Multi-Channel Wireless Networks: Capacity, Protocols, and Experimentation (with Net-X) Nitin Vaidya

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1 Multi-Channel Wireless Networks: Capacity, Protocols, and Experimentation (with Net-X) Nitin Vaidya University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Joint work with Pradeep Kyasanur, Chandrakanth Chereddi Lecture at ComSoc chapters, September

2 Multi-hop Wireless Networks g Two wireless paradigms: isingle hop versus Multi-hop g Multi-hop networks: imesh networks, ad hoc networks, sensor networks 2

3 Wireless Capacity g Wireless capacity limited g In dense environments, performance suffers g How to improve performance? 3

4 Improving Wireless Capacity g Exploit physical resources g Exploit diversity/multiplicity of resources g Examples 4

5 Exploit Infrastructure g Infrastructure provides a tunnel to forward packets BS1 infrastructure BS2 A B C D E Z Ad hoc connectivity X 5

6 Exploit Antennas g Steered/switched directional antennas A B C A B C D D 6

7 Improve Spatial Reuse Power/Rate/Carrier-Sense Control A B C D Transmit Spatial Power Rate reuse High High Low A B C D Low Low High 7

8 Exploiting Diversity Exploiting diversity requires suitable protocols 8

9 This Talk Utilizing multiple channels in wireless networks g Capacity bounds g Protocol design g Experimentation 9

10 This Talk g Preliminary work g Many issues remain open 10

11 Multiple Channels g Typically, available frequency spectrum is split into multiple channels 3 channels 8 channels 4 channels 26 MHz 100 MHz 200 MHz 150 MHz 915 MHz 2.45 GHz 5.25 GHz 5.8 GHz 250 MHz 500 MHz 1000 MHz GHz GHz GHz Large number of channels available 11

12 Channel Model g c channels available g Bandwidth per channel W Channel 1 Channel 2 Channel c 12

13 Radio Interfaces g An interface can only use one channel at a time Channel 1 Channel c g Switching between channels may incur delay 13

14 Interface Model g Reducing hardware cost allows for multiple interfaces g m interfaces per node: Typical values of m small 1 m 14

15 Channel-Interface Scenarios g Scenario 1: m = c One interface per channel 1 1 OR 1 m 1 c = m Common case today With sufficient hardware 15

16 Channel-Interface Scenarios g Scenario 2: m < c A host can only be on a subset of channels 1 1 m m c This is the likely scenario 16

17 Need for New Protocols g When m < c, new protocols are needed ihow to assign m interfaces to c channels? iwhen to switch an interface among channels? ihow to select good routes? A 1 1 B C A 1 B C D D 2 All channels not used Network poorly connected 17

18 Outline Utilizing multiple channels in wireless networks g Capacity bounds g Protocol design g Implementation issues 18

19 Capacity Analysis g How does capacity improve if more channels are added? g How many interfaces needed to best use c channels? iclearly, c interfaces sufficient inot always possible to have c interfaces 19

20 Worst Case g Worst case capacity is m/c fraction of the best-case A B Channel data rate = W c interfaces: cw throughput m interfaces: mw throughput g What about other scenarios? 20

21 Capacity =? [Gupta-Kumar] g Random source-destination pairs among randomly positioned n hosts in unit area, with n 21

22 Capacity =? g λ = minimum flow throughput g Capacity = n λ 22

23 Capacity Constraints g Capacity constrained by available spectrum bandwidth g Other factors further constrain wireless network capacity 23

24 Connectivity Constraint [Gupta-Kumar] g Need routes between source-destination pairs iplaces a lower bound on transmit range A D A D Not connected Connected 24

25 Interference Constraint [Gupta-Kumar] g Interference among simultaneous transmissions ilimits spatial reuse (1+Δ)d C D A d B Δ is a Guard parameter 25

26 Capacity of Wireless Networks [Gupta-Kumar] g Bit rate for each transmission = W g Capacity increases with n and c as Capacity increases linearly with channels 26

27 Capacity of Wireless Networks [Gupta-Kumar] g Result holds when m = c 1 1 W 1 1 W m = c c W 27

28 Capacity Problem g What if fewer interfaces? How does the network capacity scale with channels? 1 1 m m c Additional constraints on capacity become relevant 28

29 Interface Constraint g Throughput is limited by number of interfaces in a neighborhood Interfaces, a resource k nodes in the neighborhood total throughput k * m * W 29

30 Mutlti-Channel Network Capacity [MobiCom05] Network Capacity Channels (m=1) 30

31 Outline Utilizing multiple channels in wireless networks g Capacity bounds g Protocol design g Experimentation 31

32 Protocol Design Goals g Utilize all the available channels g Without degrading network connectivity 32

33 Insights from Capacity Analysis (1) g Static channel allocation does not yield optimal performance in general in all topologies g Must dynamically switch channels g Need protocol mechanisms for channel switching A Channel 1 B 2 C 3 D 33

34 Insights from Capacity Analysis (2) g Optimal transmission range function of density of nodes and number of channels igoal: # of interfering nodes = # of channels 34

35 Insights from Capacity Analysis (3) g Routes must be distributed within a neighborhood g This is not necessary in single channel networks D D A E F B A E F B C C Single Channel (m=c=1) Optimal strategy Multi-Channel (m<c) Optimal strategy 35

36 Insights from Capacity Analysis (4) g Channel switching delay potentially detrimental, but may be hidden with icareful scheduling, and/or iadditional interfaces 36

37 Protocol Design Issue: Which Layers to be Multi-Channel Aware? Practical decision: g Above MAC layer g Allows use of unmodified

38 Separation of Responsibility g Interface management: Shorter timescales idynamic channel assignment to interfaces iinterface switching g Routing: Longer timescales imulti-channel aware route selection metrics Upper layers Transport Network Link Physical Layer 38

39 Interface Switching [Wcnc2005] g Interfaces may be switched or kept fixed g Classification: i Static strategy: All interfaces of a node fixed i Dynamic strategy: All interfaces of a node can switch i Hybrid strategy: Some interfaces fixed, others switch g We use a hybrid strategy requiring at least two interfaces per node 39

40 Channel Assignment: Our Approach g 2 interfaces much better than 1 g Hybrid channel assignment: Static + Dynamic Fixed (ch 1) Fixed (ch 2) Fixed (ch 3) A Switchable B 2 1 Switchable 3 2 C Switchable Channel assignment locally balanced 40

41 Routing Approach g Existing routing protocols can be operated over interface management protocol imay not select good routes idoes not consider cost of switching interfaces g Our solution idevelop a new channel-aware metric imetric can be incorporated into any on-demand routing protocol 41

42 Selecting Channel Diverse Routes g Most routing protocols use shortest-hop metric inot sufficient in most multi-channel networks A B C 4 D E F 4 A needs route to C Route A-B-C better Prefer channel diverse routes 42

43 Impact of Switching Cost g Interface switching cost has to be considered ia node may be on multiple routes, requiring switching A B C 3 D E F Route A-B-C in use D needs route to F Route D-E-F better Select routes that do not require frequent switching 43

44 Normalized throughput Normalized Throughput Throughput in Random Networks (50 nodes, 500m x 500m area) DSR - 1 MCR - 2 MCR - 5 MCR Topology Number Topology Number 44

45 Outline Utilizing multiple channels in wireless networks g Capacity bounds g Protocol design g Experimentation 45

46 Net-X Testbed g Channel abstraction module implemented in Linux 2.4 g Experiments done on testbed nodes having two wireless radios g Radios are operated in IEEE a mode Soekris

47 Net-X Testbed Architecture Two radio mesh node Internet gateway node One radio mesh node One radio unmodifed client 47

48 Need for kernel support g Linux used as case study g Key requirements: iuser applications must work unmodified ioperate with off-the-shelf wireless hardware g Kernel support needed to meet requirements 48

49 Need for kernel support g No support to choose channels based on destination A Ch. 2 B g Multi-channel broadcast support is absent g Initiating switching from user space has high latency - frequent switching not possible D Ch. 1 C Ch. 2 B Ch. 3 A Ch. 1 C 49

50 Need for kernel support g Interface management needs to be hidden from data path ibuffering packets for different channels ischeduling interface switching Ch. 2 Ch. 1 Packet to B buffer packet Packet to C arrives Interface switches channel Packet to C 50

51 Where to add support? g In the device driver itied in to driver, cannot handle multiple interfaces g In the network layer imultiple interfaces exposed to network layer isome protocols like ARP need to be modified g Between network layer and device driver ieasy to add without modifying existing code ino changes to ARP, IP stack needed 51

52 Proposed architecture User Applications Multi-channel protocol Channel abstraction module provides kernel multi-channel support IP Stack ARP Channel Abstraction Module Module implemented by extending Linux bonding driver Interface Device Driver Interface Device Driver 52

53 Channel Abstraction Module g Unicast Component: iallows choosing channels based on destination g Broadcast Component: imulti-channel broadcast support g Queueing and Scheduling Component: iqueue packets if interface is not immediately available ischedule interface switching 53

54 No Components Broadcast? Yes Unicast Table Address Interface Channel Node 1 ath0 1 Node 2 Node 3 ath1 ath1 2 3 Broadcast Table Channel Interface 1 ath0 2 3 ath1 ath Schedule packet transmissions for ath0 Queue Packets Schedule packet transmissions for ath1 54

55 Driver modifications g Minor modifications made to madwifi driver to improve performance g Turned off beaconing to reduce switching delay iby default, after channel switch card waits to hear a beacon - can be as large as 100 ms iinstead, added support to specify default BSSID g Added support to measure driver queue length ito improve scheduling performance 55

56 Ongoing work g Testbed comprises of 20+ nodes g Detailed measurements of multi-channel protocols is in progress 56

57 Summary g Capacity results hint at significant performance benefits using many channels with few interfaces g Need suitable protocols to exploit the channels Cross-layer interactions g In general, available diversity can be exploited using suitable protocol g Significant research opportunities remain 57

58 Thanks! 58

59 Thanks! 59

60 Static Strategy - Approach 1 [Draves2004Mobicom] Assume two interfaces per node, 4 channels 1,2 1,2 1,2 A B C All channels not utilized D E F 1,2 1,2 1,2 g All nodes use common set of channels ieasiest extension when multiple channels available 60

61 Static Strategy - Approach 2 [Raniwala2005Infocom] Assume two interfaces per node, 4 channels 1,2 1,2 2,3 A B C D E F 2,3 3,4 3,4 g Different nodes may use different channels Some routes are longer 61

62 Dynamic strategy [So2004Mobihoc, Bahl2004Mobicom] A B C D E F Coordination may be needed before each transmission g Interfaces can switch channels as needed itransmissions can occur dynamically on any channel 62

63 Hybrid strategy [Nasipuri1999Wcnc, Jain2001Ic3n] g One common channel used as control channel g Remaining channels used as data channels A 1 B C Channel for data transmission negotiated on control channel: control channel can become a bottleneck 63

64 Supporting broadcast g Send a copy of packet over all channels g Strength: All neighbors receive broadcast, similar to single channel network g Drawback: Cost of broadcast goes up g Extensions: iuse a dedicated broadcast channel (with a third interface) isend broadcast over subset of channels 64

65 Protocol Operation g Each node has 2 interfaces i1 fixed, 1 switchable A B C D E F Timeline 1. A send to B 2. D send to A Connectivity maintained + all channels used 65

66 Example A B 1) A sends Hello(1) 2) B sends Hello(2, A:1) D 13 E 1 4 3) E sends Hello(4, A:1, B:2) 4) D sends Hello(3, A:1, B:2, E:4) 66

67 Simulations g Qualnet 3.6 simulator g IEEE a channels (varied from 1 to 12) g Proposed protocols use two interfaces per node g Interface switching delay is 1 ms 67

68 UDP Chain topology Throughput (Mbps) Throughput (Mbps) DSR - 1 MCR - 2 MCR - 5 MCR Chain length (in hops) Chain Length (in hops) 68

69 FTP Chain topology Throughput (Mbps) DSR - 1 MCR - 2 MCR - 5 MCR Chain length (in hops) Chain Length (in hops) 69

70 MCR: New Routing Metric g Measure switching cost for a channel g Measure total link cost of a hop: ETT cost [Draves2004Mobicom] + Switching cost g Combine individual link costs into path cost 70

71 Routing Protocol g Incorporate metric in on-demand source-routed protocol (similar to DSR) g RREQ messages modified to include link costs g Destination can compute best path iusing cost information in RREQ 71

72 Normalized throughput Normalized Throughput Throughput in Random Networks (50 nodes, 500m x 500m area) DSR - 1 MCR - 2 MCR - 5 MCR Topology Number Topology Number 72

73 Throughput with Varying Load Normalized Throughput throughput DSR - 1 MCR - 2 MCR - 5 MCR Number of Flows Number of flows 73

74 Implementation details User Applications IP Stack Interface and Channel Abstraction Layer Hello Protocol Routing Protocol On-demand routing support Abstraction layer simplifies the use of multiple interfaces User-space daemon implements routing and Hello protocol Netfilter-based module implements support for on-demand routing Interface Interface 74

75 Channel abstraction layer Unicast Address Mapping Inte Tablel ath ath ath1 3 Add Packet to Queue Broadcast Channel Mapping Interface Table 1 ath0 2 ath1 3 ath Schedule packet transmissions 75

76 Testbed measurements g We use Netgear cards based on atheros chipset g Madwifi driver has been modified to reduce switching delay g Measured switching delay is approx. 5 milliseconds 76

77 Aggregate throughput (Mbps) A D B C 4 flows 8 flows Throughput 4 flows: A->B, B->C, C->D, D->A 8 flows: In addition A->D, B->A, C->B, D->C Channel data rate is 6 Mbps 2 4 Number of channels 77

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