 1 Thu 10/06/2010 Astronomy 100/190Y Exploring the Universe Fall 11 Instructor: Daniela Calzetti INSTRUCTIONS: Please, use the `bubble sheet and a pencil # 2 to answer the exam questions, by marking

### Stellar, solar, and lunar demonstrators

Stellar, solar, and lunar demonstrators Rosa M. Ros, Francis Berthomieu International Astronomical Union, Technical University of Catalonia (Barcelona, España), CLEA (Nice, France) Summary This worksheet

### Stellarium a valuable resource for teaching astronomy in the classroom and beyond

Stellarium 1 Stellarium a valuable resource for teaching astronomy in the classroom and beyond Stephen Hughes Department of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Gardens

### 5- Minute Refresher: Daily Observable Patterns in the Sky

5- Minute Refresher: Daily Observable Patterns in the Sky Key Ideas Daily Observable Patterns in the Sky include the occurrence of day and night, the appearance of the moon, the location of shadows and

### COASTLINING THE ZODIAC

COASTLINING THE ZODIAC Astronomy books and skywatching guides offer a wide variety of charts for naked-eye observation of the skies. What works best for each person will depend on various factors such

### 1-2. What is the name given to the path of the Sun as seen from Earth? a.) Equinox b.) Celestial equator c.) Solstice d.

Chapter 1 1-1. How long does it take the Earth to orbit the Sun? a.) one sidereal day b.) one month c.) one year X d.) one hour 1-2. What is the name given to the path of the Sun as seen from Earth? a.)

### Determining Polar Axis Alignment Accuracy

Determining Polar Axis Alignment Accuracy by Frank Barrett 7/6/008 Abstract: In order to photograph dim celestial objects, long exposures on the order of minutes or hours are required. To perform this

### Motions of Earth LEARNING GOALS

2 Patterns in the Sky Motions of Earth The stars first found a special place in legend and mythology as the realm of gods and goddesses, holding sway over the lives of humankind. From these legends and

### Modeling Moon Phases. Activity A3. What s This Activity About? What Will Students Do? Tips and Suggestions. What Will Students Learn?

The Moon and Its s A3 Modeling Moon s Activity A3 Grade Level: 4 12 Source: Reprinted with permission from Astro Adventures, by Dennis Schatz, Paul Allan, and Doug Cooper. Copyright 2003 by The Pacific

### Sunlight. and space travel

Sunlight and space travel Distances If you drive on a motorway at 70 miles per hour in one hour you may get to Stafford. Steady speed! If you keep on driving after 3 hours you would reach London. Steady

### Newton s Law of Gravity

Gravitational Potential Energy On Earth, depends on: object s mass (m) strength of gravity (g) distance object could potentially fall Gravitational Potential Energy In space, an object or gas cloud has

### Measuring Your Latitude from the Angle of the Sun at Noon

Measuring Your Latitude from the Angle of the Sun at Noon Background: You can measure your latitude in earth's northern hemisphere by finding out the altitude of the celestial equator from the southern

### Today FIRST HOMEWORK DUE NEXT TIME. Seasons/Precession Recap. Phases of the Moon. Eclipses. Lunar, Solar. Ancient Astronomy

Today FIRST HOMEWORK DUE NEXT TIME Seasons/Precession Recap Phases of the Moon Eclipses Lunar, Solar Ancient Astronomy How do we mark the progression of the seasons? We define four special points: summer

### Sun Earth Relationships

1 ESCI-61 Introduction to Photovoltaic Technology Sun Earth Relationships Ridha Hamidi, Ph.D. Spring (sun aims directly at equator) Winter (northern hemisphere tilts away from sun) 23.5 2 Solar radiation

### Today. Solstices & Equinoxes Precession Phases of the Moon Eclipses. Ancient Astronomy. Lunar, Solar FIRST HOMEWORK DUE NEXT TIME

Today Solstices & Equinoxes Precession Phases of the Moon Eclipses Lunar, Solar Ancient Astronomy FIRST HOMEWORK DUE NEXT TIME The Reason for Seasons Hypothesis check: How would seasons in the northern

### THE 2014 EQUATORIAL SUNDIAL GEOGRAPHIC SOUTH POLE MARKER

THE 2014 EQUATORIAL SUNDIAL GEOGRAPHIC SOUTH POLE MARKER J. Dana Hrubes Design Steele Diggles Fabrication An equatorial sundial is the simplest sundial to construct and visualize. The sundial surface is

### Where on Earth are the daily solar altitudes higher and lower than Endicott?

Where on Earth are the daily solar altitudes higher and lower than Endicott? In your notebooks, write RELATIONSHIPS between variables we tested CAUSE FIRST EFFECT SECOND EVIDENCE As you increase the time

### Chapter 5 Astronomy 110 Motions of the Sun and the Moon 1

Chapter 5 Positions of the Sun and Moon Objects in our Solar System appear to move over the course of weeks to months because they are so close. This motion caused ancient astronomers to use the name planets,

### Use WITH Investigation 4, Part 2, Step 2

INVESTIGATION 4 : The Sundial Project Use WITH Investigation 4, Part 2, Step 2 EALR 4: Earth and Space Science Big Idea: Earth in Space (ES1) Projects: Tether Ball Pole Sundial Globe and a Light Indoors

### Are Those Sunspots Really on the Sun?

Are Those Sunspots Really on the Sun? Summary of Activity: Students will acquire solar images (or draw sunspots), and record coordinates of sunspots. They will calculate and plot their apparent movement

### Starry Night-Phases of the Moon and Misconceptions Laboratory 6

Objective: Starry Night-Phases of the Moon and Misconceptions Laboratory 6 In this laboratory you will take a close look at the lunar phase cycle. We will also explore some common everyday statements about

### SIERRA COLLEGE OBSERVATIONAL ASTRONOMY LABORATORY EXERCISE NUMBER III.F.a. TITLE: ASTEROID ASTROMETRY: BLINK IDENTIFICATION

SIERRA COLLEGE OBSERVATIONAL ASTRONOMY LABORATORY EXERCISE NUMBER III.F.a. TITLE: ASTEROID ASTROMETRY: BLINK IDENTIFICATION DATE- PRINT NAME/S AND INITIAL BELOW: GROUP DAY- LOCATION OBJECTIVE: Use CCD

### Which month has larger and smaller day time?

ACTIVITY-1 Which month has larger and smaller day time? Problem: Which month has larger and smaller day time? Aim: Finding out which month has larger and smaller duration of day in the Year 2006. Format

### In the shadow of Aristarchus and the lunar eclipse of February 20 th, 2008

1 In the shadow of Aristarchus and the lunar eclipse of February 20 th, 2008 By Martin Beech For all his fame and renown Aristachus of Samos is a rather mysterious figure within the history of astronomy.

### Observing the Constellations of the Zodiac

Observing the Constellations of the Zodiac Activity UCIObs 3 Grade Level: 8 12 Source: Copyright (2009) by Tammy Smecker Hane. Contact tsmecker@uci.edu with any questions. Standards:This activity addresses

### Calculating Astronomical Unit from Venus Transit

Calculating Astronomical Unit from Venus Transit A) Background 1) Parallaxes of the Sun (the horizontal parallaxes) By definition the parallaxes of the Sun is the angle β shown below: By trigonometry,

### Astrock, t he A stronomical Clock

Astrock, t he A stronomical Clock The astronomical clock is unlike any other clock. At first glance you ll find it has similar functions of a standard clock, however the astronomical clock can offer much

### HOSPIRA (HSP US) HISTORICAL COMMON STOCK PRICE INFORMATION

30-Apr-2004 28.35 29.00 28.20 28.46 28.55 03-May-2004 28.50 28.70 26.80 27.04 27.21 04-May-2004 26.90 26.99 26.00 26.00 26.38 05-May-2004 26.05 26.69 26.00 26.35 26.34 06-May-2004 26.31 26.35 26.05 26.26

### Geometric Optics Physics 118/198/212. Geometric Optics

Background Geometric Optics This experiment deals with image formation with lenses. We will use what are referred to as thin lenses. Thin lenses are ordinary lenses like eyeglasses and magnifiers, but

### Lesson 26: Reflection & Mirror Diagrams

Lesson 26: Reflection & Mirror Diagrams The Law of Reflection There is nothing really mysterious about reflection, but some people try to make it more difficult than it really is. All EMR will reflect

### Do moon phases influence financial markets?

Do moon phases influence financial markets? Our opinion is that they do! Let s find out if we are right We will tell you what moon phase means and what new moon and full moon is. We will find out when

### Earth-Sun Relationships. The Reasons for the Seasons

Earth-Sun Relationships The Reasons for the Seasons Solar Radiation The earth intercepts less than one two-billionth of the energy given off by the sun. However, the radiation is sufficient to provide

### 1. In the diagram below, the direct rays of the Sun are striking the Earth's surface at 23 º N. What is the date shown in the diagram?

1. In the diagram below, the direct rays of the Sun are striking the Earth's surface at 23 º N. What is the date shown in the diagram? 5. During how many days of a calendar year is the Sun directly overhead

### Solar System. 1. The diagram below represents a simple geocentric model. Which object is represented by the letter X?

Solar System 1. The diagram below represents a simple geocentric model. Which object is represented by the letter X? A) Earth B) Sun C) Moon D) Polaris 2. Which object orbits Earth in both the Earth-centered

### Science Benchmark: 06 : 01 Standard 01: THE MYSTICAL MOON axis of rotation,

Science Benchmark: 06 : 01 The appearance of the lighted portion of the moon changes in a predictable cycle as a result of the relative positions of Earth, the moon, and the sun. Standard 01: Students

### WHAT'S UP THIS MONTH MAY 2016

WHAT'S UP THIS MONTH MAY 2016 THESE PAGES ARE INTENDED TO HELP YOU FIND YOUR WAY AROUND THE SKY The chart above shows the night sky as it appears on 15 th May at 21:00 (9 o clock) in the evening British

### Pre and post-visit activities - Navigating by the stars

Pre and post-visit activities - Navigating by the stars Vocabulary List Adult Education at Scienceworks Pre-visit Activity 1: What is longitude and latitude? Activity 2: Using the Southern Cross to find

### An Introduction to Astronomy and Cosmology. 1) Astronomy - an Observational Science

An Introduction to Astronomy and Cosmology 1) Astronomy - an Observational Science Why study Astronomy 1 A fascinating subject in its own right. The origin and Evolution of the universe The Big Bang formation