Answer in complete sentences Use your study sheet to find the correct answers. SEPTEMBER 11

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1 Date: 1 Home SEPTEMBER Explain why you are or are not a civilian. 2. According to the Study Sheet, how would a terrorist defend his or her actions? THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE The O Empire was formed about s hundred years ago when a T military leader named O defeated other t to become r of a small k. His dynasty conquered the B Empire and eventually united most of the M East and North A. The Ottoman T were M, but they did not impose Islamic law on the C, Jews and people of other faiths within their empire. The Turks allowed A, Persians, K, Maronites, and A to maintain their c identities. By the beginning of the t century, European leaders referred to the weakened O Empire as the s man of Europe. The Turks supported the C Powers in W War I and their e came to an end when the A Powers defeated the Central Powers. B and F carved up most of the O Empire at the end of the war. The heroic leadership of Kemal Ataturk kept the *c l n al powers from taking the land now part of the modern nation of T. THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE 3. Why was the Ottoman Empire often called the sick man of Europe at the beginning of the twentieth century? 4. Why did the Ottoman Empire enter World War I on the side of the Central Powers?

2 Date: 2 Home THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE 5. What nations composed the Allied forces in World War I? *6. Explain why West Palm Beach, Florida is considered a warm water port. *7. Why would Russia be interested in conquering the Ottoman Empire? *8. Why didn t the Russians take any land from the Ottoman Empire despite the Allied victory in the conflict? Paragraph Essay Your response must include a topic sentence, at least two supporting sentences, and a conclusion that restates-- but does not repeat-- the topic sentence. THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE Explain why Great Britain and France eager to assert their influence in the Middle East and North Africa at the beginning of the twentieth century?

3 Date: 3 Home KEMAL ATATURK *1. Why was Mustafa Kemal popular with the Turkish people? *2. Why do you think Ataturk personally traveled through his nation to teach the new western alphabet to the Turkish people? *3. Explain the meaning behind the three names Ataturk used during his lifetime. *6. Name a secular American leader. Why is her or she a secular leader? 7. Write a paragraph that explains how Mustafa Kemal Ataturk modernized Turkey in the 1920s. Your paragraph must include a topic sentence, at least two supporting sentences, and a valid conclusion.

4 Date: 4 Home SHARIAH Sharia l governs many aspects of *Is life. While w laws were written by people, M believe S is the p revealed to *M by *A. The S dictates that M may not consume a, borrow m at i, or allow w to go out in p without a v. Violent c is almost nonexistent in S Arabia because under S law, criminals often face a or d. Devout M defend their v because they have served them well for over one-t years. While many people in the W Hemisphere find the S justice system to be c, most Saudis do not have to be concerned with *c. SHARIAH *8. What is the dictionary definition of polygamy? *9. Why do you think polygamy is rarely practiced today, even in the most traditional Muslim societies? *10. Write a convincing argument in favor of Sharia. You do not have to personally agree with the concept. *11. Do you agree or disagree with Dr. Khuthaila s opinion of American cultural superiority. Defend your answer.

5 Date: 5 THE WAR ON TERROR The G War on T is the ongoing c m a gn by the U S and it s a l es to p e e t international t r o i m. The most notable f in the W on T is A Q, a v o e t terrorist group committed to ending W influence in M countries. Al Queda has been funded partly by O b L, the scion on a wealth c family. The United State attacked A g a i t n in part because the ruling T l b n gave bin Laden protection after the t r o i t attacks of September 11, The United States and several allied nations removed S dd m H s e n from power in More than one m people died in a n -year war S began with I in Saddam attempted to p his huge w debt by i v d ng the oil-rich nation of K w it, b ut he was defeated by a group of nations led by the U i ed S a es in what became known as the Gulf War. The peace s t l m nt Saddam signed required him to allow i s e t rs into his nations to prove he was not have *n c e r weapons. Saddam was later c p u ed and put on t i l for c i es against h m n ty. He was s n e c d to d a h in THE WAR ON TERROR *1. What do you think Al Queda hopes to accomplish? *2. Why did the United States invade Iraq in 2003? 3. Why is Iraq a very unstable nation more than three years after the capture of Saddam Hussein?

6 Date: 6 IRAN Iran became an I l m c republic in 1979 after their k, known as the S, was forced out of power. The leaders of the revolution reversed many of the Shah s *m d r i a i ns. Boys and girls were no longer a l w d to a school together, and many w s e n influences were f r i d n. The United States and many other *w s e n nations have uneasy relationships with Iran. Iranian s u e ts too 52 Americans h shortly after the Iranian *R v l t on to protest the decision by American President Jimmy Carter to allow the S to come to N Y for c treatment. The current leader of Iran, Mahmoud A m d n j d, has called for the d s r c i n of I r el. He has also encouraged a n c e r program in his nation that some observers feel might be used for * r o i m. THE WAR ON TERROR *6. Why was the Shah of Iran unpopular with many Iranian people? 7. Why were the leaders of the Iranian Revolution angry with the United States? 8. Who is Mahmoud Ahmadinejad? Why are many western nations fearful of him?

7 Date: 7 ISRAEL The Hebrews lived on the e s e n shore of the M d t r a e n Sea until the R forced them to leave almost two t o s nd years ago. The Jews scattered toi parts of Eurpe, Asia, and eventually the Americas, where the often faced *m s r a e e t. The Zionists were Jews who hoped to r c e te a J w sh state in P l s i e, a land that was p p l t d by A -speaking people and controlled by the B i i h. The British ceded control of P l s i e to the U i e N t o s, a group of fifty countries that formed after World War. The A nation declared war on the newcomers, but the new nation of I r el won the wars and e p n ed its b r e s. In 1977, the President of E, Anwar S d t, became the first A leader to agree to p with Israel. Sadat was *k l ed five years later by E y t a s who did not agree with his *d c s on to make peace with I. *1. What is Zionism? ISRAEL 2. When and why was the United Nations formed? 3. Why have Palestinian Arabs been unhappy with Israel? *4. How Israel has expanded its borders since 1949.

8 Date: 8 HAMAS Israel o c p ed several Arab regions after *d f a i g the Arabs in war in 1949 and Israel returned some land after peace settlements, but kept control of the W Bank of the J River and the G Strip, a n r ow piece of land along the M d t r a e n Sea. The Arab-speaking P l s i n people began a r s s a ce moved called the I in the late 1980s. Israel granted the P l s i i ns limited self government in a 1993 p agreement, but a v group known as H opposed the agreement because they believed I did not have the r to e. Hamas provided f n n i l support to s i i e bombers who d t n t d their devices in c o ed areas in I r el. Israel has responded to the v o e ce by ending the o c p t on of the G Strip and four s t l m n s in the W B region. The Israelis also built a controversial *w to prevent future t r o i t attacks. May people oppose the wall because they feel it will i o a e the P l s i i ns and be the cause of more d s o t nt in the region. HAMAS *1. What does the West Bank have in common with the Gaza Strip? 2. What does intifada mean? 3. Is Hamas a terrorist organization? Defend your answer. 4. What two steps has Israel taken to protect itself from hostile neighbors?

9 Date: 9 AFGHANISTAN The A people have been i v d d many times, but no a has ever managed to d Afghanistan for a significant period. The S U supported their 1979 i with more than 100,000 *s l i r, but they were no match for the m, who used their k of the A terrain to force the S to w from Afghanistan in 19. A c war followed the w of Soviet forces from A. A civil war is a w within a n. Many Afghan people supported the T, a group of f Islamic militants. They hoped the T s focus on *t values would e the u of the civil war, but few Afghan people were prepared for the *f r c t of the Taliban. The Taliban outlawed t and radio. Women seen in p without a b faced severe b or d. When the United States was a on September 11, 2001, the American government traced the a to O b L, who had taken r in A g a i t n. When the T refused to turn over bin Laden and other s terrorists, the Americans led a m bomb a that removed the T from p. Afghanistan now has a d m c a ic government hed by Hamad K, but the new democracy faces many challenges due to *p v r y, the inability to t a s o t many goods, and the presence of *t r o i t groups. AFGHANISTAN *1. Why do you think Afghanistan has never been controlled by outside forces for a significant amount of time? 2. What military superpower nation invaded Afghanistan and attempted to conquer the Afghan people for a decade? *3. Who are the mujahedeen? How were the mujahedeen able to force the Soviets to withdraw from Afghanistan?

10 Date: 10 AFGHANISTAN *4. What were the consequences of the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan? 5. Who are the Taliban? Why did the Taliban find support among many Afghan people during the civil war that followed the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan? *6. Why is Afghanistan now considered a democracy? AMERICANIZATION *7. Why does Benjamin Barber contend that many people in traditional societies are unhappy with the culture of the United States and other western nations? *8. Most people believe that some western values are good, while others are bad. On balance, do you believe western values are good or bad? *9. Do we have a responsibility to learn about other people and cultures?

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