Performance of Multiple TFRC in Heterogeneous Wireless Networks

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1 Performance of Multiple TFRC in Heterogeneou Wirele Network 1 Hyeon-Jin Jeong, 2 Seong-Sik Choi 1, Firt Author Computer Engineering Department, Incheon National Univerity, *2,Correponding Author Computer Engineering Department, Incheon National Univerity, Abtract In thi paper, we propoe a method that allow wirele mobile node to obtain high throughput in heterogeneou wirele network and low packet loe under handover ituation uing multiple connection. Currently, a mobile node exchange data with a erver with one network connection. The propoed method can ue higher throughput than the conventional method becaue it doe not only ue one network (, G, etc.), but rather uing multiple wirele network. When mobile node move to the area where heterogeneou wirele network can be ued, the mobile node end etup meage to the erver via heterogeneou wirele network and etablih a new connection. Then, the erver can tranmit packet uing multiple connection. Hence, thi method doe not diconnect previou network, which reulting in decreaed packet lo. Uing the n-2 imulation, we can verify that the propoe method enhance throughput and decreae packet lo. Keyword: TFRC, Multiple Connection, Heterogeneou Wirele Network, Simultaneou 1. Introduction Addition to voice ervice, modern portable device provide high quality ervice, online game, large data tranmiion and video. For high quality internet ervice, mobile node need more bandwidth and need to control network reource efficiently. Thu, the iue of efficient network control i under active dicuion to improve network throughput for G, 4G and (Wirele Local Area Network). However, in mobile environment, mobile node move continuouly and network condition change frequently. In thee ituation, if mobile node in wirele network do not adapt to network condition, packet lo increae and quality of ervice (QoS) i reduced. Thi problem i the one of the key factor that prevent uer from receiving high quality ervice [1-2]. Figure 1. Heterogeneou wirele network and handover Handover i the proce of moving a node from one network to other network in cellular or wirele network. There are two type of handover,: horizontal handover and vertical handover. Horizontal handover occur when the node move from the current network to the homogeneou network. Vertical handover occur, when the node move to heterogeneou network. Figure 1 how vertical handover. Vertical handover i divided into two clae, downward vertical handover and upward vertical handover. In downward vertical handover, the node move from low throughput, wide range network International Journal of Advancement in Computing Technology(IJACT) Volume 5, Number 12, Augut

2 to high throughput, hort range network. In downward vertical handover, the node need more time to ue full bandwidth becaue the bandwidth hould abruptly be increaed. Upward vertical handover occur when the node move from high throughput, hort range network to low throughput, wide range network. In upward handover, many packet loe occur becaue the node cannot adapt to the changed network [2-4]. In thi paper, we propoe a method for allowing wirele mobile node to obtain high throughput in heterogeneou wirele network uing multiple connection with low packet lo under the handover ituation. 2. Related Work TFRC (TCP Friendly Rate Control)[7] i a protocol ued in multimedia application and, i deigned for ue with TCP. In TFRC, a ender control throughput uing the feedback information of a receiver [5][6]. But, it i doe not work well in heterogeneou wirele network becaue the bandwidth of heterogeneou wirele network change abruptly. Thu, TFRC doe not adapt to the new bandwidth and degrade ervice quality [2][]. Freeze-TCP[9] i a method to improve throughput in the handover ituation. If a node i aware that handover ha occurred, it end a meage to the erver that et window ize to be 0. When the erver receive thi meage, it top ending packet. When handover end, the node end a meage to the erver that et the window ize to it value before handover. However, Freeze-TCP caue ome adaptation problem. In upward handover, the node hould wait to ue full bandwidth. In downward handover, the node lot packet becaue of low bandwidth. The IEEE MIH[10] tandard define media-acce independent mechanim that enable the optimization of handover between heterogeneou IEEE 02 ytem and may facilitate handover between IEEE 02 ytem and cellular ytem, but it ha ome problem becaue it doe not conider the tranport layer handover. Multipath TCP (MPTCP)[11] i a et of extenion to regular TCP that allow one TCP connection to be pread acro multiple path. MPTCP ditribute the load through the creation of eparate "ubflow" acro potentially dijoint path. A multipath flow hould perform at leat a ingle path flow that would on the bet of the path available to it, but it doe not conider wirele network, heterogeneou network and handover[12]. In thi paper, Multipath TFRC in heterogeneou wirele network can improve throughput uing multiple connection to reduce packet lo in handover.. Tranmiion Rate Control in Heterogeneou Wirele Network uing Multiple Connection Figure 2. Mobile node uing G or LTE Figure. Mobile node uing Current mobile device can tranport data only uing one network. Figure 2 how that mobile device ue one network (G or LTE). In Figure 2, mobile node ue G or 4G becaue it i out of range. Figure how mobile node ue even though they can ue G or 4G. If a node 160

3 want to etablih a new connection for, mobile node will diconnect the current G or $G network and etablih a new connection for. Figure 4. Heterogeneou wirele Network uing multiple connection However, mobile node can improve performance uing heterogeneou network a hown in Figure 4. MTFRC (Multiple TFRC) which propoed in thi paper, ue heterogeneou network if mobile node move to heterogeneou network can be ued. In B of the Figure 4, mobile node cannot ue, and they can only ue G/4G. If a mobile node move to A, it will automatically earch, and uer i notified. The uer who receive the notice, can choice whether he ue heterogeneou network or not. If the uer want to ue only in A, other network are diconnected. When the firt packet lo occur, TFRC receiver calculate the packet lo rate from the number of packet between the firt packet lo and the next packet lo and maintain it for RTT. Next, the lo event rate and average lo rate are calculated, and the receiver tranmit thee value to the ender. The ender received thee value and calculate the tranmiion rate, which can be written a. (1) 2 RTT RTO( ) p(1 ) Where RTO i time out the information of retranmiion timer, which i 4 time average RTT. The tranmiion rate of the propoed method i the um of the and G tranmiion rate, which can be written a MTFRC G. ( The tranmiion rate in can be obtained by. () RTT RTO ( ) p(1 The tranmiion rate in G i calculated uing the modified WLNA tranmiion rate. RTT and RTO are calculated by multiplying the contant number j, which i written a G. (4) j * RTT j * RTO ( ) p(1 161

4 The tranmiion rate of the propoed method i the addition of G and, which can be computed by MTFRC RTT RTO ( ) p(1 1 j * j. (5) In thi equation, (1+j)/j i alway bigger than 1, which mean that propoed method ha better performance than previou method, where 0<j<1. 4. Experiment We ue network imulator 2 (n to evaluate the propoed method. The configuration i hown a Figure 2 and conit of a mobile node, a erver, and a bae tation for the G network and an acce point for. The packet are tranmitted from ever to mobile node uing TFRC. The G coverage i much larger than the coverage. If there i one network, the mobile node tranmit data uing one connection. If, however, there are multiple network, mobile node chooe network uing the propoed method. The G network ha 2 Mbp data rate and 5m delay. ha 11Mbp data rate and 15m delay. The packet ize i 1000byte and CBR (contant bit rate) traffic model i ued. Figure 5 how the throughput that a mobile node move from a G network area to a area uing TFRC. In previou TFRC, packet loe occur between 22 and 25. After the handover ection, the previou protocol can ue high bandwidth but do not ue it becaue packet loe occur in handover ection. Thu, the previou protocol need more time to adapt to the new network after the handover ection, which caue unneceary congetion control and overhead. The propoed method ue the previou network and new network, G and. Thu more throughput i available than in the previou method becaue the propoed method do not diconnect the previou connection, which we can ee after 25. Figure 6 how the throughput that a mobile node move from a area to G network. Between 1 to, we can ee that MTFRC need more time to acquire the peak data rate, which occur when G network and tarted uing both network. Thi problem i not ignificant becaue we ue leat one connection. If the mobile node ue one connection, the problem doe not occur. Between Figure 5. Throughput comparion between TFRC and MTFRC on movement for a wide bandwidth environment Figure 6. Throughput comparion between TFRC and MTFRC on movement for a narrow bandwidth environment 22 to 25, packet loe occurred, which prevent the network from rapidly adapting to the new network. The propoed method ha fewer packet loe in the handover ection becaue it doe not diconnect the previou network. Thu, we can ee that MTFRC need le time to adapt to the new network. The G network doe not diconnect all the time, which caue minimum packet lo. Moreover, we can ee higher throughput between 0 to 22 than uing one network. 162

5 5. Concluion The propoed method ha two advantage. Firt, it ha better performance than the previou method becaue it doe not ue one network but intead ue multiple connection in network uch a and G. Thu, the propoed method ue heterogeneou and make mobile node ue more throughput than the previou method. Second, it ha fewer packet loe than previou method when it i ued in the handover ection, which mean that mobile node decreae timeout event and retranmiion. We imulate for network imulation 2, and the propoed method i hown to have better performance than the previou method. Acknowledgement Thi work wa upported by the Incheon National Univerity (International Cooperative) Reearch Grant in Reference [1] C.T. Lin and J. W. Ding, CAR: a low latency video-on-demand broadcating cheme for heterogeneou receive, IEEE Tran. on Broadcating, vol. 52, Iue, pp. 6-49, Sep [2] S. Ko and K. Chung, Quality adaptation cheme for video treaming ervice in heterogeneou wirele network, Proc. of the KIISE Korea Computer Congre 2011, vol., no. 1(A), pp. 5-7, Jun [] M. Stemm and R. H. Katz, Vertical handover in wirele overlay network, Mobile Network and Application, vol., no. 4, pp. 5 50, Dec, 199 [4] A. Hwang, J. Lee, W. Jung, and B. Kim, Congetion Control Algorithm for TCP Performance Enhancement by Bandwidth Meaurement in Vertical Handoff between Heterogeneou Wirele Network, Journal of the intitute of electronic engineer of Korea, vol. 4, no., pp. 4-90, Aug [5] E. Blanton, M. Allman, K. Fall, and L. Wang, A Conervative Selective Acknowledgement (SACK)-Baed Lo Recovery Algorithm for TCP, RFC 517 pp.1-11, Apr. 200 [6] E. Kohler, M. Handley, and S. Floyd, Datagram Congetion Control Protocol (DCCP) Congetion Control ID 2: TCP-like Congetion Control, RFC 440 pp.1-12, Mar [7] M. Handley, S.Floyd, j Padhye, and J.Widmer, TCP friendly rate control (TFRC): protocol pecification, RFC 44 pp.1-2, Jan. 200 [] A. Gurtov and J. Korhonen, Effect of vertical handover on performance of TCP-friendly rate control, ACM SIGMOBILE Mobile Computing and Communication Review, vol., no., pp. 7-7, Jul [9] G. Tim, M. Jame, Phatak. DS, G. Vipul, Freeze - TCP: A true end-to-end TCP enhancement mechanim for mobile environment, in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM pp , Irael, Mar [10] IEEE, IEEE Standard for Local and metropolitan area network-part 21: Media independent Handover Service, IEEE td , pp.1-90 Jan, 2009 [11] C. Raiciu, M. Handley and D. Wichik, Coupled multipath-aware congetion control, IETF RFC 656, pp.1-12 October 2011 [12] H. K. Kang, T. A. Le, C. S. Hong, Multi-path TCP Congetion Control for Streaming Service in Wirele Network, Journal of KISS : Information networking, vol. 9 no. 2 [2012],

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