LUNG CANCER FACTSHEET

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "LUNG CANCER FACTSHEET"

Transcription

1 The lungs The parts of the respiratory system The lungs are part of the body system we use for breathing. This is called the respiratory system. It is made up of the: Nose and mouth Windpipe (trachea) Airways to each lung (the right main bronchus and left main bronchus) The lungs The windpipe divides into two airways. These are called the right main bronchus and left main bronchus. One goes to each lung. Within the lungs, the bronchi (the plural of bronchus) divide into smaller tubes called the secondary bronchi. There are two of these on the left side and three on the right. This is because the lungs are slightly different on each side. The right lung is divided into 3 sections called the upper, middle and lower lobes. The left lung is divided into 2 sections called the upper and lower lobes. You may hear your doctor talk about the lobes of the lung. Each secondary bronchus divides into smaller tubes called bronchioles. The pleura The pleura are 2 fibrous sheets of tissue that cover the lungs and help to protect them. Doctors usually call these the lining of the lungs, although for non medical people this can be a bit confusing as they are on the outside. The pleura are also sometimes called the pleural membranes. The gap between the pleura is called the pleural space. The pleura produce a lubricating fluid that fills the gap between them. This helps the lungs to move smoothly in the chest when they are inflating and deflating as we breathe. Lung cancer can spread to the pleura. The cancer irritates the pleura and they then make too much fluid. The fluid collects and takes up space that the lung should occupy when you are breathing in. So your lung can't expand as much as it should and you feel breathless. If you have too much fluid between the pleura, this is called a pleural effusion. How the lungs work The lungs bring oxygen into our bodies and pass it into the bloodstream so that it can circulate to every body cell. We use the muscles of our chests and a large flat muscle called the diaphragm (di-a-fram) to draw air into the lungs. The diaphragm is at the base of the chest cavity, just above the stomach. The chest cavity is sealed so that when you breathe in and the muscles make it bigger, this causes a vacuum inside, which draws the air in through your nose and right down into the lungs. This is why a wound to the chest can cause a lung to collapse - the wound breaks the seal. At the end of the smallest airways in the lungs (the secondary bronchii) are the smallest tubes, the bronchioles. These carry air throughout the lungs. At the end of the bronchioles are air sacs called alveoli. There are millions of these tiny sacs. This is where oxygen is absorbed into the bloodstream from the air that we breathe in. Once in the blood, the oxygen can travel throughout the body and reach every body cell. As oxygen is being absorbed, carbon dioxide is passing back into the alveoli from the bloodstream. This is waste gas that is removed from the body as we breathe out. Source: People with concerns about their own health should contact their GP or cancer team

2 Types of lung cancer Primary lung cancer There are two main types of primary lung cancer which behave and respond to treatment quite differently. They are: small cell lung cancer (SCLC) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) About 1 in 5 lung cancers are small cell, the rest are non-small cell. Non-small cell cancer There are three main types of non-small cell lung cancer. Sometimes it is not possible to tell which type someone has. This is because when the cells are looked at under a microscope they are definitely malignant but lack specific features. The three types are: Squamous cell carcinoma, which is the commonest type of lung cancer. It develops in the cells which line the airways. This type of lung cancer is often caused by smoking. Adenocarcinoma, which develops from the cells which produce mucus (phlegm) in the lining of the airways. Large cell carcinoma gets its name from the large, rounded cells that are seen when they are examined under the microscope. It is sometimes known as undifferentiated carcinoma. Mesothelioma A less common type of cancer that can affect the pleura of the lungs is called mesothelioma. It is a cancer of the membrane which covers the surface of the lungs and lines the inside of the chest. It usually occurs in people who have been exposed to asbestos. Causes of lung cancer Smoking Source: WCISU Cigarette smoking is known to be the cause of most lung cancers. Lung cancer can also develop in people who do not smoke, although this is much rarer. The risk of developing lung cancer increases with the number of cigarettes smoked, and if people start to smoke at a young age. Filtered and low tar cigarettes may slightly reduce a person s risk of developing cancer, but it is still far greater than that of a non-smoker. Lung cancer has always been more common in men, particularly those over the age of 40, as more men used to smoke than women. However, as more women have started smoking, the number of women developing lung cancer has gone up considerably. Stopping smoking If a person stops smoking, the risk of lung cancer goes down quite quickly, and after about fifteen years, that person s chances of developing the disease are similar to that of a non-smoker. Passive smoking It now appears that breathing in other people s cigarette smoke, known as passive smoking, slightly increases the risk of lung disease and cancer, although the risk is still much less than if you smoke yourself. Cannabis Smoking cannabis may also increase the risk of lung cancer. Although less is known about the harmful effects of smoking cannabis, it is believed to cause similar damage to the cells in the lungs, as smoking tobacco. Pipes and cigars Although pipe and cigar smokers have a lower risk of lung cancer than cigarette smokers, they are at a much greater risk than non smokers. Genetic risk In some families, smokers may be more likely to develop lung cancer due to an inherited faulty gene. At present, we do not know what this gene is. Asbestos People who have been in prolonged or close contact with asbestos have a higher risk of lung cancer, especially if they smoke. Asbestos and tobacco smoke act together to increase the risk. Many people have been in contact with asbestos during their working lives. Low-level exposure increases the risk of lung cancer only slightly, compared to the risk from smoking, while heavy exposure may result in a much higher risk of lung cancer. Asbestos exposure also increases the risk of mesothelioma, a cancer of the membranes which cover the lungs. If you have worked with asbestos and developed lung cancer, you may be able to claim compensation or be paid Industrial Injuries Disablement Benefit. You can get more advice about this from your cancer doctor or from support organisations. Radon gas In some parts of the UK, such as the West Country and the Peak District, a naturally occurring gas called radon can pass from the soil into the foundations of buildings. It is now thought that this gas, in high concentrations, may increase the risk of developing lung cancer. If you are worried about this, you can get a radon detector to measure the level of radon in your house, from the radiation protection division of the Health Protection Agency. They can also advise you on what you can do to reduce the risk. Other causes Contact with certain chemicals and substances, such as uranium, chromium and nickel, can cause lung cancer, but these are very rare causes. Air pollution has been suggested as a cause of lung cancer but this is difficult to prove. Source:

3 What are the symptoms of lung cancer? Initial symptoms of lung cancer are non specific but include: Persistent cough. Coughing up blood, or bloodstained sputum. Chest pains. Shortness of breath or wheezing - especially if a tumour is growing in a main airway and is partially blocking the airflow. Clubbing. This is an odd shape of the fingernails. It is not clear why this develops but it is a 'marker' for lung cancer and other diseases which doctors may notice when they examine you. Some lung cancers do not cause any symptoms until they are quite advanced. As the cancer grows in the lung, the symptoms may become worse and may include: The same symptoms as above, but more severe. You may feel generally unwell, tired, or lose weight. Pneumonia (lung infection) may develop in a part of a lung 'blocked off' by a growing tumour. Fluid may accumulate between the lung and chest wall (pleural effusion). This can cause worsening shortness of breath. A tumour near to the top of the lung can press on nerves going down the arm and cause pain and weakness in the arm and shoulder, and other effects from 'trapped' nerves. Swelling of the face (face oedema) may develop if a tumour presses on a main vein coming towards the heart from the head. Some small cell tumours can produce large amounts of hormones which can cause symptoms in other parts of your body. If the cancer spreads to other parts of the body, various other symptoms can develop. How is lung cancer diagnosed? If a doctor suspects that you may have lung cancer, the common initial test is a chest x-ray. This is a simple and quick test, and may show changes such as abnormal shadowing. However, a chest x-ray cannot confirm cancer as there are various causes of shadowing on a chest x-ray. Other tests are needed. Confirming the diagnosis For all suspected cancers, it is best to confirm the diagnosis by getting a small sample or 'biopsy'. The biopsy sample is then examined under the microscope to look for the abnormal cells of cancer. The type of cancer can also be determined from the sample (and other causes of the symptoms or abnormal tissue ruled out.) One or more of the following procedures may be done to obtain a sample for testing. Bronchoscopy is the most common procedure to look into the airways and to obtain a biopsy from a tumour in a main airway. A bronchoscope is a thin, flexible, telescope. It is about as thick as a pencil. The bronchoscope is passed through the nose or mouth, down the back of the throat, into the windpipe (trachea), and down into the bronchi. A bronchoscope has a side channel down which a thin 'grabbing' instrument can pass. This can be used to take a small biopsy from tissue on the inside lining of a bronchi. Source: Sputum cytology. You may be asked to collect some sputum (phlegm). Cancer cells can sometimes be seen by looking at sputum with a microscope but this is rarely done. Fine-needle biopsy. This is where a doctor inserts a thin needle through the chest wall to obtain a small sample of tissue. X-ray pictures of the suspected tumour help to guide the doctor to insert the needle into a suspected tumour. The skin is numbed with local anaesthetic to make the test as painless as possible.

4 How is lung cancer diagnosed? continued.. Pleural tap. If you have an accumulation of fluid next to the lung which may be due to a tumour, some fluid can be drained with a fine needle (similar to the above). The fluid is examined for cancer cells. Mediastinoscopy. This is used to inspect and biopsy lymph nodes in the centre of the chest (the mediastinum). It is usually done under a general anaesthetic. An instrument similar to a bronchoscope is used. A small cut is made in the neck and the instrument is pushed down next to the trachea. Thoracoscopy. Sometimes an instrument similar to a bronchoscope is inserted through a cut in the chest wall. This is done under general or local anaesthetic. It enables a doctor to see and biopsy lung tissue directly. Assessing the extent and spread If you are confirmed to have lung cancer, further tests may be done to assess if it has spread. For example, a CT scan, an MRI scan, a bone scan, a PET scan, or other tests. This assessment is called 'staging' of the cancer. The aim of staging is to find out: How much the cancer in the lung has grown. Whether the cancer has spread to local lymph nodes or to other areas of the lungs. Whether the cancer has spread to other areas of the body (metastasised). By finding out the stage of the cancer it helps doctors to advise on the best treatment options. It also gives a reasonable indication of outlook (prognosis). Staging of lung cancer The stage of a cancer is a term used to describe its size, position and whether it has spread beyond where it started in the body. Knowing the extent of the cancer helps the doctors to decide on the most appropriate treatment. Generally cancer is divided into four stages: small and localised (stage one); has spread into surrounding structures (stages two or three); or has spread to other parts of the body (stage four). If the cancer has spread to distant parts of the body, this is known as secondary cancer (or metastatic cancer). The staging is different for small cell and for non-small cell cancers of the lung. Small cell lung cancer Small cell lung cancers are divided into just two stages. This is because small cell lung cancer often spreads outside the lung quite early on. Even if the doctor cannot see any spread of the cancer on your scans, it is likely that some cancer cells will have broken away and travelled through the bloodstream or lymph system. To be safe, small cell lung cancers are usually treated as though they have spread, whether any secondary cancer can be seen or not. The two stages of small cell lung cancers are: Limited disease the cancer cells can be seen only in one lung, in nearby lymph nodes, or in fluid around the lung (known as a pleural effusion). Extensive disease it is clear that the cancer has spread outside the lung, within the chest area or to other parts of the body. Non-small cell lung cancer Non-small cell lung cancer is usually divided into four stages. Stage 1 cancer is very localised and has not spread to the lymph nodes. This stage is divided in two: Stage 1A the cancer is no bigger than 3cm in size. Stage 1B the cancer is larger than 3cm, or it is growing into the main airway of the lung (bronchus). The cancer may also have spread into the inner covering of the lung (pleura) or made the lung partially collapse. Stage 2 non-small cell lung cancer is also divided in two: Stage 2A the cancer is small, measuring 3cm or less in size, and nearby lymph nodes are affected. Stage 2B the cancer is larger than 3cm and in the nearby lymph nodes, OR there is no cancer in the lymph nodes, but the tumour has grown into the chest wall, the outer covering of the lung (pleura), the muscle layer below the lungs (diaphragm), the covering of the heart, or it has made the whole lung collapse. Source:

5 Staging continued... Stage 3 is also divided in two: Stage 3A the cancer is of any size and has spread into the lymph nodes in the middle of the chest (mediastinum), but not to the other side of the chest. OR, the cancer has spread into tissue around the lung near to where the cancer started. This can be into the chest wall, the covering of the lung (pleura), the middle of the chest (mediastinum) or other lymph nodes close to the affected lung. Stage 3B the cancer has spread to lymph nodes on either side of the chest or above either collar bone. OR the cancer has spread into another major structure; such as the gullet (oesophagus), the heart, windpipe or a main blood vessel. OR there are two or more tumours in the same lung. OR there is a collection of fluid containing cancer cells around the lung. Stage 4 lung cancer has spread to a distant part of the body, such as the liver or the brain. Source: What are the treatment options for lung cancer? Options which may be considered include surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy or a combination of treatments. The treatment advised for each case depends on various factors such as the site of the primary tumour in the lung, the type of the cancer, the stage of the cancer (how large the cancer is and whether it has spread), and your general health. You should have a full discussion with a specialist who knows your case. They will be able to give the pros and cons, likely success rate, possible side-effects, and other details about the various possible treatment options for your type of cancer. You should also discuss with your specialist the aims of treatment. For example: Treatment may aim to cure the cancer. Some lung cancers can be cured, particularly if they are treated in the early stages of the disease. (Doctors tend to use the word 'remission' rather than the word 'cured'. Remission means there is no evidence of cancer following treatment. If you are 'in remission', you may be cured. However, in some cases a cancer returns months or years later. This is why doctors are sometimes reluctant to use the word cured.) Treatment may aim to control the cancer. If a cure is not realistic, with treatment it is often possible to limit the growth or spread of the cancer so that it progresses less rapidly. This may keep you free of symptoms for some time. Treatment may aim to ease symptoms. Even if a cure is not possible, treatments may be used to reduce the size of a cancer which may ease symptoms such as pain. If a cancer is advanced then you may require treatments such as nutritional supplements, painkillers, or other techniques to help keep you free of pain or other symptoms. Surgery An operation may be an option if the cancer is in an early stage. Surgery usually involves removing part or all of an affected lung. However, in many cases, the cancer has already spread when it is diagnosed and surgery is not usually then an option. Also, surgery may not be an option if your general health is poor. For example, if you have other lung problems such as chronic obstructive airways disease (COPD) which is also common in smokers. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy Briefly: Radiotherapy is a treatment which uses high energy beams of radiation which are focussed on cancerous tumours. This kills cancer cells, or stops cancer cells from multiplying. Chemotherapy is a treatment of cancer by using anti-cancer drugs which kill cancer cells, or stop them from multiplying. Prevention The biggest step towards preventing lung cancer is for smokers to stop smoking and for non-smokers never to start. The risk of lung cancer in an ex-smoker will reduce with every year of non-smoking so it's never too late to give up smoking. Although lung cancer is only one of several serious diseases caused by cigarette smoking, it is often the most distressing because it is almost completely preventable. Source:

6 * Please note the following information is for Wales only * Summary There were on average 1348 male cases of lung cancer per annum registered during the period and for females there were on average 819 cases. This cancer is ranked 2 nd most common for both males and females. Mortality : incidence ratios for are high at 85.2% for males and 82.9% for females. This site also has one of the highest overall Death Certificate Only (cases registered by death certificate) rates with 9.6% for males and 9.9% for females. Males Females Average registrations per annum ( ) Relative Frequency 17.2% 10.7% Rank 2nd 2nd Mean age at diagnosis (years) Cumulative Rate (0-64 years) 2.0% 1.2% Cumulative Rate (0-74 years) 6.0% 3.2% Percentage Annual Change in EASR (incidence) -2.5%** 1.2%** Percentage Annual Change in EASR (mortality) -2.9%** 0.6%* Percentage Death Certificate Only 9.6% 9.9% Average deaths per annum ( ) Mortality:Incidence Ratio ( ) 85.2% 82.9% * Significant at 5% level ** Significant at 1% level Number of incident cases and age-specific rates, Number of Cases ecific Rate per 100,000 population Age Spe 0 Under Age Group Male Cases Female Cases Male ASR Female ASR Prevalence Statistics (at 31st December 2006) in Wales Males Number Rate per 100,000 % prev in pop % in each time interval Up to 1 year >1 to 5 years >5 to 10 years >10 to 20 years Total up to 20 years Females Number Rate per 100,000 % prev in pop % in each time interval Up to 1 year >1 to 5 years >5 to 10 years >10 to 20 years Total up to 20 years

7 Trends in Incidence Males Total Crude Rate EASR WASR Females Total Crude Rate EASR WASR

About lung cancer. Contents. The lungs

About lung cancer. Contents. The lungs This information is an extract from the booklet Understanding lung cancer. You may find the full booklet helpful. We can send you a free copy see page 7. The lungs Contents The lungs Types of lung cancer

More information

Lung Cancer. This reference summary will help you better understand lung cancer and the treatment options that are available.

Lung Cancer. This reference summary will help you better understand lung cancer and the treatment options that are available. Lung Cancer Introduction Lung cancer is the number one cancer killer of men and women. Over 165,000 people die of lung cancer every year in the United States. Most cases of lung cancer are related to cigarette

More information

Lung Cancer Understanding your diagnosis

Lung Cancer Understanding your diagnosis Lung Cancer Understanding your diagnosis Lung Cancer Understanding your diagnosis When you first hear that you have cancer you may feel alone and afraid. You may be overwhelmed by the large amount of information

More information

Lung Cancer: Diagnosis, Staging and Treatment

Lung Cancer: Diagnosis, Staging and Treatment PATIENT EDUCATION patienteducation.osumc.edu Lung Cancer: Diagnosis, Staging and Treatment Cancer starts in our cells. Cells are the building blocks of our tissues. Tissues make up the organs of the body.

More information

Mesothelioma. 1995-2013, The Patient Education Institute, Inc. www.x-plain.com ocft0101 Last reviewed: 03/21/2013 1

Mesothelioma. 1995-2013, The Patient Education Institute, Inc. www.x-plain.com ocft0101 Last reviewed: 03/21/2013 1 Mesothelioma Introduction Mesothelioma is a type of cancer. It starts in the tissue that lines your lungs, stomach, heart, and other organs. This tissue is called mesothelium. Most people who get this

More information

Small cell lung cancer

Small cell lung cancer Small cell lung cancer Small cell lung cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the lung. The lungs are a pair of cone-shaped breathing organs that are found within

More information

Lung Cancer. Understanding your diagnosis

Lung Cancer. Understanding your diagnosis Lung Cancer Understanding your diagnosis Lung Cancer Understanding your diagnosis When you first hear that you have cancer, you may feel alone and afraid. You may be overwhelmed by the large amount of

More information

Lung Cancer: Diagnosis, Staging and Treatment

Lung Cancer: Diagnosis, Staging and Treatment PATIENT EDUCATION patienteducation.osumc.edu Lung Cancer: Diagnosis, Staging and Treatment Cancer begins in our cells. Cells are the building blocks of our tissues. Tissues make up the organs of the body.

More information

Disease/Illness GUIDE TO ASBESTOS LUNG CANCER. What Is Asbestos Lung Cancer? www.simpsonmillar.co.uk Telephone 0844 858 3200

Disease/Illness GUIDE TO ASBESTOS LUNG CANCER. What Is Asbestos Lung Cancer? www.simpsonmillar.co.uk Telephone 0844 858 3200 GUIDE TO ASBESTOS LUNG CANCER What Is Asbestos Lung Cancer? Like tobacco smoking, exposure to asbestos can result in the development of lung cancer. Similarly, the risk of developing asbestos induced lung

More information

General Information About Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

General Information About Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer General Information About Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Non-small cell lung cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the lung. The lungs are a pair of cone-shaped breathing

More information

Asbestos and your lungs

Asbestos and your lungs This information describes what asbestos is and the lung conditions that are caused by exposure to it. It also includes information about what to do if you have been exposed to asbestos, and the benefits

More information

There are a number of other carcinogens (cancer causing agents) that are believed to be associated with lung cancer, and are reviewed elsewhere.

There are a number of other carcinogens (cancer causing agents) that are believed to be associated with lung cancer, and are reviewed elsewhere. Lung Cancer What is cancer? First, some background on the way the body is built. Organs, like the heart, liver, and lung, are made up of tissues, such as blood vessels and muscle. Tissues, in turn, are

More information

Mesothelioma and Asbestos

Mesothelioma and Asbestos CANCER INFORMATION FACTSHEET Mesothelioma and Asbestos The information in this factsheet will help you to understand more about mesothelioma. It is an agreed view on this cancer by medical experts. We

More information

Clinical Anatomy and Physiology of the Chest and Lungs

Clinical Anatomy and Physiology of the Chest and Lungs C H A P T E R Clinical Anatomy and Physiology of the Chest and Lungs 1 1 Many health workers have difficulty understanding and interpreting the clinical signs and symptoms of respiratory diseases. With

More information

Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer About Your Lungs and Lung Cancer How do your lungs work? To understand lung cancer it is helpful to understand your lungs. Your lungs put oxygen into the blood, which the heart

More information

Mesothelioma: Questions and Answers

Mesothelioma: Questions and Answers CANCER FACTS N a t i o n a l C a n c e r I n s t i t u t e N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e s o f H e a l t h D e p a r t m e n t o f H e a l t h a n d H u m a n S e r v i c e s Mesothelioma: Questions

More information

Understanding Pleural Mesothelioma

Understanding Pleural Mesothelioma Understanding Pleural Mesothelioma UHN Information for patients and families Read this booklet to learn about: What is pleural mesothelioma? What causes it? What are the symptoms? What tests are done to

More information

Emphysema. Introduction Emphysema is a type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD. COPD affects about 64 million people worldwide.

Emphysema. Introduction Emphysema is a type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD. COPD affects about 64 million people worldwide. Emphysema Introduction Emphysema is a type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD. COPD affects about 64 million people worldwide. Emphysema involves damage to the air sacs in the lungs. This

More information

Mesothelioma and Asbestos

Mesothelioma and Asbestos Cancer information factsheet Mesothelioma and Asbestos The information in this factsheet will help you to understand more about mesothelioma. It is an agreed view on this cancer by medical experts. We

More information

Asbestos Related Diseases

Asbestos Related Diseases Asbestos Related Diseases Asbestosis Mesothelioma Lung Cancer Pleural Disease Asbestosis and Mesothelioma (LUNG CANCER) Support Group 1800 017 758 www.amsg.com.au ii Helping you and your family through

More information

Mediastinoscopy: Lymph Node Biopsy

Mediastinoscopy: Lymph Node Biopsy Mediastinoscopy: Lymph Node Biopsy When You Need Mediastinoscopy Your doctor thinks that you have a lung problem. Something suspicious may have been found on a test. Your doctor now recommends that you

More information

Mesothelioma Understanding your diagnosis

Mesothelioma Understanding your diagnosis Mesothelioma Understanding your diagnosis Mesothelioma Understanding your diagnosis When you first hear that you have cancer, you may feel alone and afraid. You may be overwhelmed by the large amount of

More information

Lung cancer. Lung cancer: English

Lung cancer. Lung cancer: English Lung cancer: English Lung cancer This fact sheet is about how lung cancer is diagnosed and treated. We also have fact sheets in your language about chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery, side effects of

More information

Asbestos Related Diseases. Asbestosis Mesothelioma Lung Cancer Pleural Disease. connecting raising awareness supporting advocating

Asbestos Related Diseases. Asbestosis Mesothelioma Lung Cancer Pleural Disease. connecting raising awareness supporting advocating Asbestos Related Diseases Asbestosis Mesothelioma Lung Cancer Pleural Disease connecting raising awareness supporting advocating 1800 017 758 www.asbestosassociation.com.au Asbestos lagging was widely

More information

CHAPTER 1: THE LUNGS AND RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

CHAPTER 1: THE LUNGS AND RESPIRATORY SYSTEM CHAPTER 1: THE LUNGS AND RESPIRATORY SYSTEM INTRODUCTION Lung cancer affects a life-sustaining system of the body, the respiratory system. The respiratory system is responsible for one of the essential

More information

Introduction Breast cancer is cancer that starts in the cells of the breast. Breast cancer happens mainly in women. But men can get it too.

Introduction Breast cancer is cancer that starts in the cells of the breast. Breast cancer happens mainly in women. But men can get it too. Male Breast Cancer Introduction Breast cancer is cancer that starts in the cells of the breast. Breast cancer happens mainly in women. But men can get it too. Many people do not know that men can get breast

More information

Treating Mesothelioma - A Quick Guide

Treating Mesothelioma - A Quick Guide Treating Mesothelioma - A Quick Guide Contents This is a brief summary of the information on Treating mesothelioma from CancerHelp UK. You will find more detailed information on the website. In this information

More information

Mesothelioma is almost always caused by exposure to asbestos and can develop decades after the exposure.

Mesothelioma is almost always caused by exposure to asbestos and can develop decades after the exposure. Mesothelioma Summary Mesothelioma is a rare type of cancer that can develop decades after exposure to asbestos. Mesothelioma usually targets the outer membrane of the lungs (pleura), but can also occur

More information

What If I Have a Spot on My Lung? Do I Have Cancer? Patient Education Guide

What If I Have a Spot on My Lung? Do I Have Cancer? Patient Education Guide What If I Have a Spot on My Lung? Do I Have Cancer? Patient Education Guide A M E R I C A N C O L L E G E O F C H E S T P H Y S I C I A N S Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers. About 170,000

More information

Thymus Cancer. This reference summary will help you better understand what thymus cancer is and what treatment options are available.

Thymus Cancer. This reference summary will help you better understand what thymus cancer is and what treatment options are available. Thymus Cancer Introduction Thymus cancer is a rare cancer. It starts in the small organ that lies in the upper chest under the breastbone. The thymus makes white blood cells that protect the body against

More information

Lung Cancer. Know how to stay strong

Lung Cancer. Know how to stay strong Lung Cancer Know how to stay strong What is cancer? 2 Cancer is a disease when some cells in the body grow out of control Normal cells Your body has many tiny cells and keeps making new cells to keep you

More information

Brain Cancer. This reference summary will help you understand how brain tumors are diagnosed and what options are available to treat them.

Brain Cancer. This reference summary will help you understand how brain tumors are diagnosed and what options are available to treat them. Brain Cancer Introduction Brain tumors are not rare. Thousands of people are diagnosed every year with tumors of the brain and the rest of the nervous system. The diagnosis and treatment of brain tumors

More information

About cancer of unknown primary (CUP)

About cancer of unknown primary (CUP) About cancer of unknown primary (CUP) This information is an extract from the booklet Understanding cancer of unknown primary. You may find the full booklet helpful. We can send you a free copy see page

More information

HEALTH EFFECTS. Inhalation

HEALTH EFFECTS. Inhalation Health Effects HEALTH EFFECTS Asbestos can kill you. You must take extra precautions when you work with asbestos. Just because you do not notice any problems while you are working with asbestos, it still

More information

Lung Cancer Screening

Lung Cancer Screening Scan for mobile link. Lung Cancer Screening What is lung cancer screening? Screening examinations are tests performed to find disease before symptoms begin. The goal of screening is to detect disease at

More information

Lung cancer (non-small-cell)

Lung cancer (non-small-cell) Patient information from the BMJ Group Lung cancer (non-small-cell) It can be devastating to find out that you or someone close to you has lung cancer. You will have to make some important decisions about

More information

Breast Cancer. Presentation by Dr Mafunga

Breast Cancer. Presentation by Dr Mafunga Breast Cancer Presentation by Dr Mafunga Breast cancer in the UK Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in women. Around 1 in 9 women will develop breast cancer It most commonly affects women over

More information

Malignant Mesothelioma

Malignant Mesothelioma Malignant Malignant mesothelioma is a tumour originating from mesothelial cells. 85 95% of mesotheliomas are caused by asbestos exposure. It occurs much more commonly in the chest (malignant pleural mesothelioma)

More information

Malignant Mesothelioma

Malignant Mesothelioma Malignant mesothelioma is a tumour originating from mesothelial cells. 85 95% of mesotheliomas are caused by asbestos exposure. It occurs much more commonly in the chest (malignant pleural mesothelioma)

More information

Lung Carcinoid Tumor

Lung Carcinoid Tumor Lung Carcinoid Tumor What are lung carcinoid tumors? Lung carcinoid tumors (also known as lung carcinoids) are a type of lung cancer, which is a cancer that starts in the lungs. Cancer starts when cells

More information

X-Plain Pneumonia Reference Summary

X-Plain Pneumonia Reference Summary X-Plain Pneumonia Reference Summary Introduction Pneumonia is an inflammation and infection of the lungs. Every year, more than 60,000 Americans die of pneumonia. It can affect anybody, but is more dangerous

More information

Treatment Guide Lung Cancer Management

Treatment Guide Lung Cancer Management Treatment Guide Lung Cancer Management The Chest Cancer Center at Cleveland Clinic, which includes specialists from the Respiratory Institute, Taussig Cancer Institute and Miller Family Heart & Vascular

More information

Lung cancer is not just one disease. There are two main types of lung cancer:

Lung cancer is not just one disease. There are two main types of lung cancer: 1. What is lung cancer? 2. How common is lung cancer? 3. What are the risk factors for lung cancer? 4. What are the signs and symptoms of lung cancer? 5. How is lung cancer diagnosed? 6. What are the available

More information

X-Plain Breast Cancer Reference Summary

X-Plain Breast Cancer Reference Summary X-Plain Breast Cancer Reference Summary The risk of breast cancer among Asian Americans living in the U.S. is relatively low compared to caucasian women. However, there is concern that the risk of breast

More information

Lung Carcinoid Tumor

Lung Carcinoid Tumor Lung Carcinoid Tumor What are lung carcinoid tumors? Lung carcinoid tumors (also known as lung carcinoids) are a type of lung cancer, which is a cancer that starts in the lungs. Cancer starts when cells

More information

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS about asbestos related diseases

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS about asbestos related diseases FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS about asbestos related diseases 1. What are the main types of asbestos lung disease? In the human body, asbestos affects the lungs most of all. It can affect both the spongy

More information

LYMPHOMA IN DOGS. Diagnosis/Initial evaluation. Treatment and Prognosis

LYMPHOMA IN DOGS. Diagnosis/Initial evaluation. Treatment and Prognosis LYMPHOMA IN DOGS Lymphoma is a relatively common cancer in dogs. It is a cancer of lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) and lymphoid tissues. Lymphoid tissue is normally present in many places in the

More information

This factsheet aims to outline the characteristics of some rare lung cancers, and highlight where each type of lung cancer may be different.

This factsheet aims to outline the characteristics of some rare lung cancers, and highlight where each type of lung cancer may be different. There are several different kinds of lung cancer, often referred to as lung cancer subtypes. Some of these occur more often than others. In this factsheet we will specifically look at the subtypes of cancers

More information

Breast Cancer. Sometimes cells keep dividing and growing without normal controls, causing an abnormal growth called a tumor.

Breast Cancer. Sometimes cells keep dividing and growing without normal controls, causing an abnormal growth called a tumor. Breast Cancer Introduction Cancer of the breast is the most common form of cancer that affects women but is no longer the leading cause of cancer deaths. About 1 out of 8 women are diagnosed with breast

More information

Lung Cancer small cell

Lung Cancer small cell Lung Cancer small cell Overview Lung cancer is a cancer starts in the lungs. In order to understand lung cancer, it helps to know about the normal structure and function of the lungs. Most lung cancer

More information

The lungs What is lung cancer? How common is it? Risks & symptoms Diagnosis & treatment options

The lungs What is lung cancer? How common is it? Risks & symptoms Diagnosis & treatment options Why We re Here The lungs What is lung cancer? How common is it? Risks & symptoms Diagnosis & treatment options What Are Lungs? What Do They Do? 1 Located in the chest Allow you to breathe Provide oxygen

More information

Pneumonia. Pneumonia is an infection that makes the tiny air sacs in your lungs inflamed (swollen and sore). They then fill with liquid.

Pneumonia. Pneumonia is an infection that makes the tiny air sacs in your lungs inflamed (swollen and sore). They then fill with liquid. Pneumonia Pneumonia is an infection that makes the tiny air sacs in your lungs inflamed (swollen and sore). They then fill with liquid. People with mild (not so bad) pneumonia can usually be treated at

More information

Male. Female. Death rates from lung cancer in USA

Male. Female. Death rates from lung cancer in USA Male Female Death rates from lung cancer in USA Smoking represents an interesting combination of an entrenched industry and a clearly drug-induced cancer Tobacco Use in the US, 1900-2000 5000 100 Per Capita

More information

Surgery. Wedge resection only part of the lung, not. not a lobe, is removed. Cancer Council NSW

Surgery. Wedge resection only part of the lung, not. not a lobe, is removed. Cancer Council NSW The treatment you receive will depend on your lung cancer type, for example, whether you have a non-small cell lung cancer Adenocarcinoma or Squamous cell carcinoma, and if this is a sub-type with a mutation.

More information

Avastin: Glossary of key terms

Avastin: Glossary of key terms Avastin: Glossary of key terms Adenocarcinoma Adenoma Adjuvant therapy Angiogenesis Anti-angiogenics Antibody Antigen Avastin (bevacizumab) Benign A form of carcinoma that originates in glandular tissue.

More information

Lung cancer. A guide for journalists on Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) and its treatment

Lung cancer. A guide for journalists on Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) and its treatment Lung cancer A guide for journalists on Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) and its treatment Contents Contents 2 3 Section 1: Lung Cancer 4 i. Types of lung cancer 4 ii. Causes and risk factors 5 iii. Symptoms

More information

Gallbladder cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the gallbladder.

Gallbladder cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the gallbladder. Gallbladder cancer Gallbladder cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the gallbladder. Gallbladder cancer is a rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells are found

More information

Lung Cancer (Small Cell) Overview

Lung Cancer (Small Cell) Overview Lung Cancer (Small Cell) Overview The information that follows is an overview of this type of cancer. It is based on the more detailed information in our document Lung Cancer (Small Cell). This document

More information

Lung cancer forms in tissues of the lung, usually in the cells lining air passages.

Lung cancer forms in tissues of the lung, usually in the cells lining air passages. Scan for mobile link. Lung Cancer Lung cancer usually forms in the tissue cells lining the air passages within the lungs. The two main types are small-cell lung cancer (usually found in cigarette smokers)

More information

Smoking and misuse of certain pain medicines can affect the risk of developing renal cell cancer.

Smoking and misuse of certain pain medicines can affect the risk of developing renal cell cancer. Renal cell cancer Renal cell cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in tubules of the kidney. Renal cell cancer (also called kidney cancer or renal adenocarcinoma) is a disease in which

More information

Your Lungs and COPD. Patient Education Pulmonary Rehabilitation. A guide to how your lungs work and how COPD affects your lungs

Your Lungs and COPD. Patient Education Pulmonary Rehabilitation. A guide to how your lungs work and how COPD affects your lungs Patient Education Your Lungs and COPD A guide to how your lungs work and how COPD affects your lungs Your lungs are organs that process every breath you take. They provide oxygen (O 2 ) to the blood and

More information

Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Acute Myeloid Leukemia Acute Myeloid Leukemia Introduction Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. The increased number of these cells leads to overcrowding of healthy blood cells. As a result, the healthy cells are not

More information

Lesson 7: Respiratory and Skeletal Systems and Tuberculosis

Lesson 7: Respiratory and Skeletal Systems and Tuberculosis Glossary 1. asthma: when the airways of the lungs narrow, making breathing difficult 2. bacteria: tiny living creatures that can only be seen with a microscope; some bacteria help the human body, and other

More information

Treating Melanoma S kin Cancer A Quick Guide

Treating Melanoma S kin Cancer A Quick Guide Treating Melanoma Skin Cancer A Quick Guide Contents This is a brief summary of the information on Treating melanoma skin cancer from our website. You will find more detailed information on the website.

More information

Fourth Grade The Human Body: The Respiratory System Assessment

Fourth Grade The Human Body: The Respiratory System Assessment Fourth Grade The Human Body: The Respiratory System Assessment 1a. The brings air in and out of the body. a. respiratory system b. circulatory system 1b. The system is the part of the body responsible

More information

Primary -Benign - Malignant Secondary

Primary -Benign - Malignant Secondary TUMOURS OF THE LUNG Primary -Benign - Malignant Secondary The incidence of lung cancer has been increasing almost logarithmically and is now reaching epidemic levels. The overall cure rate is very low

More information

Lung Cancer (Non-Small Cell) What is cancer?

Lung Cancer (Non-Small Cell) What is cancer? Lung Cancer (Non-Small Cell) What is cancer? The body is made up of trillions of living cells. Normal body cells grow, divide into new cells, and die in an orderly fashion. During the early years of a

More information

Which treatment for advanced lung cancer

Which treatment for advanced lung cancer Which treatment for advanced lung cancer This information tells you about the treatments for advanced lung cancer. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy can both be used to treat advanced lung cancer. They can

More information

Lung Cancer Kit. Introduction. Understanding Lung Cancer. Small Cell and Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

Lung Cancer Kit. Introduction. Understanding Lung Cancer. Small Cell and Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Lung Cancer Kit Introduction We created the Lung Cancer Kit to highlight the key principles for you as you manage the cancer decision-making process. In it, you will find tools designed to present you

More information

Frequently Asked Questions About Ovarian Cancer

Frequently Asked Questions About Ovarian Cancer Media Contact: Gerri Gomez Howard Cell: 303-748-3933 gerri@gomezhowardgroup.com Frequently Asked Questions About Ovarian Cancer What is ovarian cancer? Ovarian cancer is a cancer that forms in tissues

More information

Smoking and Lung Cancer

Smoking and Lung Cancer Smoking and Lung Cancer Objectives! Students should be able to identify some of the other consequences of smoking other than lung cancer! Students should be able to identify the effects of the chemicals

More information

Learning about Mouth Cancer

Learning about Mouth Cancer Learning about Mouth Cancer Creation of this material was made possible in part by a pioneering grant from CBCC-USA. Distributed by India Cancer Initiative What is mouth cancer? Our bodies are made up

More information

The recommendations made throughout this book are by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC).

The recommendations made throughout this book are by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC). INTRODUCTION This book has been prepared for people with bowel cancer, their families and friends. The first section is for people with bowel cancer, and is intended to help you understand what bowel cancer

More information

Lung Cancer Mate Pukupuku Pukahukahu. A guide for people with lung cancer

Lung Cancer Mate Pukupuku Pukahukahu. A guide for people with lung cancer u n d e r s ta n d i n g c a n c e r Lung Cancer Mate Pukupuku Pukahukahu A guide for people with lung cancer Understanding Cancer Lung Cancer/Mate Pukupuku Pukahukahu A guide for people with lung cancer

More information

95% of childhood kidney cancer cases are Wilms tumours. Childhood kidney cancer is extremely rare, with only 90 cases a year in

95% of childhood kidney cancer cases are Wilms tumours. Childhood kidney cancer is extremely rare, with only 90 cases a year in James Whale Fund for Kidney Cancer Childhood kidney cancer factsheet Kidney cancer rarely afflicts children and about 90 paediatric cases are diagnosed in the UK each year. About 75% of childhood kidney

More information

Secondary breast cancer in the lung

Secondary breast cancer in the lung Secondary breast cancer in the lung This booklet is for people who have been diagnosed with secondary breast cancer in the lung. It describes what secondary breast cancer in the lung is, what the symptoms

More information

What is Mesothelioma?

What is Mesothelioma? What is Mesothelioma? Mesothelioma is a rare type of cancer that develops in the mesothelial cells found in one s body. These cells form membranous linings that surround and protect the body s organs and

More information

Multiple Myeloma. This reference summary will help you understand multiple myeloma and its treatment options.

Multiple Myeloma. This reference summary will help you understand multiple myeloma and its treatment options. Multiple Myeloma Introduction Multiple myeloma is a type of cancer that affects white blood cells. Each year, thousands of people find out that they have multiple myeloma. This reference summary will help

More information

P L E U R A L M E S O T H E L I O M A

P L E U R A L M E S O T H E L I O M A For media outside the US, UK and Canada only P L E U R A L M E S O T H E L I O M A 1. Overview 2. What is pleural mesothelioma? 3. How common is pleural mesothelioma? 4. What are the risk factors for pleural

More information

written by Harvard Medical School COPD It Can Take Your Breath Away www.patientedu.org/copd

written by Harvard Medical School COPD It Can Take Your Breath Away www.patientedu.org/copd written by Harvard Medical School COPD It Can Take Your Breath Away www.patientedu.org/copd What Is COPD? COPD stands for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. There are two major diseases included in

More information

Understanding Lung Cancer. A guide for people with cancer, their families and friends

Understanding Lung Cancer. A guide for people with cancer, their families and friends Understanding Lung Cancer A guide for people with cancer, their families and friends Understanding Lung Cancer A guide for people with cancer, their families and friends First edition published 1997 Revised

More information

These factors increase your chance of developing emphysema. Tell your doctor if you have any of these risk factors:

These factors increase your chance of developing emphysema. Tell your doctor if you have any of these risk factors: Emphysema Pronounced: em-fiss-see-mah by Debra Wood, RN En Español (Spanish Version) Definition Emphysema is a chronic obstructive disease of the lungs. The lungs contain millions of tiny air sacs called

More information

F r e q u e n t l y As k e d Qu e s t i o n s. Lung Disease

F r e q u e n t l y As k e d Qu e s t i o n s. Lung Disease Lung Disease page 1 Q: What is lung disease? A: Lung disease refers to disorders that affect the lungs, the organs that allow us to breathe. Breathing problems caused by lung disease may prevent the body

More information

Understanding Lung Cancer

Understanding Lung Cancer Understanding Lung Cancer A guide for people with cancer, their families and friends Cancer information For information & support, call Understanding Lung Cancer A guide for people with cancer, their families

More information

Salivary Gland Disorders

Salivary Gland Disorders Salivary Gland Disorders Introduction Located in your mouth and throat, the salivary glands make saliva. Saliva is the watery fluid in the mouth. There are many problems that can affect the salivary glands.

More information

Types of surgery for kidney cancer

Types of surgery for kidney cancer Useful information for cancer patients Contents This information is about the different operations that you may have for kidney cancer. Surgery can be used to treat almost any stage of kidney cancer. There

More information

Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis What is Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis? Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a condition that causes persistent and progressive scarring of the tiny air sacs (alveoli) in

More information

Lung Cancer (Non-Small Cell) What is cancer?

Lung Cancer (Non-Small Cell) What is cancer? Lung Cancer (Non-Small Cell) What is cancer? The body is made up of trillions of living cells. Normal body cells grow, divide into new cells, and die in an orderly fashion. During the early years of a

More information

Liver Cancer What is the liver? What is liver cancer?

Liver Cancer What is the liver? What is liver cancer? Liver Cancer What is the liver? The liver is the largest internal organ in the body and is important in digesting food. The liver performs many other functions, including collecting and filtering blood

More information

More than 2,500 people are diagnosed with mesothelioma in the UK each year.

More than 2,500 people are diagnosed with mesothelioma in the UK each year. This information is an extract from the booklet Understanding mesothelioma. You may find the full booklet helpful. We can send you a free copy see page 5. Contents Introduction Pleural mesothelioma Peritoneal

More information

The Radiotherapy Department Radiotherapy to the chest wall and lymph nodes

The Radiotherapy Department Radiotherapy to the chest wall and lymph nodes Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust The Radiotherapy Department Radiotherapy to the chest wall and lymph nodes Information for patients Introduction This leaflet is for people who have had surgery for

More information

Diagnosis of ovarian cancer

Diagnosis of ovarian cancer Diagnosis of ovarian cancer This information is an extract from the booklet, Understanding cancer of the ovary. You may find the full booklet helpful. We can send you a copy free see page 5. Usually you

More information

Information for. Patients with an Abnormal Lung X-Ray

Information for. Patients with an Abnormal Lung X-Ray Information for Patients with an Abnormal Lung X-Ray Some of the materials in this resource were adapted, with permission, from: Understanding Lung Cancer, Juravinski Cancer Centre, Hamilton Health Sciences,

More information

Treating Oesophageal Cancer A Quick Guide

Treating Oesophageal Cancer A Quick Guide Treating Oesophageal Cancer A Quick Guide Contents This is a brief summary of the information on Treating from our website. You will find more detailed information on the website. In this information there

More information

THORACIC DIAGNOSTIC ASSESMENT PROGRAM (DAP) PATIENT INFORMATION FOR:

THORACIC DIAGNOSTIC ASSESMENT PROGRAM (DAP) PATIENT INFORMATION FOR: central east regional cancer program in partnership with cancer care ontario THORACIC DIAGNOSTIC ASSESMENT PROGRAM (DAP) PATIENT INFORMATION FOR: Thoracic dap booklet March2012.indd 1 SCHEDULED TESTS YOUR

More information

What You Should Know About ASTHMA

What You Should Know About ASTHMA What You Should Know About ASTHMA 200 Hospital Drive Galax, VA 24333 (276) 236-8181 www.tcrh.org WHAT IS ASTHMA? It s a lung condition that makes breathing difficult. The cause of asthma is not known.

More information

National Cancer Institute

National Cancer Institute National Cancer Institute What You Need To Know About Lung Cancer U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute Services This is only one of many

More information

X-Plain Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer - Adriamycin, Cytoxan, and Tamoxifen Reference Summary

X-Plain Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer - Adriamycin, Cytoxan, and Tamoxifen Reference Summary X-Plain Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer - Adriamycin, Cytoxan, and Tamoxifen Reference Summary Introduction Breast cancer is a common condition that affects one out of every 11 women. Your doctor has recommended

More information

LUNG CANCER. How to spot the signs and symptoms and reduce your risk. cruk.org

LUNG CANCER. How to spot the signs and symptoms and reduce your risk. cruk.org LUNG CANCER How to spot the signs and symptoms and reduce your risk cruk.org Lung cancer is the second most common cancer in the UK. Anyone can develop lung cancer, but risk increases with age and smoking

More information

Better Living with Lung Cancer A Patient Guide

Better Living with Lung Cancer A Patient Guide Better Living with Lung Cancer A Patient Guide A handbook for patients, families and carers for those touched by lung cancer 1 Better Living with Lung Cancer A Patient Guide First edition published 2012

More information