WHAT ARE THE PRODUCTS OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS? rev 8/13

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1 EXPERIMENT 6 WHAT ARE THE PRODUCTS OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS? rev 8/13 GOAL In this experiment you will perform a series of simple reactions, make observations, and then draw conclusions as to whether or not a chemical reaction has occurred. If a reaction has occurred, you will be asked to decide on the likely products. INTRODUCTION Synthetic chemists spend the bulk of their time running chemical reactions and determining the identity of the products of those reactions. Chemists must learn to make careful observations so that they can decide when a reaction has occurred. Then they use their knowledge of chemistry to predict what the products might be. Tests are performed to confirm the identity of those products. Chemists always try to confirm their predictions with conclusive tests, but must learn to make good predictions so that they will know what tests to run and be able to interpret the results correctly. When a chemical reaction occurs, one substance is changed into one or more new substances. These products will have chemical and physical properties different from those of the original compound or element. It can be difficult to decide, however, if a new compound has been produced, or if the original material is still present, just having undergone a physical change. A change in physical state IS NOT a chemical reaction. Examples of physical changes are melting, evaporating, dissolving, being ground up, etc. In each, the physical form of the substance changes but the chemical identity remains intact. When ice melts, it changes from solid water to liquid water but still remains water, H 2 O. Thus this is a physical change not a chemical reaction. It is impossible to give a general, foolproof list of observations that will tell you when a chemical reaction has occurred. Below is a list of phenomena that often accompany chemical reactions. These phenomena can also accompany some physical changes so care must be exercised in the exclusive use of this or any list in determining when a reaction has occurred. -Evolution of a gas (Don't confuse this with boiling.) -Formation of a precipitate (Precipitates are literally solids that fall from solution, but any opaque or cloudy solution contains an undissolved solid.) -Evolution of light or heat -Change in color -Change in ph Once we have determined that a chemical reaction has occurred, we want to decide on the likely products and write a balanced equation. The likely products may be determined by using your experimental observations, the guidelines given in this experiment, and the material in chapter 4 of your textbook. 1

2 Consider the following example of how a chemist combines observation and chemical knowledge to propose an equation for a reaction. A chemist mixes an aqueous solution of MgS with aqueous HNO 3 and observes a gas bubbling off and a foul smell. From the bubbling and sharp change in odor, she concludes that a reaction has occurred and writes Eqn. 1. MgS(aq) + HNO 3 (aq) Eqn. 1 Her chemical knowledge tells her that the gas which smells like rotten eggs is probably H 2 S, and this would seem a possible product based on the elements that make up the starting materials. Now she writes Eqn. 2. MgS(aq) + HNO 3 (aq) H 2 S(g) + Eqn. 2 Obviously she needs another product because the magnesium and nitrate ions must balance. She decides that the correct formula for a compound made of magnesium and nitrate ions would be Mg(NO 3 ) 2, so now she writes Eqn. 3. MgS(aq) + HNO 3 (aq) H 2 S(g) + Mg(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) Eqn. 3 Only after finding possible formulas for all products does she balance the equation, writing Eqn. 4. MgS(aq) + 2 HNO 3 (aq) H 2 S(g) + Mg(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) Eqn. 4 You should try to follow similar logic in drawing conclusions from the observations you make in this experiment. Some of the most commonly formed inorganic gases are listed in Table 1. You may find this table helpful in determining possible products to your reactions. The formation of a precipitate means that one of the products is not soluble in water. Solubility rules for simple salts are given in a table in Table 4.1 of your textbook. Remember that a polyatomic ion usually stays intact and that the best guess on the identity of a product is usually the simplest one you can think of. If you have hydrogen and oxygen left over, the other product is probably H 2 O. Table 1: Common Inorganic Molecular Species Gases H 2, O 2, N 2, CO 2, NO 2, SO 2, H 2 S, NH 3, HCl Liquids H 2 O PRE-LAB ASSIGNMENT In this and other experiments, you will neutralize leftover acid with NaHCO 3 before disposal. The reaction forms CO 2 (g). In your pre-lab notebook entry, write the balanced equation for the reaction HCl + NaHCO 3. It is very similar to the reactions found in Section 4.8 of your textbook. 2

3 HAZARDS Each of the following reactions should be performed with care. You should put all test tubes in a rack before mixing reagents; this way if the chemicals spill, they are on the desk and not your hand. Heat test tubes gently, and keep them pointed away from people. Dilute common acids and bases may be disposed of down the sink with lots of running water. This is also true for relatively harmless, water-soluble reagents such as NaCl and NH 4 Cl. When a reaction leaves you with a mixture of a solid in a solution that could go down the drain, collect the solid by pouring the mixture through a piece of filter paper in a funnel. The solids can go in the trashcan. Collect the liquid filtrates in a beaker. Add some NaHCO 3 to neutralize leftover acid. When the bubbling subsides, rinse the mixture down the sink with excess water. Wastes from several parts of the experiment can be collected together before neutralization. LABORATORY DATA AND OBSERVATIONS For each reaction, record what you do, initial observations of the reactants, and then observations upon mixing. Before discarding a mixture decide whether or not a chemical reaction occurred. Write YES or NO with each set of observations. The observations in your notebook need not be terribly neat, but the notebook must be legible and easily followed. Your observations are graded as part of your report. The parts of this experiment may be done in any order, but do all the reactions in a given part before moving on to a new section. PROCEDURE Be sure you read reagent labels carefully, since a number of similar (but different!) reagents are used in this experiment. When the procedure calls for a solid, use an amount that will cover the tip of a spatula. Solutions, except for distilled water, will be supplied in dispensers. Part 1: Combustion Reactions Combustion reactions are reactions of substances with O 2. A flame often provides the heat necessary to start these reactions. DO THESE REACTIONS IN THE HOOD, and hold them at arms length. a. Using tongs, hold a small piece of Mg(s) ribbon in the flame of a burner. b. Using tongs, hold a length of thick gauge Al(s) wire in the flame. c. Using a combustion spoon, hold a small sample of S(s) in the flame. If a solid doesn t react, you can leave the sample for others to try. If a solid does react, be sure that the entire sample gets consumed. 3

4 Part 2: Decomposition Reactions Heat may also cause decomposition reactions. These equations have only one reactant each. a. Place a small sample of NiCO 3 (s) in a dry test tube and heat directly in the flame of your burner. You should hold the test tube at an angle and heat just the bottom. Observe closely. b. Place a small sample of CuO(s) in a dry test tube and heat as directed above. Both solids can be discarded in the trashcan. Part 3: Reactions with Water (Single replacement reactions) Test the following substances by placing a small sample in a test tube containing about 3 ml of water. Test the resulting solutions with both red and blue litmus paper. [Recall that litmus turns blue in base and red in acid. A change in ph gives clues to reaction products.] Collect any remaining solid by pouring the mixtures through a piece of filter paper in a funnel. Discard this in the trashcan. Dissolved solutions can go down the drain with excess water. a. Ca(s) b. S(s) c. Cu(s) d. Half fill a 100 ml beaker with distilled water and obtain a small piece of Na metal. Na(s) is stored under mineral oil because it is so reactive. Blot the metal with a dry paper towel to remove this oil. Using your spatula, at arm's length, drop the Na into the beaker of water. Cover immediately with a square of wire gauze. When the reaction has subsided, test the water with litmus paper. Carefully place the paper towel in the sink and run water over it to consume any traces of sodium. Discard the wet paper towel in the trashcan. Part 4: Reactions with Aqueous Acid Test the following by placing a small sample in a test tube containing about 3 ml of 1 M HCl(aq) a. Mg(s) b. S(s) c. CaCO 3 (s) After observing the reactions, collect any remaining solid by pouring the mixtures through a piece of filter paper in a funnel. Keep this for use with later reactions. The solids can go in the trashcan. Collect the liquid filtrates in a beaker. Add a scoop of solid NaHCO 3. When the bubbling subsides, discard the solution down the drain with excess water. Part 5: Oxidation-Reduction Reactions (Single Replacement Reactions) Test the following two pairs of reagents by adding a small sample of the solid metal to about 3 ml of the aqueous solution. Since some reactions are slower, observe these mixtures after 5-10 minutes. Be sure to record your observations. In order to get these reactions to proceed at a reasonable rate, a little acid was added to the solutions. If you observe a gas evolution, note it, but attribute it to a reaction of the acid and do not include it in your equations. a. Mg(s) + FeSO 4 (aq) b. Zn(s) + Ca(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) 4

5 After observing the reactions, collect any remaining solid by pouring the mixtures through the filter paper in a funnel already set up for Part 4. The solids can go in the trashcan. Collect the liquid filtrates in a beaker. Add a scoop of solid NaHCO 3. When the bubbling subsides, discard the solution down the drain with excess water. Part 6: Precipitation Reactions (Double Replacement Reactions) Mix the following pairs of aqueous solutions; use about 3 ml of each. a. Ca(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + Na 3 PO 4 (aq) b. Ca(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + NaOH(aq) c. Ca(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + NaCl(aq) After observing the reactions, collect any remaining solid by pouring the mixtures through the filter set up for earlier parts. The solids can go in the trashcan. Collect the liquid filtrates in a beaker. Add a scoop of solid NaHCO 3. When the bubbling subsides, discard the solution down the drain with excess water. NOTE: Before leaving lab, be sure that you have drawn a YES or NO conclusion for each mixture. Did a chemical reaction occur? 5

6 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION For the Results and Discussion section, write complete, balanced, molecular equations for each reaction observed. Follow the logic described in this experiment s Introduction. For help determining the probable products of each reaction, consult the introduction of this experiment, and chapter 4 of your text. Be sure to use ion charges to determine correct formulas for products before trying to balance the equations. Write these equations in the order given in the lab manual and group them by parts (types of reactions). This may or may not be the order in which you did them. Include the state of each compound. If no chemical reaction was observed in lab, write NR (for no reaction), don t try to write a balanced equation. For Parts 3 through 6 also write net ionic equations. All equations must include the state of each of the chemicals, i.e. (g), (l), (s), or (aq). If no chemical reaction was observed, do not write an equation. QUESTIONS 1. Mg reacts with HCl according to the equation: Mg(s) + 2 HCl(aq) MgCl 2 (aq) + H 2 (g). What volume of M HCl is needed to prepare g MgCl 2? Show your work clearly. 2. For this experiment, the lab instructor had to prepare 225 ml of 0.10 M FeSO 4. What mass of solid FeSO 4 was required to prepare this solution? Show your work clearly. 6

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