Chapter 8 Harvesting Energy: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration

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1 Chapter 8 Harvesting Energy: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration

2 What is Glucose Metabolism? Answer: The breakdown of glucose to release energy from its chemical bonds Photosynthesis: 6 CO H 2 O + Light Energy = C 6 H 12 O O 2 Carbon Dioxide Water Glucose Oxygen Glucose Metabolism: C 6 H 12 O O 2 = 6 CO H 2 O + Energy Glucose Oxygen Carbon Dioxide Water Chemical Heat

3 Major Steps of Glucose Metabolism Glucose Mitochondria 1) Glycolysis (2 ATP) Cytoplasm Oxygen present (Aerobic) Pyruvate No oxygen present (Anaerobic) (36 ATP) 3) Cellular Respiration 2) Fermentation Carbon Dioxide Water Ethanol Lactate

4 Major Steps in Glucose Metabolism: (Figure 8.1)

5 1) Glycolysis (Greek: To break down a sweet ) Ancient biochemical pathway (all organisms do it...) Occurs in the cytoplasm; Does not require oxygen Two Major Components: A) Glucose Activation: Initiate the reaction (takes energy) 2 ATP 2 ADP C C C C Glucose C C (Activation Energy) C C C x 2 P Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P)

6 1) Glycolysis (Greek: To break down a sweet ) Ancient biochemical pathway (all organisms do it...) Occurs in the cytoplasm; Does not require oxygen Two Major Components: A) Glucose Activation: Initiate the reaction (takes energy) B) Energy Harvesting: Complete the reaction (makes energy) 4 ADP 4 ATP C C C x 2 P Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate 2 NAD + 2 NADH C C C x 2 Pyruvate

7 Glycolysis in Review: Net ATP Gain = 2 ATP (Figure 8.2)

8 Major Steps of Glucose Metabolism Glucose 1) Glycolysis (2 ATP) Oxygen present (Aerobic) Pyruvate No oxygen present (Anaerobic) (36 ATP) 3) Cellular Respiration 2) Fermentation Carbon Dioxide Water Ethanol Lactate

9 2) Fermentation: Process for regenerating NAD + for glycolysis Occurs in organisms which live where oxygen is rare Intestines / stomach; soils / sediments / bogs Two Types of Fermentation: A) Lactate Fermentation: Pyruvate converted to lactate (lactic acid) 2 NADH 2 NAD + (Back to glycolysis) C C C x 2 Pyruvate C C C x 2 Lactate

10 Lactate Fermentation:

11

12 2) Fermentation: Process for regenerating NAD + for glycolysis Occurs in organisms which live where oxygen is rare Intestines / stomach; soils / sediments / bogs Two Types of Fermentation: A) Lactate Fermentation: Pyruvate converted to lactate (lactic acid) B) Alcoholic Fermentation: Pyruvate converted to ethanol and CO 2 2 NADH 2 NAD + (Back to glycolysis) C C C x 2 C C x 2 + C x 2 Pyruvate Ethanol Carbon Dioxide

13 Alcohol Fermentation:

14 Yeast

15 Major Steps of Glucose Metabolism Glucose 1) Glycolysis (2 ATP) Oxygen present (Aerobic) Pyruvate No oxygen present (Anaerobic) (36 ATP) 3) Cellular Respiration 2) Fermentation Carbon Dioxide Water Ethanol Lactate

16 3) Cellular Respiration: Series of reactions producing ATP Occurs in mitochondria / requires oxygen Pyruvate + O 2 = CO 2 + H 2 O + ATP Oxygen Carbon Dioxide Water Chemical Energy

17 Recall from Chapter 5: Mitochondria has two membranes: 1) Outer Membrane (smooth) 2) Inner Membrane (folded - cristae)

18 Recall from Chapter 5: Chapter 8: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration The two membranes provide two separate compartments: 1) Intermembrane Compartment Lies between inner and outer membrane 2) Matrix (lies within inner membrane)

19 3) Cellular Respiration - Sequence of Events: A) Formation of Acetyl CoA: Pyruvate diffuses into mitochondrial matrix Down concentration gradient (via pores) ( C ) Coenzyme A CO 2 C C C x 2 C C -CoA x 2 Pyruvate NAD + NADH Acetyl CoA

20 3) Cellular Respiration - Sequence of Events: B) Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle): C C -CoA (x 2) Acetyl CoA 3 NAD + (x 2) 3 NADH (x 2) ATP ADP Krebs Cycle FAD (x 2) ( C C ) 2 CO 2 (x 2) FADH 2

21 The True Story: DO NOT COPY!

22 Review: Chapter 8: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration (Figure 8.5)

23 3) Cellular Respiration - Energy Checklist: What energy molecules have we produced so far: 1) 2 ATP (from glycolysis) 2) 2 ATP (from Krebs cycle) 3) Multiple Electron-carrier Molecules: 2 NADH (from glycolysis) 8 NADH (from Krebs cycle) 2 FADH 2 (from Krebs cycle)

24 3) Cellular Respiration - Sequence of Events: C) Electron Transport System Place where electron-carrier molecules unload their electrons Located in inner mitochondrial membrane Intermembrane Compartment H + H + H + Outer Membrane 2e - ETS Inner Membrane Matrix NADH FADH 2 NAD + FAD 1/2 O H + H 2 O

25 Electron Transport Chain: cyanide (Figure 8.6)

26 Sequence of Events in Cellular Respiration: 4) Chemiosmosis: Captures energy stored in hydrogen ion gradient and produces ATP Located in inner mitochondrial membrane Intermembrane Compartment H + H + H + H + H+ H + H + H + H + H + H + H + Outer Membrane H + H + ETS H+ ion channel Inner Membrane ADP ATP Matrix H + 32 ATP

27 Chemiosmosis: Chapter 8: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration ATP diffuses out of mitochondria to provide energy for cellular processes (See A Closer Look - Chemiosmosis: Pg. 142)

28 Final Tally of Energy Production: One Molecule of Glucose Yields ATP Yippee! (Figure 8.1)

29 How Various Biomolecules Yield Energy: Fats: Glycerol glycolysis Fatty Acids Krebs cycle Proteins: Enter at multiple stages Reversal true as well: Glucose Fats (See Health Watch - Pg. 134)

30

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