Install the EMANT300 USB DAQ and Temperature Control Training Kit 1. Connect up the EMANT300 USB DAQ and Temperature Control Adaptor as shown.

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1 Temperature Control Install the EMANT300 USB DAQ and Temperature Control Training Kit 1. Connect up the EMANT300 USB DAQ and Temperature Control Adaptor as shown. EMANT300 USB DAQ Temperature Control Adaptor 2. Before plugging in the USB cable to the PC, please follow the steps in the Installation Guide to install the necessary software drivers. Skip the step involving the Light Application Adaptor. You will need to run this driver installation the first time the EMANT300 USB DAQ is connected to a PC. This step is automatically done when you subsequently connect the EMANT300 USB DAQ to the same PC.

2 Run the LabVIEW Program 1. Run the LabVIEW program Temperature Control.VI. 2. Switch the Manual Override down. This will set the heater output to manual override. When you change the manual heater setting dial, the gauge output and the LED intensity will change. You should observe the LED intensity changing. 3. Set the PWM to 0. Call the temperature measured T amb. Set the PWM to 100. Call the temperature measured T max. 4. Observe the temperature reading, is it giving the correct values? If yes, then you are ready to set the temperature and put the heater under PID Control. Set the control temperature between T amb and T max that you measured earlier. Use the P, I and D values as shown in the front panel. 5. You can experiment with different set points as well as different PID values. To understand how to set the PID values is outside the scope of this exercise but information on PID tuning is readily available from the web or textbooks on control. Dec 2007 Emant Pte Ltd 2

3 How it works One application of temperature control could be in the incubation of chickens. In such an incubator, it is important to maintain the temperature in the C temperature range ( C, if possible). Overheating the embryo is much more damaging than is under heating it; overheating speeds up embryo development, lowers the percentage of hatchability, and causes abnormal embryos. Long periods of low temperatures will reduce the rate of embryo development. Excessively low temperatures will kill the embryos. Avoid temperatures outside the C. range. If the temperature remains beyond either extreme for several days, hatchability may be severely reduced. One way to heat up the incubator would be to use a heating element. However, it is difficult to keep the temperature fairly constant using a lamp without some form of control. In our example, we used a 15ohm 3W resistor to simulate the heating element. A basic control solution comprises the following We measure the temperature using a thermistor and heat up the incubator using a lamp. We will use the proportional (P), the integral (I), and the derivative (D) controls (PID Control). PID Control First, let's take a look at how the PID controller works in a closed-loop system using the schematic shown above. The variable (e) represents the tracking error, the difference between the desired input value (R) and the actual output (T). This error signal (e) is sent to the PID controller. The signal (u) output from the controller is equal to the proportional gain (K p ) times the magnitude of the error plus the integral gain (K i ) times the integral of the error plus the derivative gain (K d ) times the derivative of the error. K p = Proportional gain K i = Integral gain K d = Derivative gain Dec 2007 Emant Pte Ltd 3

4 This signal (u) will be sent to the lamp, and the new output (T) will be obtained. This new output (T) will be sent back to the sensor again to find the new error signal (e). The controller takes this new error signal and computes its derivative and its integral again. This process goes on and on. A proportional controller (K p ) will have the effect of reducing the rise time and will reduce, but never eliminate, the steady-state error. An integral control (K i ) will have the effect of eliminating the steady-state error, but it may make the transient response worse. A derivative control (K d ) will have the effect of increasing the stability of the system, reducing the overshoot, and improving the transient response. Thermistor Thermistors are widely used because of their sensitivity, small size, ruggedness and low cost. Thermistors have an electrical resistance that varies non-linearly with temperature. The Resistance -Temperature characteristics of most thermistors can be described by the Steinhart-Hart equation: 1/T = A + B*(Ln R T ) + C*(Ln R T ) 3 R T is the resistance of the Thermistor, T is the absolute temperature (in Kelvin) and A, B, and C are constants which can be determined by measuring three sets of resistance and temperature values during calibration. Most thermistors have a negative temperature coefficient (NTC), their resistance decreases with increasing temperature. Thermistors are specified according to its nominal resistance at 25 o C and commonly available thermistors range from 250 ohms to 100 kohms The thermistor that we are using has the following characteristics Nominal 25 o C: 10 kohms negative temperature coefficient (NTC) As the DAQ module Analog Input measures only voltage, we will need to provide a current source to convert the resistance to voltage. We will use the 8 bit current DAC (digital to analog converter) and set the current to 100uA. As the thermistor VI has been already developed and explained in the application note Measuring Temperature using Thermistor, we will use the sub VI Temp Control Thermistor.VI Heater We will be using a 15ohm 3W resistor to act as the heating element. To reduce the heat from the electronics, we will drive the resistor by PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) using the BS170, a Small Signal N Channel MOSFET. A PWM circuit works by making a square wave with a variable on-to-off ratio; the average on time may be varied from 0 to 100 percent. In this manner, a variable amount of power is transferred to the load. The main advantage of a PWM circuit over a power amplifier is the efficiency. At a 50% level, the PWM will use about 50% of full power, almost all of which is transferred to the load. The BS170 can sink a maximum of 500 ma with a drain source voltage of up to 60 Volts. It Dec 2007 Emant Pte Ltd 4

5 reduces the current output requirement of the digital output which can drive a maximum of 20mA only. Schematic 15ohm Resistor Thermistor BS170 Dec 2007 Emant Pte Ltd 5

6 Block Diagram These VIs first initialises the EMANT300 and then configures the EMANT300 to use the PWM output rather than the counter. The sub VI Temp Control Thermistor.VI returns the temperature in Celsius as measured by the thermistor. In normal operation, this measured temperature value is then compared with the set value to generate the PID output. The PID output is between 0 to 100% and is used to drive the PWM output. The PID.vi is basically our LabVIEW implementation of the PID formula on page 3 The program also allows you to control the heater output manually by setting the manual override. Note that setting the PWM output to 0 turns off the heater and 100 turns on the heater completely. Dec 2007 Emant Pte Ltd 6

7 The PWM output is changed here. The period is fixed at 10msec. Only the duty cycle is changed. Finally upon exit, the program closes the connection to the EMANT300 USB DAQ Dec 2007 Emant Pte Ltd 7

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