1 Which h Wireless Where? Applying wireless from the rooftop to the desktop Presented by Ernest Schirmer Director, Technology Consulting Acentech, Inc. Architectural Acoustics Structural ral Dynamics Environmental Noise Video-Teleconferencing Telecommunications Systems Audio-Visual and Sound Systems Voice, Data and Multimedia Infrastructure 8 Interplex Dr. Ste 218 Trevose, PA
2 Which Wireless Where? Applying wireless from the rooftop to the desktop Agenda Frequency allocation Types of wireless connectivity The 802 alphabet soup Near-field magnetic Zigbee Bluetooth Ultra-wideband WiFi
3 Which Wireless Where? Applying wireless from the rooftop to the desktop Agenda (continued) Infrared wireless WiMAX Microwave and laser technology General design considerations Survey tools WLAN antennae Mesh networks Power-over-Ethernet
4 Which Wireless Where? Applying wireless from the rooftop to the desktop Agenda (continued) Cellular telephone vs. WLAN bandwidth WLAN telephones Emerging technologies Trivia To learn more
5 Wireless is already the Next Big Thing.
9 Wireless Technologies: What are they good for? Voice: telephony, radio networks. Data: wireless local area networks. Security: cameras. Video: still, full-motion. Building automation and control. Sensor telemetry. Tracking: GPS, RFID. Machine-to-Machine (M2M).
10 Sidebar: Sensor Power Sources
11 Sidebar: Power Sources
13 Frequency: The number of times per second a signal repeats. The term Hertz (abbreviated Hz) is used instead of cycles per second to honor the German scientist, Gustav Hertz. For example, middle C on a piano vibrates 256 times per second or 256 Hz.
14 Common Frequency Prefixes: At higher frequencies, prefixes are used to eliminate the need dto write out tthe entire number. Kilo = 1,000 (thousand) Mega = 1,000,000 (million) Giga = 1,000,000,000 (billion) Tera = 1,000,000,000,000 (trillion)
15 Licensed Radio Operations: A frequency or radio service that requires coordination with other users, the approval of the Federal Communications Commission and the issuing i of a radio license. Examples of licensed services: p Commercial AM/FM and TV stations Fire, police and EMS radios Some microwave systems
16 Unlicensed Radio Operations: Af frequency or radio service that does not require a license from the Federal Communications Commission. Examples of unlicensed services: Microwave ovens Cordless phones Citizen band and Family Radio Service Remote control cars and planes Garage door openers
17 Note that some radio systems may be a combination of licensed and unlicensed services. Companies that operate cell phone networks must have an FCC license, but the end-user just buys a phone and starts using it. In the United States, a pilot no longer needs a radio operator s license (but must get a license when flying into a foreign country).
18 Unlicensed operations are subject to FCC technical standards and specifications. However, assuming the equipment is operating correctly and meets FCC specifications, there is no protection from interference. The main subject of this course will be the unlicensed 2.4 GHz Industrial, Scientific, & Medical (ISM) band of frequencies. As the name ISM implies, many different types of equipment are designed to use the same frequencies. Under the right conditions this can lead to interference and poor communications.
19 Frequency Assignments
20 AM Radio TV TV TV TV 2/4 5/6 7/13 FM
21 Common examples: 300 Hz - 4 Kilohertz (KHz) telephone bandwidth 880 Kilohertz (KHz): AM radio station Megahertz (MHz): FM radio station 2.4 Gigahertz (GHz): Microwave ovens, WLANs
22 AM Radio: 580 to 1610 Kilohertz (KHz) Low band VHF TV: Megahertz (MHz) (channels 2 to 6) FM Radio: MHz Aviation: 108 to 136 MHz Hi h b d VHF TV 174 t 216 MH High band VHF TV: 174 to 216 MHz (channels 7 13).
23 Unlicensed radio equipment: Baby monitors, cordless phones, CB radios, walkie-talkies, etc. Industrial, Medical, Scientific (ISM) MHz cordless phones Gigahertz (GHz) Microwave ovens, amateur radio GHz US) GHz (Canada) No FCC protection from interference.
24 Primary Unlicensed Frequency Allocations 902MHz 928MHz GHz GHz 5.725GHz 5.850GHz 900MHz 2.4GHz 5.8GHz Th 24GH b di th i d The 2.4 GHz band is authorized worldwide for unlicensed operations.
25 Types of Wireless Connectivity
26 Wireless Networking: Making it Work
27 Specialized Equipment
28 Useful Range vs. Technology Ultra short-range: Near-Field Magnetic Communications Very short-range: Zigbee Short-range: Bluetooth, Ultra-Wide Band Enterprise: WiFi Metro or Campus: WiMAX Point-to-Point: WiFi, microwave, laser
29 Useful Range vs. Data Rate
30 The Alphabet Soup of Wireless Networking Standards
31 802.1x Extensible Authorization Protocol a 54 Mbps at 5 GHz b 11 Mbps at 2.4 GHz d International freq. coordination e Quality of Service f Access Point Interoperability g 54 Mpbs at t24gh 2.4 GHz.* *802.11b compatible.
32 802.11h Adds frequency and power control to a i Enhanced security and encryption. Requires forklift upgrade if using first- generation equipment k Advanced radio resource mgmt n Multiple input/multiple output (MiMo) Multiple antennae, 600+ Mbps data rate p Automotive 5.9 GHz band for direct short-range communications.
33 802.11r Fast roaming between APs s Extended Service Set (Mesh) 802. s te ded Se ce Set ( es ) u Internetworking (e.g. WiFi to cellular) v Wireless network management w Protected management frames x User-authentication
34 Personal Area Networks Broadband wireless local access. Last mile access in competition with telephone and cable service providers Mobil Broadband Wireless Access Low latency (< 20 ms). Realtime data rates up to 1 Mbps at 150 MPH Porsche has done field trials of 1 Mbps at 206 MPH.
35 Ultra Short-range: Near Field Magnetic Communications
36 NFMC Standard: None (Proprietary). Range: 4 to 6 feet. Data Rate: 384 kilobits/second (typical) Frequency: megahertz range. Power: 100 nanowatts. Relatively unaffected by conductive (metal) objects or people. The strength of the magnetic field bubble decreases at the 6 th power with distance compared to radiated electric fields which decrease at the 2 nd power.
37 NFMC Battery life (1 AA cell): 25 hours active use; 3 months on standby. Current applications: wireless audio and headsets. Chipset manufactured by Aura Communications. Note: NFMC is not the same as NFM. NFM refers to Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology.
38 Very Short-range: range: Personal Area Networks (PAN) Zigbee
39 ZIGBEE Standard: IEEE Range: 30 to 300 feet Data Rate: 20 Kbps (868 MHz) Data Rate: 40 Kbps (915 MHz) Data Rate: 250 Kbps (2.4 GHz) Power: <10 microamps (sleep mode)
40 ZIGBEE Up to 255 nodes per network. Very low-cost electronics (<$2). Security was not part of original specification. Latest specification includes three levels of security. Minimal hardware requirements.
41 Short-range: Personal Area Networks (PAN): Bluetooth th
42 BLUETOOTH Standard: IEEE Range: 30 to 300 feet. Data Rate: 723 Kilobits/second (Kbps) Data Rate: 3 megabits/second (peak). Power: <100 microamps (sleep mode) MHz channels. Up to 7 clients form a piconet. Multiple piconets can link to form scatternets.
43 Short-range: Ultra-Wideband
44 ULTRA-WIDEBAND Standard: d: None* (based on IEEE a) Range: 6 to 30 feet. Data Rate: 480 Mbps at 6 feet. Data Rate: 110 Mbps at 30 feet. IEEE UWB committee disbanded at meeting in Hawaii January 19, 2006.
46 Enterprise WiFi
47 Standard Freq. Typ. Data Rate Max. Data Rate a 5 GHz 25 Mbps 54 Mbps b 2.4 GHz 6.5 Mbps 11 Mbps g 2.4 GHz 25 Mbps 54 Mpbs n 2.4 GHz 200 Mbps 540 Mbps 5 GHz
48 Conservative design assumptions suggest: b ~100 radius for 11 Mbps a ~ 50 radius for 54 Mbps g ~ 50 radius for 22/54 Mbps n ~ 50 radius for 100 Mbps. Building materials and contents affect range.
49 Infrared Wireless Technology
50 Historical note: Many wireless networking technologies had an infrared interface, but it is rarely ever implemented. Once common on printers and laptops (the little ruby-red window).
51 Metro or Campus: WiMAX
52 Standard: (point-to-point). Standard: a (omnidirectional). Range: ~30 miles. Data Rate: 70 Mbps. Frequency: GHz (802.16). Frequency: 2 11 GHz (802.16a). Power: 20 watts average power (typ). Designed to support mobile connectivity at speeds up to >60 mph.
53 Point-to-Point: to Point: Microwave & Laser
54 Microwave Range 2 to 30 miles depending on frequency. 2 miles at 30 GHz - 30 miles at 2 GHz Multiple channels. Modular systems add bandwidth as needed. 4T1 circuits i plus analog video. License required, but easily obtained. Frequency coordination eliminates interference. Frequencies relatively easy to get.
55 Cost effective at about $30,000 per link, installed. No preventive maintenance. Subject to signal fade, ice, rain, etc.
56 Laser Highest bandwidth available. Multiple T3s to 155 Mbps ATM. OC-3 (155 Mbps) to OC-48 (2.488 Gbps). 1,000 meter range. No license required. Cost effective at about $20,000 per link, installed.
57 Requires preventive maintenance. Subject to vibration, heat distortion, blocking by sunlight, etc. Also known as Free Space Optical Networking.
60 Design Issues We Have Control Of: Suitable frequency or service Coverage (area) Capacity (simultaneous users) Bandwidth (applications) Transmitting power (may be regulated) Channel selection Cabling Electric power Signal security Physical security
61 Design Issues We Don t Have Control Of: Other users (same service or frequency) Building construction Signal reflection, deflection, refraction, etc. Rouge users (if no or weak security) Rouge WLAN access points (if access control not used)
63 Decibel: Gain (increase) or loss (decrease) of signal strength measured as a ratio against a standard or other reference value. The ratio is expressed mathematically as: db = 10 log 10 (P 1 /P 2 ) Example: log 10 (100/10) = 2 10 (2) = 20 db Common (power) db values to remember are: 3 db = times 2 increase or 1/2 decrease 6 db = times 4 increase or 1/4 decrease 20 db = times 10 increase or 1/10 decrease
64 Attenuation: Signal loss caused by transmission through a wire, the air, or objects located between the transmitter and the receiver.
65 Attenuation: Radio signals traveling through free space are attenuated according to a square law formula. Signal strength = q/r 2 Where q = signal source and r = distance from the source. double the distance and the signal decreases by a factor of f4( (or 1/4 of fits prior value).
66 Common Building Materials Attenuation at 2.4 GHz (all values are approximate) Glass (non-tinted)-2 to -3 db Wood door -3 db Systems furniture -3 to -5 db Dry wall (sheetrock) -3 to-4 db Marble -5 db Brick -8 db to -10 db Concrete (floor/wall) ll) -10 to -15 db
67 Design Issues: Received Signal Strength P =(P)(G r t t )(G r )(l/4πd) 2 Where: P r Received power P t Effective radiated power G t Antenna gain G r Receiver gain λ wavelength in meters π d pi ( ) distance in meters
68 Design Issues: Path Loss: Path Loss db = 20 log (4l/π)+10 log (d n ) Where: λ wavelength in meters π pi ( ) d distance in meters n = 2.0 free space. 2.7 to 3.5 outdoor urban areas. 3.0 to 5.0 shadowed outdoor urban areas. 1.6 to 1.8 in-building, direct line-of-sight. 30t 3.0 to 35i 3.5 in-building, ildi fabric covered partitions. 4.0 to 6.0 in-building, obstructed, office. 2.0 to 3.0 in-building, obstructed, warehouse.
69 Design Issues: Link Budget: P r = P t + G t + G r Path loss - L r Where: P r Received power P t Effective radiated power G t Antenna gain G r Receiver gain L R Receiver loss (noise figure)* *A common specification for receiver sensitivity is -93 db. That is, the signal at the receiver must be at least -93 db to be detected.
70 Typical WLAN Network Configuration
71 Site Survey For some radio systems a site survey can be done. This involves measuring the signal strength at specific locations or a given distance from a test t antenna. After the survey is completed a contour map is drawn. The lines on the map connect points of equal signal strength just as the lines on a weather map connect points of equal barometric pressure.
72 Site Survey Although this can be done for a WLAN it is much Although this can be done for a WLAN it is much more common to take a laptop and walk the building to determine where additional access points are needed to obtain reliable coverage in a given area.
73 (Relatively) Inexpensive Site Survey Tools
74 Wireless Networking Performance
75 There can be large differences between the specifications given in a manufacturer s data sheet and performance in the real world. Signal-to-noise ratio determines data rate. Coverage vs. Capacity Planning
79 WLAN Antennae
80 Rough Rules of Thumb Doubling the height of an antenna has approximately the same affect as increasing transmitter power by a factor of 10. BUT doubling the height of an antenna or increasing transmitting power by a factor of ten does not double the coverage area. As a rule of thumb, reliable operating range increases by approximately 30%.
92 Which female Hollywood star invented spread spectrum technology and received patent #2,292,387 on Aug. 11, 1942? (Technology first put into use during the 1962 Cuban missile il crisis) i Hint: Born in Austria Hint: Dropped out of school Hint: Married six times Hint: Worked with George Antheil Hint: Ms. Hedwig Eva Maria Kiesler Hint: HL
93 To Learn More
94 Newton s Telecom Dictionary Author: Harry Newton Publisher: Flatiron Publishing ISBN The eone etobuy if you re buying only one!
95 Practical Packet Analysis: Using Wireshark to Solve Real World Network Problems Author: Chris Sanders Publisher: No Starch Press ISBN:
96 The ARRL Handbook Author: American Radio Relay League (ARRL) Publisher: ARRL ISBN:
97 Electromagnetics Explained Author: Ron Schmitt Publisher: Newnes ISBN:
99 Thank You Ernest Schirmer Director, Technology Consulting Acentech, Inc. 8 Interplex Drive, Suite 218 Trevose, PA com
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