Rome Becomes an Empire. Pre-AP World History Chapter 6.2 (pages )

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1 Rome Becomes an Empire Pre-AP World History Chapter 6.2 (pages )

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3 The Big Picture Angry poor people, power-hungry generals, and ambitious politicians threatened the Roman Republic. There was a widening gap between the rich and poor. Julius Caesar gained absolute control of the republic but did not rule long. After Caesar was assassinated, Augustus founded an empire that enjoyed peace and prosperity for about 207 years. We call this Pax Romana.

4 Conflicts at Home as Rome begins to expand

5 So What s Happening in Rome at This Point? The Gap Between Rich & Poor is Growing Wealthy Romans buy up lands from small farmers who were off fighting in wars creating Latifundia (large estates) These wealthy Romans are ignoring their civic duties just want $ The Latifundias (large estates) used slave labor so small farmers couldn t compete = massive unemployment Unemployed moved to cities (bread & circuses) Corruption (i.e. Roman governors stealing) As differences increased between rich and poor, there was a constant threat of uprisings

6 Slave revolts SPARTACUS Former Greek mercenary Led slave revolt 70,000 slaves Cost Rome: Men Money Resources Weakened confidence in leadership

7 The reformers The Gracchi brothers Tiberius and Gaius Wanted to restore the small farms Wanted to institute land reform by limiting the sizes of Latifundias. Wanted to give the land to the poor. Both were assassinated Assassination becomes the new political tool

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9 Attempts at Reform Fail The Writing is on the wall-- The days of the Republic were numbered!

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11 A Civil War results Generals who had conquered other lands wanted power at home Hired poor farmers as soldiers who became loyal to generals Generals began civil war (war between groups within same country) A general named Marius fought for the plebeians A general named Sulla fought for the patricians Patricians won in 82 B.C.E.; Sulla became dictator

12 Review Question: Who fought in the civil war?

13 Eventually, Julius Caesar emerged to bring order to Rome

14 An Ambitious General After Sulla s death, other generals rose to power One was Julius Caesar born around 100 B.C.E. into an old, noble family that had lost most of its wealth

15 Military Leader Caesar fought in Asia Minor and Spain He proved himself a great general in a military campaign against Gaul Caesar s conquest of Gaul brought him fame and fortune

16 First Triumvirate A Triumvirate is rule by three people Caesar formed the First Triumvirate with Pompey and Crassus in which they would rule equally

17 Dictator for Life Caesar--great politician, reformer (popular w/plebeians) Many powerful Romans, including patrician senators distrusted Caesar Pompey (former ally/triumvirate) began to fear Caesar Senate ordered Caesar to return from Gaul and to disband army (at Pompey s suggestion) Caesar instead led army to Italy, and fought Pompey for control (a civil war); Pompey flees The First Triumvirate (three rulers) was done. (Cassus had previously died in battle) Senate appointed Caesar dictator for life in 44 B.C.E.

18 Table Talk We know that when Rome became a republic, a guiding principle to the formation of the republic and its constitution was that power would not rest in the hands of one sole person. How does that jive with Caesar being made a dictator for life? What s another name we could call Caesar? (Another name for Dictator for life?) If we could call Caesar king, then why didn t they?

19 Caesar s reforms Caesar was an absolute ruler, but started some reforms Expanded Senate, enforced laws, created jobs (public works projects), set-up colonies to give land to poor, gave out free grain, set-up the Julian calendar (365 days + leap year )

20 Either you loved him or you hated him Some people thought Caesar was a wise ruler who brought peace to Rome Others thought he was a tyrant who wanted to be King, and create a dynasty

21 Assassination! And His Caesar was assassinated on March 15, 44 B.C.E. by a group of senators (led by Brutus) They repeatedly stabbed him on the Senate floor Groups leaders were eventually killed or committed suicide Legacy

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23 Review Question: Why was Caesar killed?

24 Emperors Rule Rome Essential Question: What happened to Rome after Caesar s death?

25 Civil War happened again After Caesar s death, civil war destroyed what was left of republic A Second Triumvirate was formed which included Octavian (Caesar s nephew and adopted son) and Marc Antony (ill-fated lover of Cleopatra) Octavian changed name to Augustus Caesar (Augustus means exalted one ) Augustus wanted more power and a civil war broke out between in which he led Roman legions against Marc Antony and his Egyptian allies Augustus won and became Rome s first emperor This effectively ended the Roman Republic

26 Spread of slavery in the agricultural system Causes for the decline of the Roman Republic Migration of small farmers into cities and unemployment Civil war over the power of Julius Caesar Devaluation of Roman currency; inflation

27 Rome Becomes an empire ruled by one man Augustus

28 Welcome to imperial Rome

29 Augustus Rebuilds Augustus became Rome s first emperor Used title first citizen But fails to provide for successor Controlled provinces, strengthened defenses, began civil service Beautified Rome by building temples, theaters, monuments Rome

30 The Roman Peace Augustus reign began Pax Romana long period of peace and stability (207 years) under Imperial rule. Empire grew to greatest size, 3 million miles with 1 million people living in Rome Roman army of 300,000 men became greatest fighting force in world

31 Pax Romana Two centuries of peace and prosperity under imperial rule Expansion and solidification of the Roman Empire, particularly in the Near East occurred during the Pax Romana

32 Rome after augustus Pax Romana continued after Augustus death in A.D. 14 The Peace lasted for 207 years (two centuries) Empire continues to thrive under government begun by Augustus Imperial Rome failed to provide for peaceful succession of Emperors Rome was unified and enlarged. It was using imperial authority and the military.

33 Agriculture and Trade = A strong economy Agriculture = most important industry 90 % of people engaged in farming Denarius (silver coins) made trade easier Vast trading network (including India & China) Complex network of Silk Road/Army Roads linked Rome to far-away places (southern Russia) Romans produced pottery, metal goods, glass, wine, olive oil & brought back grain, ivory, silk, spices, gold and silver

34 Currency Denarius coins During the Pax Romana, a uniform system of money was established, which helped to expand trade.

35 Other impacts of The Pax Romana Provided safe travel & trade on Roman roads Promoted economic prosperity and stability Established uniform system of money, which helped to expand trade Returned stability to social classes (jobs) Increased emphasis on the family Created a civil service Developed a uniform rule of law

36 Summary The results of Roman expansion produced social conflict and civil war. Julius Caesar gained power and became a dictator and was assassinated. The reign of Augustus Caesar began a long period of imperial rule and peace in the Roman Empire. The Roman Republic became the Roman Empire.

37 Why It Matters Now Rome faced many of the same problems that we face today of how to maintain peace, law, and order.

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