Lab 11: Evolution s Evidence

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Lab 11: Evolution s Evidence"

Transcription

1 Lab 11: Evolution s Evidence Introduction The Principle of Evolution states that populations of organisms evolved, and are still evolving, from a common ancestor through changes over time. These changes resulted from variations exhibited among individuals that allowed them to survive and reproduce in a changing environment. Evolution has remained the best scientific explanation for the origins and diversity of life since it was proposed by Charles Darwin in The characteristics of organisms come from the characteristics of their ancestors, with little to profound changes added each generation. A group of people with blue eyes, light skin and freckles have these characteristics because their ancestors had these characteristics. Another group of people may have brown eyes, dark skin and no freckles, these characteristics coming from their ancestors. Both groups share the common characteristics that all humans share, derived from a common human ancestry, yet we can differentiate between these two groups because of the high number of similar characteristics. We can identify children from each family by their similar characteristics, and we can determine how closely people are related by the relative number of similar and dissimilar characteristics. People who are most closely related have the most characteristics in common, and people who are most distantly related have the least characteristics in common. This is the basic principle we use to determine relatedness among all organisms, including people. There are four lines of evidence seen in nature that clearly suggest the evolutionary origins of the diversity of life: 1) Fossils, 2) Comparative Anatomy, 3) Comparative Embryology and 4) Comparative Molecular Sequences. Evidence from Fossils Perhaps the hardest evidence that organisms have changed over time comes from fossils. In the fossil record are the traces of organisms that no longer exist, and evidence of organisms that are clearly related to those living today, only with features presently unseen. From the fossil record we can clearly see the great age of the earth, the overall progression from simple to more complex forms of life, the extinction of species and entire groups, the replacement of those groups with newly-evolved species, and in some lines, the very clear evolution from one species to completely different and new species and more evidence consistent with evolution is being collected with each new study. Problems with the fossil record arise from the imperfect nature of the fossilization process. In order for an organism to be fossilized, it must fall into, or be covered by, some airtight agent such as mud, tar, or amber. The most common entombing agent is mud, suggesting that the most common fossilized organisms are aquatic, especially marine (which, of course, is great for marine paleontologists!). This type of entombing agent forms sedimentary rock. Further, common organisms would be fossilized more often than rare organisms, and organisms with hard parts such as shells or bones fossilize much more readily than organisms that are soft and squishy. 11.1

2 Table The geological time scale annotated with major origins and extinctions. ERA PERIOD EPOCH MILLIONS OF YEARS OCCURRENCES AGO Cenozoic Quaternary Recent 0.01 Pleistocene 1.8 Pliocene 6 Evolution of humans Miocene 24 Evolution of pinnipeds Tertiary Oligocene 38 Eocene 57 Evolution of cetaceans Paleocene 65 Mesozoic Cretaceous 140 Extinction of 50% of all species Jurassic 200 Evolution of flowering plants Triassic 240 Evolution of mammals & dinosaurs Paleozoic Permian 285 Extinction of 90% of all species Carboniferous 350 Devonian 400 Silurian 435 Ordovician 500 Cambrian 570 Evolution of reptiles Evolution of sharks & amphibians Evolution of land plants & land arthropods Evolution of vertebrates Massive diversification of invertebrates Evolution of seaweeds & invertebrates Proterozoic 3500 First known fossils (marine) The age of fossils can be determined both directly and indirectly. As mountains wear down, they deposit sediments. Volcanoes erupt, covering the sediments with ash and lava. In time, more sediments are deposited on top of the volcanic rock, and so forth. This creates geological lines or strata, one on top of another, with the youngest deposited on top, the oldest on the bottom. Fossils found within more recently-deposited rock can be assumed to be younger than fossils found within more anciently-deposited rock strata. Table Half-lives of several radioactive substances. It takes the indicated amount of time for half the weight of a particular isotope to decompose. By measuring the amount of the radioactive material remaining and the amount of the decomposition product, the age of the material can be determined. Original isotope Decomposition product Half-life uranium-238 lead billion years potassium-40 argon billion years uranium-235 lead million years carbon-14 carbon years Volcanic material contains radioactive substances, which decompose at known rates. We can thus measure the amount of radioactive isotope remaining, the amount of its decomposition product present, and determine the age of the rock by knowing the half-life, or time it takes onehalf of the radioactive isotope to decompose. If we do this for strata above and below a particular 11.2

3 fossil-bearing rock layer, we can estimate the age of the fossils. If fossils were embedded with volcanic ash, then a direct measurement of the age of the fossil is possible. Certain fossils occur only during specific geological times; these fossils are called index fossils because, once they have been dated using the above techniques, they can be used to date other fossils found with them in other places. Since nature breaks up and folds rocks, nature breaks up and folds the fossil record, creating gaps, and even inversions where geological strata will reverse itself, going from young to old rocks on top, adding a measure of difficulty in reading the fossil record. These geological tricks of nature are, however, rather easy to uncover with appropriate field work. Evidence from Comparative Anatomy If you look at a collection of organisms, it is natural to focus on characteristics that appear similar and to group the organisms based on these characteristics. In evolutionary biology, we focus on shared characteristics that we assume were present in the ancestral species. These characteristics we term primitive or plesiomorphic characteristics. Characteristics found only within a particular group, or clade, are termed derived or apomorphic characteristics. It is important to note at this point that not all characteristics that appear to be similar are homologous--derived from common ancestors. Some are simply the product of similar natural selection pressures and are said to be analogous. Analogous structures are those that may look superficially similar, have similar functions, but are structurally different hence, not derived from common ancestors. For instance, birds, bats and butterflies have wings, fish and whales have fins, and octopuses and jellyfish have tentacles yet none of these appendages suggest evolutionary relationships because their underlying structures are completely different. Now, let s say we re studying the evolutionary relationships between salamanders, alligators, monkeys and gorillas. Note that all members of the group are tetrapods--four legged. Because of this, this characteristic is said to be primitive or plesiomorphic. As all members of the group are tetrapods, we assume their common ancestor was a tetrapod. Note that alligators, monkeys and gorillas are have an amnion a membrane that encloses their embryos whereas salamanders do not. Since this characteristic is found only in this subgroup, it is a derived or apomorphic characteristic. perch salamander alligator monkey gorilla four legs fur amnion Figure Cladogram of the tetrapods. 11.3

4 For the clade consisting of salamanders, alligators, monkeys and gorillas (the tetrapods, Fig. 11.1), the tetrapod condition is plesiomorphic and the unique characteristics that differentiate them are apomorphic characteristics. So, the determination of whether or not a characteristic is plesiomorphic or apomorphic depends on the clade in question. To represent evolutionary relationships, biologists construct cladograms. Using our group of organisms, the simplest cladogram can be constructed, noting the apomorphic characteristics at the internodes (between the branches) of the tree. Note that I ve included an additional species, a perch. The perch in this cladogram is what is called an outgroup, an organism that is not part of the study to which the organisms of the study can be compared. Every cladogram must have an outgroup. The first step in the construction of a cladogram is to determine the apomorphic characteristics. We then construct a data matrix: Character perch salamander alligator monkey gorilla Four legs? No (0), Yes (1) 2. Amnion? No (0), Yes (1) 3. Fur? No (0), Yes (1) The next step is to construct a similarity matrix, adding the number of characteristics in common between each species: perch salamander alligator monkey gorilla perch salamander alligator 2 2 monkey 3 gorilla Link together the two species that are the most similar: monkey gorilla Now, considering the monkey/gorilla clade (M/G) as a single unit, make a new similarity matrix, comparing M/G to the rest of the species: perch salamander alligator M/G perch salamander 1 2 alligator 4 M/G 11.4

5 From our matrix, it is clear that the alligator is the next that should branch off: alligator monkey gorilla We continue in this fashion until all of our species are accounted for, including our outgroup. Various other formal procedures are also used to construct cladograms, and there are computer programs to assist us. Judgment, experience and common sense are also used. Cladistics is the branch of biology that specializes in cladistic analysis and the construction of cladograms. Evidence from Comparative Embryology Figure Comparative embryology of vertebrates. 11.5

6 Just as adult anatomy of closely-related species is more similar than adult anatomy of more distantly-related species, the developmental stages of closely-related species are quite similar. Further, developmental stages exhibit characteristics of the organisms from which they evolved, characteristics that then may develop in the adult into completely different structures, both functionally and structurally. As examples of this, all embryonic vertebrates have tails and gill slits. Tails may be reabsorbed into the body in some vertebrates (apes, including humans) or may develop into structures helping the animal to swim (fish, amphibians, whales), hang onto tree limbs (opossums, monkeys) or help with balance (lizards, kangaroos). Gill slits and associated structures are functional in lower vertebrates (fish, amphibians), but develop into components of the jaw and ear in higher vertebrates (amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals). Again, since all organisms are products of their past, and are made of structures they inherit from their ancestors, it should be no surprise that they bear witness to past evolutionary history! Fig Chick embryo, 72-hr. Ex. Evidence from Comparative Molecular Sequences As species evolve over evolutionary time, the structure of their molecules changes. Species that are closely related have fewer differences in the structure of their molecules than species that are distantly related. This is because the molecules of closely-related species have had less time to change than more distantly-related species. The most obvious molecule in which we see evolutionary changes is DNA. The DNA sequence of a species is different enough from other species to make it a species. Not surprisingly, closely-related species have DNA sequences that are more similar than distantlyrelated species. Besides DNA, RNA sequences are also widely studied and provide us with huge amounts of data consistent with the principle of evolution. 11.6

7 One of the most widely-studied molecular sequences is that of cytochrome c. Hopefully, you remember cytochrome c as being one of the electron carriers in the electron transport chain of cellular respiration. Since all cells, from bacteria to plants to humans undergo cellular respiration, they all have cytochrome c. Cytochrome c is said to be a highly conserved molecule, meaning that it hasn t changed much over evolutionary time. But the few changes it has undergone are important in helping us determine the relationships of higher taxa such as the relationships between domains, kingdoms, phyla and classes. Specifically, we study and compare the amino acid sequences of cytochrome c, although we could just as well study the DNA sequences of the genes that code for the molecule. The purpose of this lab is to introduce you to the four general areas of evidence seen in nature in where we observe evolution s evidence. Laboratory Objectives After mastery of this laboratory, including doing the assigned readings and required laboratory work, the student should be able to: 1. Discuss how fossils, comparative anatomy, comparative embryology and comparative molecular sequences provide evidence for evolution. Materials and Methods Evidence from Fossils 1. At the demo table will be a series of fossils labeled with their names and dates, as determined using index fossils. Do not handle the fossils unless your instructor gives you permission! For at least ten fossils on display, record its name and age in the results portion of this lab write-up. Using Table 11.1, determine the era, period and epoch (if given) for each specimen, and record this information as well. 2. Also for the fossil organisms you examine, try to determine if the organisms were aquatic (lived in the water) or were terrestrial (lived on land). Record evidence you observe or infer from your observations! 3. On the display in the lab will be a representative missing link fossil. Do not handle or touch the missing link fossil! In your lab report, answer the following question about the fossil: a. Identity of missing link fossil. b. Age. c. Era, period and epoch (if given). d. What two groups of organisms this missing link connects. e. Characteristics of each group supporting that this is a missing link fossil! 11.7

8 Evidence from Comparative Anatomy 1. Select five specimens from the demo table. Examine the specimens carefully. Determine at least five apomorphic characters for your group. Construct a data matrix and a similarity matrix. Then, based on your similarity matrix, and your judgment, construct a cladogram for your group of specimens. If you need help, ask your instructor! 2. Your instructor will give you a handout comparing the upper limb of vertebrates with that of the ancestral vertebrate. Compare the indicated bones with that of the ancestral limb and determine which are most primitive (have changed the least from the ancestral condition) and which are most advanced (have changed the most from the ancestral condition). For two of the most modified bones, suggest what special function these bones allow in the animal(s) that possess these bones! Evidence from Comparative Embryology 1. From the demo table, obtain commercially-prepared slides showing the embryological development of a chick and a pig (or any two vertebrate species). Observe the two embryos and list five similarities, using Fig to help you identify structures. Evidence from Comparative Molecular Sequences 1. You will be provided with a selection of actual cytochrome c amino acid sequences from various organisms. Using the procedures already learned in this lab, construct a similarity matrix for your organisms and then construct a cladogram. When you are finished, ask your instructor for the identity of each of the organisms to see if your cladogram makes sense! Make sure you cleanup your work station, clean all equipment you used and put it back, and help in general to keep the lab clean and in order! 11.8

9 Biol 160 Lab 11: Evolution Prelab (5 points) Name: Date: Lab Section: ~Complete this prelab before coming to lab; it is due at the beginning of lab! Evidence from Fossils 1. Why is the fossil record imperfect; that is to say, why does the fossil record contain mostly aquatic species or species that once lived by water, rather than a perfect record of every organism that once lived? 2. What must happen in order for something to be fossilized? 3. Why are shells and bones the most common type of fossil? Evidence from Comparative Anatomy 4. What is a plesiomorphic characteristic? Give an example! 5. What is an apomorphic characteristic? Give an example! 11.9

10 6. What do we mean when we say then wing of a bat is a structure homologous to the flipper of a whale, yet the wing of a butterfly is not homologous but is analogous to the wing of a bat? Evidence from Comparative Embryology 7. Human embryos have a tail, flipper-like limb buds and gill slits. Why? Evidence from Comparative Molecular Sequences 8. Whales and humans have cytochrome c sequences that are more similar than fish and whales. Why? 11.10

11 Biol 160 Lab 11: Evolution Lab Report (20 points) Name: Date: Lab Section: Results Evidence from Fossils 1. Identity, age, era, period, epoch and habitat of ten different fossil organisms. Identity Age Era Period Epoch Marine or Terrestrial Habitat Evidence? 2. Missing link fossil: a. Identity of missing link fossil: b. Age: c. Era: Period: Epoch: 11.11

12 d. The two groups this organism connects + characteristics of each: Group 1: Group 2: Characteristics: Characteristics: Evidence from Comparative Anatomy 1. Five apomorphic characters for specimens/species examined: Character 1: Character 2: Character 3: Character 4: Character 5: 2. Data matrix for specimens/species examined: Specimen/Species Characters

13 3. Similarity matrix for specimens/species examined: Specimen/ Species Cladogram based on similarity matrix: 11.13

14 5. Comparison of the bones of the upper limbs of representative vertebrates: Name of Animal Most Primitive Bones Most Advanced Bones 6. Two of the most modified bones and the special function these bones allow in the animal(s) that possess these bones: a. Bone: Special Function: b. Bone: Special Function: Evidence from Comparative Embryology 1. Two embryos examined: and 2. Five structures similar in the embryo: a. b. c. d. e

15 Evidence from Comparative Molecular Sequences 1. Similarity matrix of cytochrome c sequences: Species A B C D E A B C D E 2. Cladogram based on similarity matrix: Hint: Some possible cladograms might include these: 11.15

16 Discussion 1. What five things does the fossil record tell us? 2. Why do we suspect that a fossil found 10 meters from the surface in sedimentary rock is older than a fossil found 1 meter deep in the same type of rock? 3. A particular fossil is found in sedimentary rock strata immediately beneath igneous strata containing rocks with the composition ½ U-235 and ½ Pb-207. What can be inferred about the age of the fossil? 4. What are index fossils and how can they be used to date other fossils? 11.16

17 5. What kinds of organisms were most common during the Paleozoic? 6. What kinds of organisms were most common during the Mesozoic? 7. What kinds of organisms were most common during the Cenozoic? 8. Consider a group of molluscs: an octopus, a clam, a snail, a slug and a chiton. All molluscs have a mantle, which in most is capable of producing a shell, and a rasping organ used in feeding called the radula. At the beginning of their evolution, clams lost the radula in favor of filter-feeding. We think mollusks evolved from flatworms, which have a ladder-like nervous system, very similar to the most primitive mollusks. Name at least one plesiomorphic characteristic of this group. Name at least two apomorphic characteristics of this group. Name an organism that could be used as an outgroup. 9. Are the most common organisms always represented in the fossil record? Why or why not? 10. Besides the protein cytochrome c, what other types of molecules could we compare the sequences of in order to determine evolutionary relationships? 11.17

Interest Grabber. Half of a Half of a Half...

Interest Grabber. Half of a Half of a Half... Interest Grabber Section 17-1 Half of a Half of a Half... Some forms of chemical elements are unstable that is, they break down into other substances. Like the decay of leftovers in your refrigerator,

More information

b. In Table 1 (question #2 on the Answer Sheet describe the function of each set of bones and answer the question.)

b. In Table 1 (question #2 on the Answer Sheet describe the function of each set of bones and answer the question.) Biology Dry Lab: EVIDENCE OF EVOLUTION INTRODUCTION: Evidence has been found to indicate that living things have changed gradually during their natural history. The study of fossils as well as embryology,

More information

Before we can study the history of life, we need to know some basic geological concepts and vocabulary.

Before we can study the history of life, we need to know some basic geological concepts and vocabulary. Biology 356 - Major Features of Vertebrate Evolution Dr. Robert Reisz, University of Toronto Introduction: Background in Geology Before we can study the history of life, we need to know some basic geological

More information

The Significance of the Fossil Record

The Significance of the Fossil Record The Significance of the Fossil Record The fossil record indicates the evolutionary history of life. Many events together, including: continental drift, changes in climatic conditions as well as evolutionary

More information

Evidence for evolution factsheet

Evidence for evolution factsheet The theory of evolution by natural selection is supported by a great deal of evidence. Fossils Fossils are formed when organisms become buried in sediments, causing little decomposition of the organism.

More information

8.2: Sources of Evidence for Evolution pg

8.2: Sources of Evidence for Evolution pg 8.2: Sources of Evidence for Evolution pg. 332-340 Key Terms: fossil record, transitional fossil, vestigial structure, biogeography, homologous structures, analogous structures, embryology. Darwin was

More information

Evidence for Evolution Stations Activity

Evidence for Evolution Stations Activity Evidence for Evolution Stations Activity Station 1 The Fossil Record Part 1 The Reading: read the article provided and answer the questions below 1. Who was Marie Curie? What did she discover? How did

More information

-most form when things die and are buried by sediments. -sediments slowly harden into rock and preserve the shapes or organisms

-most form when things die and are buried by sediments. -sediments slowly harden into rock and preserve the shapes or organisms Fossils -preserved remains or traces of living things -most form when things die and are buried by sediments -sediments slowly harden into rock and preserve the shapes or organisms -found in sedimentary

More information

Earth History Review

Earth History Review 1. The diagram at the right represents a core drilling in a region consisting of only four sedimentary rock layers, A, B, C, and D. Which geologic event could explain the order of the rock layers in the

More information

Fossil Timeline. Cenozoic Era MODERN MAMMALS MONKEYS AND APES EARLY MAMMALS. UKS2 Topic: Dinosaurs and Fossils Block A: Fossils and Rocks Session 2

Fossil Timeline. Cenozoic Era MODERN MAMMALS MONKEYS AND APES EARLY MAMMALS. UKS2 Topic: Dinosaurs and Fossils Block A: Fossils and Rocks Session 2 Hamilton Trust. This activity may be adapted for use by a teacher in his/her own class. It may not be reproduced for any other purpose. MODERN MAMMALS MONKEYS AND APES EARLY MAMMALS Fossil Timeline Cenozoic

More information

Ch. 6 Change Over Time

Ch. 6 Change Over Time Ch. 6 Change Over Time What Evolution is NOT! A theory that describes the origin of life on Earth. A theory that is just a theory. A theory that say that organisms TRY to adapt to their environment. A

More information

Name: DUE: May 2, 2013 Ms. Galaydick. Geologic Time Scale Era Period End date (in millions of years) Cenozoic Quaternary present

Name: DUE: May 2, 2013 Ms. Galaydick. Geologic Time Scale Era Period End date (in millions of years) Cenozoic Quaternary present Name: DUE: May 2, 2013 Ms. Galaydick Objective: Use the diagrams to answer the questions for each set: USING SCIENCE SKILLS PART #1 Geologic Time Scale Era Period End date (in millions of years) Cenozoic

More information

Chapter 9: Earth s Past

Chapter 9: Earth s Past Chapter 9: Earth s Past Vocabulary 1. Geologic column 2. Era 3. Period 4. Epoch 5. Evolution 6. Precambrian time 7. Paleozoic era 8. Shield 9. Stromatolite 10. Invertebrate 11. Trilobite 12. Index fossil

More information

Evidence for Evolution

Evidence for Evolution Evidence for Evolution Evidence for evolution 1. Fossil record and age of the earth (using radioactive dating) 2. Biogeography 3. Homologous structures and vestigial organs 4. Embryology 5. Cellular and

More information

Geologic History. 1. Identify the letter of the rock unit that was formed at the same time as igneous rock unit H.

Geologic History. 1. Identify the letter of the rock unit that was formed at the same time as igneous rock unit H. Geologic History Name Base your answers to questions 1 through 3 on the geologic cross section in your answer booklet. Rock units A through H are shown. Several rock units contain fossils. Rock unit G

More information

1. Over the past century, several scientists around the world have made the following observations:

1. Over the past century, several scientists around the world have made the following observations: Evolution Keystone Review 1. Over the past century, several scientists around the world have made the following observations: New mitochondria and plastids can only be generated by old mitochondria and

More information

Theory of Evolution. A. the beginning of life B. the evolution of eukaryotes C. the evolution of archaebacteria D. the beginning of terrestrial life

Theory of Evolution. A. the beginning of life B. the evolution of eukaryotes C. the evolution of archaebacteria D. the beginning of terrestrial life Theory of Evolution 1. In 1966, American biologist Lynn Margulis proposed the theory of endosymbiosis, or the idea that mitochondria are the descendents of symbiotic, aerobic eubacteria. What does the

More information

Unit 5: Formation of the Earth

Unit 5: Formation of the Earth Unit 5: Formation of the Earth Objectives: E5.3B - Explain the process of radioactive decay and explain how radioactive elements are used to date the rocks that contain them. E5.3C - Relate major events

More information

Review Questions for Booklet 2

Review Questions for Booklet 2 Review Questions for Booklet 2 Name Class 1. Which statement is basic to the theory of evolution by natural selection? a. In general, living organisms maintain a constant population from generation to

More information

Essential knowledge 1.B.2: Phylogenetic trees and cladograms are graphical representations (models) of evolutionary history that can be tested.

Essential knowledge 1.B.2: Phylogenetic trees and cladograms are graphical representations (models) of evolutionary history that can be tested. AP Biology Lab/Cladograms and Phylogenetic Trees Name Relationship to the AP Biology Curriculum Framework Big Idea 1: The process of evolution drives the diversity and unity of life. Essential knowledge

More information

Placing rocks in their proper sequence or formation. Doesn t give us the date of when something occurred.

Placing rocks in their proper sequence or formation. Doesn t give us the date of when something occurred. Placing rocks in their proper sequence or formation. Doesn t give us the date of when something occurred. With layers of undeformed sedimentary rocks, a layer of rock that below another is older than the

More information

Geologic History. 5. Which radioactive isotope disintegrates to lead (Pb 206 )? A) C 14 B) K 40 C) Rb 87 D) U 238

Geologic History. 5. Which radioactive isotope disintegrates to lead (Pb 206 )? A) C 14 B) K 40 C) Rb 87 D) U 238 1. Which event occurred earliest in geologic history? A) appearance of the earliest grasses B) appearance of the earliest birds C) the Grenville Orogeny D) the intrusion of the Palisades Sill 2. When did

More information

Geologic Time. Life and Geologic Time

Geologic Time. Life and Geologic Time chapter 10 3 Geologic Time section 1 Life and Geologic Time Before You Read Think about a giraffe you have seen. On the lines below, describe the giraffe and tell why you think it has a long neck. What

More information

EVOLUTION I: EVIDENCES OF EVOLUTION

EVOLUTION I: EVIDENCES OF EVOLUTION EVOLUTION I: EVIDENCES OF EVOLUTION Evolution, an important biological principle, is frequently misunderstood by layman, as well as quite a few scientists. Theologians often attack the concept as being

More information

16.4 Evidence of Evolution

16.4 Evidence of Evolution 16.4 Evidence of Evolution Lesson Objectives Explain how geologic distribution of species relates to their evolutionary history. Explain how fossils and the fossil record document the descent of modern

More information

Station 1 Fossil Record

Station 1 Fossil Record The very first horses evolved on the North American continent over 55 million years ago. The horse fossil record is very rich in transitional species. This is a series of skulls and front leg fossils of

More information

Evidence of Evolution

Evidence of Evolution Evidence of Evolution Objectives Identify the evidence for evolution Differentiate between homologous, analogous, and vestigial structures State the Law of Superposition Explain how the fossil record is

More information

Name Class Date WHAT I KNOW. about how organisms have changed. grown in complexity over time.

Name Class Date WHAT I KNOW. about how organisms have changed. grown in complexity over time. History of Life Evolution Q: How do fossils help biologists understand the history of life on Earth? 19.1 How do scientists use fossils to study Earth s history? WHAT I KNOW SAMPLE ANSWER: Fossils give

More information

16.4 Evidence of Evolution

16.4 Evidence of Evolution 16.4 Evidence of Evolution Lesson Objectives Explain how geologic distribution of species relates to their evolutionary history. Explain how fossils and the fossil record document the descent of modern

More information

ANSWER KEY. Chapter 5

ANSWER KEY. Chapter 5 Chapter 5 Chapter 5 Project Worksheet 1 (p. 6) 1. Accept all reasonable responses. Madagascar is near Africa, and Tasmania is near Australia. 2. Accept all reasonable responses. The Hawaiian Islands and

More information

GEOS 2900 Sample Activity

GEOS 2900 Sample Activity GEOS 2900 Sample Activity 3.3 GEOLOGIC TIME Introduction: Now that we understand how fossils and rocks are used to interpret past events and to put relative and absolute ages on these events, we can begin

More information

Geologic History Review

Geologic History Review 1. The climate that existed in an area during the early Paleozoic Era can best be determined by studying (1) the present climate of the area (2) recorded climate data of the area since 1700 (3) present

More information

Page 1. Name:

Page 1. Name: Name: 1) According to the Earth Science Reference Tables, between which two cities in New York State would the oldest surface bedrock be found? A) Jamestown and Rochester B) Plattsburgh and Watertown C)

More information

Regents Earth Science - Earth History ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS

Regents Earth Science - Earth History ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS Name Date Regents Earth Science - Earth History ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS 1. Geologic time is divided into units based upon 1 erosion rates 3 surface topography 2 rock types 4 fossil evidence As we have

More information

Animal Evolution and Diversity

Animal Evolution and Diversity Animal Evolution and Diversity Evolution Q: How have animals descended from earlier forms through the process of evolution? WHAT I KNOW WHAT I LEARNED 26.1 How did invertebrates evolve? SAMPLE ANSWER:

More information

CH. 15: Darwin s Theory of Evolution. Directions: READ ch. 15 in your textbook and use the note outline to help you answer the questions below.

CH. 15: Darwin s Theory of Evolution. Directions: READ ch. 15 in your textbook and use the note outline to help you answer the questions below. CH. 15: Darwin s Theory of Evolution Directions: READ ch. 15 in your textbook and use the note outline to help you answer the questions below. 1. What is a theory? 2. Describe some of the ideas that influenced

More information

2012 Learning on Location St. Louis Science Center Symposium

2012 Learning on Location St. Louis Science Center Symposium 2012 Learning on Location St. Louis Science Center Symposium Title of Activity/Lesson Understanding the Geologic Time Scale Michelle Hrastich, Windsor School District Grade Level(s) this activity/lesson

More information

A BRIEF HISTORY OF LIFE ON EARTH. Objectives. The Ever- Changing Earth

A BRIEF HISTORY OF LIFE ON EARTH. Objectives. The Ever- Changing Earth A BRIEF HISTORY OF LIFE ON EARTH Objectives Describe how Earth s environment has changed over the past 4 billion years. Identify the minimum requirements for life. Describe the difference between prokaryotic

More information

Name Date Class. Geologic Time. The largest division of the geologic time scale is the. the most recent of which is the. which is divided into three

Name Date Class. Geologic Time. The largest division of the geologic time scale is the. the most recent of which is the. which is divided into three Chapter Content Mastery Geologic Time LESSON 1 Directions: Use the following terms to complete the concept map below. Cenozoic eon eras Mesozoic Paleozoic Phanerozoic The largest division of the geologic

More information

Whale Adaptations. WHALES: Giants of the Deep Activities for Grades 6-8. Overview. Background for Educators. Before Your Visit

Whale Adaptations. WHALES: Giants of the Deep Activities for Grades 6-8. Overview. Background for Educators. Before Your Visit Whale Adaptations Overview Before Your Visit: Students will read and discuss an informational text on whale evolution. During Your Visit: Students will observe the materials in the Whales: Giants of the

More information

Seventh Grade History of the Earth and Life Forms Assessment

Seventh Grade History of the Earth and Life Forms Assessment Seventh Grade History of the Earth and Life Forms Assessment 1a. Fossils can be thought of as a record of the: a. past b. present c. future 1b. What do we look at when we want to see a record of past life

More information

Geological. Overview

Geological. Overview Geological Overview by Campbell M Gold (1994/2010) CMG Archives http://campbellmgold.com Contents The Great Geological Eras... 1 Alternative Designation... 4 Era Name Meanings... 6 The Great Geological

More information

The Origin of Life on Earth

The Origin of Life on Earth The Origin of Life on Earth Chemical Evolution = The study of how life began Heterotroph Theory: the first cells were heterotrophs, organisms incapable of making their own food Steps involved in the heterotroph

More information

Section B2: The Darwinian Revolution (continued)

Section B2: The Darwinian Revolution (continued) CHAPTER 22 DESCENT WITH MODIFICATION: A DARWINIAN VIEW OF LIFE Section B2: The Darwinian Revolution (continued) 3. Examples of natural selection provide evidence of evolution 4. Other evidence of evolution

More information

1. List and describe Darwin s 5 points in his theory of natural selection. What evidence did he use to prove his theory?

1. List and describe Darwin s 5 points in his theory of natural selection. What evidence did he use to prove his theory? Review for Mod 4 Quiz Concepts: 1. List and describe Darwin s 5 points in his theory of natural selection. What evidence did he use to prove his theory? Overproduction more offspring produced than survive

More information

Phylogenetic Trees and Cladistics Study Guide. 5. Explain what phylogenetic trees allow scientists to do.

Phylogenetic Trees and Cladistics Study Guide. 5. Explain what phylogenetic trees allow scientists to do. Phylogenetic Trees and Cladistics Study Guide 1. Review all assignments, homework, mastering biology, and notes from class. 2. What are the three domains that biologists use to classify organisms? Why

More information

2 Eras of the Geologic Time Scale

2 Eras of the Geologic Time Scale CHAPTER 8 2 Eras of the Geologic Time Scale SECTION The History of Life on Earth BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What kinds of organisms evolved

More information

Whale Adaptations. WHALES: Giants of the Deep. amnh.org/whales. Activities for Grades 6-8. Overview. Background for Educators.

Whale Adaptations. WHALES: Giants of the Deep. amnh.org/whales. Activities for Grades 6-8. Overview. Background for Educators. Whale Adaptations Activities for Overview Before Your visit: Students will read and discuss an informational text on whale evolution. During Your visit: Students will observe the materials in the Whales:

More information

Chapter 15. The Idea of Evolution. Objectives. Evolutionary Relationships Between Whales and Hoofed Mammals. Darwin s Ideas

Chapter 15. The Idea of Evolution. Objectives. Evolutionary Relationships Between Whales and Hoofed Mammals. Darwin s Ideas Define the biological process of evolution. Summarize the history of scientific ideas about evolution. Describe Charles Darwin s contributions to scientific thinking about evolution. The Idea of Evolution

More information

The Geologic Time Scale

The Geologic Time Scale The Geologic Time Scale Months, years, or even centuries aren't very helpful for thinking about Earth's long history. Because the time span of Earth's past is so great, geologists use the geologic time

More information

Geologic Time Scale and Change Over Time. Module 1.4

Geologic Time Scale and Change Over Time. Module 1.4 Geologic Time Scale and Change Over Time Module 1.4 Geologic Time Scale Geologic time Earth s history is divided into time units that make up a geologic time scale. Time units on the scale are based on

More information

Chapter 16 Lab Amino Acid Sequences: Indicators of Evolution

Chapter 16 Lab Amino Acid Sequences: Indicators of Evolution Chapter 16 Lab Amino Acid Sequences: Indicators of Evolution Guided Inquiry Skills Lab Problem How can you use proteins to determine how closely organisms are related? Introduction Biologists have many

More information

Exploring Geologic Time Poster Illustrated Teacher's Guide

Exploring Geologic Time Poster Illustrated Teacher's Guide Exploring Geologic Time Poster Illustrated Teacher's Guide #35-1145 Paper #35-1146 Laminated Background Geologic Time Scale Basics The history of the Earth covers a vast expanse of time, so scientists

More information

Big Idea: The types and characteristics of organisms change over time.

Big Idea: The types and characteristics of organisms change over time. Big Idea: The types and characteristics of organisms change over time. Unit 1 Lesson 4 The History of Life on Earth Essential Question: How has life on Earth changed over time? Copyright Houghton Mifflin

More information

1. What is the best current estimate of the age of the Earth, and what is the evidence for that estimate?

1. What is the best current estimate of the age of the Earth, and what is the evidence for that estimate? Chapter 25: The Origin and Evolutionary History of Life on Earth 1. What is the best current estimate of the age of the Earth, and what is the evidence for that estimate? 2. What are considered to be the

More information

The correct answer is b

The correct answer is b 1. Overall similarity of phenotypes may not always reflect evolutionary relationships a. due to convergent evolution b. because of variation in rates of evolutionary change of different kinds of characters

More information

Chapter 16 Lab Amino Acid Sequences: Indicators of Evolution

Chapter 16 Lab Amino Acid Sequences: Indicators of Evolution Chapter 16 Lab Amino Acid Sequences: Indicators of Evolution Guided Inquiry Skills Lab Problem How can you use proteins to determine how closely organisms are related? Introduction Biologists have many

More information

11/30/2009. Geologic Time. Characters in the Story. Characters in the Story. Characters in the Story

11/30/2009. Geologic Time. Characters in the Story. Characters in the Story. Characters in the Story Geologic Time Challenge: Using geological evidence, work out a history of the 4.6 billion year-old Earth. Problem: Most evidence of early Earth history has been removed by weathering, erosion and tectonic

More information

The Geological Time Scale. Geological time scaled to a cross-country tour of Canada.

The Geological Time Scale. Geological time scaled to a cross-country tour of Canada. Dryden The Geological Time Scale Geological time scaled to a cross-country tour of Canada. The universe came into existence about 14 billion years ago, through an explosion known as the "big bang". ur

More information

Darwin observed organisms in diverse environments. Evolution and Diversity. Descent with Modification. Descent with Modification

Darwin observed organisms in diverse environments. Evolution and Diversity. Descent with Modification. Descent with Modification Darwin observed organisms in diverse environments Evolution and Diversity Ch 13 How populations evolve Darwin observed how organisms adapted to their environments The animals living on the Gal√°pagos Islands

More information

Earth s History. Geologic Time

Earth s History. Geologic Time CHAPTER 3 Earth s History LESSON 1 Geologic Time What do you think? Read the two statements below and decide whether you agree or disagree with them. Place an A in the Before column if you agree with the

More information

CHAPTER 15 THEORY OF EVOLUTION

CHAPTER 15 THEORY OF EVOLUTION CHAPTER 15 THEORY OF EVOLUTION MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Which of the following are examples of fossils? a. shells or old bones b. any traces of dead organisms c. insects trapped in tree sap d. All of the above

More information

Chapter 22 Descent with Modification: A Darwinian View of Life. 1. Evolution by Natural Selection 12/5/ Evolution by Natural Selection

Chapter 22 Descent with Modification: A Darwinian View of Life. 1. Evolution by Natural Selection 12/5/ Evolution by Natural Selection Chapter 22 Descent with Modification: A Darwinian View of Life 1. Evolution by Natural Selection 2. Evidence for the Evolutionary Process 1. Evolution by Natural Selection Chapter Reading pp. 462-470 1809

More information

Life History. Precambrian Time 4.6 BYA MYA 7/24/2009

Life History. Precambrian Time 4.6 BYA MYA 7/24/2009 Life History Scientists have developed a model of the history of life on Earth called the geologic time scale. Significant developments and extinctions of plant and animal life can be explained on the

More information

II. Grade 7, A Trip Through TIME! 2006 Colorado Unit Writing Project 1

II. Grade 7, A Trip Through TIME! 2006 Colorado Unit Writing Project 1 A Trip Through TIME! Grade Level or Special Area: 7 th Grade Science Written by: Beth Spencer, Aurora Academy Charter School, Aurora, Colorado Length of Unit: 5 lessons (approximately 8 days long; one

More information

Biology Station 7(A) Evidence of Change

Biology Station 7(A) Evidence of Change Correlations to Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills: Biology (7) Science concepts. The student knows the theory of biological evolution. The student is expected to: (A) identify evidence of change in

More information

CHAPTER 18 STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM

CHAPTER 18 STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM CHAPTER 18 STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The primary reason that dragonflies grew so much larger 300 million years

More information

Lab 10: Geologic Time

Lab 10: Geologic Time Name: Lab 10: Geologic Time Much of geology is focused on understanding Earth's history. The physical characteristics of rocks and minerals offer clues to the processes and conditions on and within Earth

More information

The Fossil Record. MasterFoods Fossil Gallery Year Name

The Fossil Record. MasterFoods Fossil Gallery Year Name The Fossil Record MasterFoods Fossil Gallery Year 7-10 At School Discuss why you think fossils are useful and what they teach us about life on Earth In the Museum go to the MasterFoods Fossil Gallery.

More information

Name(s): Period: Date:

Name(s): Period: Date: Evidences of Evolution HASPI Medical Biology Lab 20 Background/Introduction What Is Evolution? Evolution is most simply change over time. More specifically, it is a change in the inherited characteristics

More information

Geologic Time. The BIG Idea Rocks, fossils, and other types of natural evidence tell Earth s story.

Geologic Time. The BIG Idea Rocks, fossils, and other types of natural evidence tell Earth s story. Geologic Time Name Notes Page Objectives Recognize that Earth is always changing and has always changed in the past. Explain how the geologic time scale describes Earth s history. The BIG Idea Rocks, fossils,

More information

Evolution Unit Plan. Stage 1: Identify Desired Results Title: Evolution of Life

Evolution Unit Plan. Stage 1: Identify Desired Results Title: Evolution of Life Evolution Unit Plan Stage 1: Identify Desired Results Title: Evolution of Life Unit Description: Evolution is a topic that is fundamental to the study of Biology, linking areas such as genetics, molecular

More information

Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution.

Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution. Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution. Theodosius Dobzhansky Introduction Evolution is the central theme of biology. Adaptation is a universal characteristic of living things.

More information

This is a series of skulls and front leg fossils of organisms believed to be ancestors of the modern-day horse.

This is a series of skulls and front leg fossils of organisms believed to be ancestors of the modern-day horse. Evidence of Evolution Background When Charles Darwin first proposed the idea that all new species descend from an ancestor, he performed an exhaustive amount of research to provide as much evidence as

More information

Key questions to consider. Fossil lecture outline. I. Fossil preservation. Implications

Key questions to consider. Fossil lecture outline. I. Fossil preservation. Implications Fossil lecture outline Fossils, preservation, and bias Establishing dates for fossils How do these challenges affect our ability to address patterns of diversity and evolution? Fossils and the history

More information

Lab 7: Geologic Time

Lab 7: Geologic Time Lab 7: Geologic Time Introduction Geological processes have affected the Earth since its inception 4.6 billion (4,600,000,000) years ago. It is difficult for us to imagine the vastness of time which 4.6

More information

Darwin s Theory. Key Concepts

Darwin s Theory. Key Concepts Changes Over Time Section Summary Darwin s Theory Key Concepts What important observations did Darwin make on his voyage? What hypothesis did Darwin make to explain the differences between similar species?

More information

Phylogenetic Trees. How do the changes in gene sequences allow us to reconstruct the evolutionary relationships between related species?

Phylogenetic Trees. How do the changes in gene sequences allow us to reconstruct the evolutionary relationships between related species? Why? Phylogenetic Trees How do the changes in gene sequences allow us to reconstruct the evolutionary relationships between related species? The saying Don t judge a book by its cover. could be applied

More information

Regents Earth Science Unit 12: Geologic History Earth s History

Regents Earth Science Unit 12: Geologic History Earth s History Fossil - the remains or evidence of a living thing Regents Earth Science Unit 12: Geologic History Earth s History only hard parts fossilize found in sedimentary rock Official NYS fossil: Eurypterid Fossils

More information

Geologic Time Scale Newcomer Academy Visualization Three

Geologic Time Scale Newcomer Academy Visualization Three Geologic Time Newcomer Academy Visualization Three Chapter Subtopic/Media Key Points of Discussion Notes/Vocabulary Introduction Title NA NA Various Pictures of Geologic Time It s About Time Personal Timeline

More information

Geologic Time The first geologic time scale was proposed in 1913 by the British geologist Arthur Holmes (1890-1965). This was soon after the discovery

Geologic Time The first geologic time scale was proposed in 1913 by the British geologist Arthur Holmes (1890-1965). This was soon after the discovery Geologic Time Geologic Time The first geologic time scale was proposed in 1913 by the British geologist Arthur Holmes (1890-1965). This was soon after the discovery of radioactivity, and using it, Holmes

More information

3 The Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras

3 The Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras CHAPTER 9 3 The Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras SECTION A View of Earth s Past KEY IDEAS As you read this section, keep these questions in mind: What were the periods of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras? What

More information

Chapter 19: The History of Life Section: 19.1 The Fossil Record

Chapter 19: The History of Life Section: 19.1 The Fossil Record Chapter 19: The History of Life Section: 19.1 The Fossil Record 1 of 40 17-1 The Fossil Record Fossils and Ancient Life What is the fossil record? 2 of 40 17-1 The Fossil Record Fossils and Ancient Life

More information

Hadean Eon Archean Eon Proterozoic Eon

Hadean Eon Archean Eon Proterozoic Eon Eons on this page are not to scale. Hadean Eon Archean Eon Proterozoic Eon The earth formed 4.6 billion. During this period, the earth cooled and water The Archean Eon began with the first signs of life.

More information

MS Evidence About Earth s Past Assessments

MS Evidence About Earth s Past Assessments MS Evidence About Earth s Past Assessments Dana Desonie Say Thanks to the Authors Click http://www.ck12.org/saythanks (No sign in required) To access a customizable version of this book, as well as other

More information

Chapter 23 Systematics and the Phylogenetic Revolution

Chapter 23 Systematics and the Phylogenetic Revolution Chapter 23 Systematics and the Phylogenetic Revolution Student: Fill in the Blank Questions 1. The biological specialty that deals with the grouping and naming of organisms is called taxonomy or. 2. The

More information

S7L Which is an adaptation that makes it possible for the animal to survive in a cold climate?

S7L Which is an adaptation that makes it possible for the animal to survive in a cold climate? S7L5-1 1. Which is an adaptation that makes it possible for the animal to survive in a cold climate? A. tail on a lizard B. scales on a fish C. stripes on a tiger D. fur on a bear 2. Use the picture of

More information

Evolution and Biodiversity

Evolution and Biodiversity Evolution and Biodiversity What is biodiversity? *Biodiversity is the variety of earth s species, the genes they contain, the ecosystems in which they live, and the ecosystem processes such as energy flow

More information

The Fossil Record and Geologic Time Scale

The Fossil Record and Geologic Time Scale Two Conceptions of Earth History: Catastrophism Assumption: Great Effects Require Great Causes Earth History Dominated by Violent Events Uniformitarianism Assumption: We Can Use Cause And Effect to Determine

More information

Daring Darwin - Practice Test

Daring Darwin - Practice Test Name: Class: _ Date: _ Daring Darwin - Practice Test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Darwin noticed that many organisms seemed well suited

More information

NOTES: CH 19 - The Fossil Record; History of Life; Macroevolution

NOTES: CH 19 - The Fossil Record; History of Life; Macroevolution NOTES: CH 19 - The Fossil Record; History of Life; Macroevolution Vocabulary: Paleontologist Fossil record extinct Relative dating Absolute dating Geologic time scale Objectives: What are fossils? How

More information

The correct answer is a D. Answer d is incorrect. Only answer a is correct.

The correct answer is a D. Answer d is incorrect. Only answer a is correct. 1. In Darwin s finches a. occurrence of wet and dry years preserves genetic variation for beak size b. increasing beak size over time proves that beak size is inherited c. large beak size is always favored

More information

Directed Reading. Section: The Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras

Directed Reading. Section: The Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras Skills Worksheet Directed Reading Section: The Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras 1. How many marine organisms died at the end of the Permian Period? a. 50% b. 78% c. 90% d. 100% 2. How many land organisms died

More information

What two Assumptions did Darwin have to arrive at BEFORE he could form his theories of evolution?

What two Assumptions did Darwin have to arrive at BEFORE he could form his theories of evolution? Influences on Darwin s Thinking: What ideas did each of the listed names below contribute to Darwin s thinking about evolution? (very brief) Georges Buffon: Jean Baptiste Lamarck: Charles Lyell: Thomas

More information

Principles of Evolution

Principles of Evolution Principles of Evolution Evolution- Hypothesis or Theory? Hypothesis- a specific, testable prediction Theory- a general explanation for a broad range of data Evolution- Change over time; modern organisms

More information

1 Earth s Story and Those Who First Listened

1 Earth s Story and Those Who First Listened CHAPTER 6 1 Earth s Story and Those Who First Listened SECTION The Rock and Fossil Record BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: How fast do changes

More information

How Populations Evolve

How Populations Evolve How Populations Evolve Darwin and the Origin of the Species Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, November 24, 1859. Darwin presented two main concepts: Life

More information