Visible Light. Where It Starts Photosynthesis. Electromagnetic Spectrum. Pigments

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1 Visible Light Where It Starts Photosynthesis Chapter 6 Wavelengths humans perceive as different colors Violet (380 nm) to red (750 nm) Longer wavelengths, lower energy Electromagnetic Spectrum Pigments Shortest wavelength Longest wavelength Gamma rays X-rays UV radiation Visible light Infrared radiation Microwaves Radio waves Light-absorbing molecules Absorb some wavelengths and transmit others Color you see are the wavelengths not absorbed 1

2 Chlorophylls Main pigments in most photoautotrophs Wavelength absorption (%) chlorophyll a chlorophyll b Wavelength (nanometers) Light-Dependent Reactions Pigments absorb light energy, give up e - which enter electron transfer chains Water molecules are split, and NADH are formed, and oxygen is released Pigments that gave up electrons get replacements Light-Independent Reactions Photosynthesis Equation Synthesis part of photosynthesis Can proceed in the dark Take place in the stroma Calvin-Benson cycle 2

3 Chloroplasts Organelles of photosynthesis leaf s upper surface photosynthetic cells central vacuole chloroplast one photosynthetic cell inside the leaf vein stoma (gap) in lower epidermis section from the leaf, showing its internal organization Two outer membranes enclose a semifluid interior, the stroma Thylakoid membrane inside the stroma Inside the Chloroplast two outer membranes chloroplasts stroma thylakoid membrane system see next slide Linked Processes Two Stages of Photosynthesis Photosynthesis Aerobic Respiration sunlight energy H2O (water) CO2 (carbon dioxide) Energy-storing pathway Releases oxygen Energy-releasing pathway Requires oxygen lightdependent reactions ADP + P i NADPH NADP lightindependent reactions Requires carbon dioxide Releases carbon dioxide O2 H2O (metabolic water) glucose 3

4 Inside the Chloroplast Photosystems are embedded in thylakoids, containing 200 to 300 pigments and other molecules that trap sun s energy Two types of photosystems: I and II light harvesting complex PHOTOSYSTEM II thylakoid membrane electron transfer chain thylakoid compartment PHOTOSYSTEM I Photosystem Function: Reaction Center Molecule of chlorophyll a (P700 or P680) is the reaction center of a photosystem Reaction center accepts energy and donates electron to acceptor molecule Electron Transfer Chains and NADPH Formation Adjacent to photosystem LIGHT- HARVESTING COMPLEX PHOTOSYSTEM II sunlight PHOTOSYSTEM I Acceptor molecule donates electrons from reaction center photon a light-harvesting complex has a ring of pigment molecules H+H+ H+ NADPH NADP thylakoid compartment As electrons flow through chain, energy they release is used to produce and, in some cases, NADPH A photosystem is surrounded by densely packed light harvesting complexes. ADP + P i thylakoid membrane stroma 4

5 Formation When water is split during photolysis, hydrogen ions are released into thylakoid compartment More hydrogen ions are pumped into the thylakoid compartment when the electron transfer chain operates Formation Electrical and concentration gradient exists between thylakoid compartment and stroma flows down gradients into stroma through synthesis Flow of ions drives formation of Calvin-Benson Cycle Calvin-Benson Cycle 6CO 2 Overall reactants Carbon dioxide NADPH Overall products Glucose ADP NADP + Reaction pathway is cyclic and RuBP (ribulose bisphosphate) is regenerated 6 ADP 4 P i 1 6 RuBP 10 PGAL 1 P i Calvin-Benson cycle 12 PGA PGAL 12 ADP + 12 P i 12 NADPH 12 NADP + glucose-6-1-phosphate 5

6 Building Glucose PGA accepts phosphate from hydrogen and electrons from NADPH PGAL (phosphoglyceraldehyde) forms When 12 PGAL have formed 10 are used to regenerate RuBP 2 combine to form phosphorylated glucose Using the Products of Photosynthesis Phosphorylated glucose is the building block for: Sucrose The most easily transported plant carbohydrate Starch The most common storage form Summary of Photosynthesis The evolution of oxygen Light- Dependent Reactions Light- Independent Reactions sunlight 12H 2 O 6O 2 ADP + P i 6CO 2 6 RuBP Calvin- Benson cycle NADPH NADP + 12 PGAL 6H 2 O phosphorylated glucose About 3.8 billion years ago, the first organisms appeared on the young planet Earth. They were able to use the water vapor, nitrogen, methane and ammonia that made up Earth's atmosphere for food and energy, probably through a process facilitated or catalyzed by metals such as iron and magnesium. Between 3.3 and 3.5 billion years ago, cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) appeared. These single-celled organisms had the ability to convert energy from the sun into chemical energy through photosynthesis using hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Between 1 and 2 billion years ago, some bacteria adapted to use water (H2O) in photosynthesis. Oxygen, which is released as a byproduct of photosynthesis, appeared in Earth's atmosphere. About 500 million years ago, hemoglobin and myoglobin proteins evolved. end products (e.g., sucrose, starch, cellulose) 6

7 Making Plants make during photosynthesis Cells of all organisms make by breaking down carbohydrates, fats, and protein Glucose metabolism Cellular respiration Aerobic Produces 36 Takes place within mitochondrion Overview of Aerobic Respiration C 6 H O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 0 glucose oxygen carbon water dioxide Main Pathways Start with Glycolysis Glycolysis occurs in cytoplasm Reactions are catalyzed by enzymes Glucose (six carbons) 2 Pyruvate (three carbons) 7

8 Overview of Aerobic Respiration Glucose metabolism cytoplasm 2 energy input to start reactions mitochondrion e - glucose GLYCOLYSIS e - + (2 net) 2 pyruvate 2 NADH e CO 2 2 NADH e NADH 4 CO 2 e - + Krebs 2 FADH Cycle 2 2 ELECTRON TRANSPORT 32 PHOSPHORYLATION water e - + oxygen TYPICAL ENERGY YIELD: 36 Glycolysis Converts one molecule of glucose to two molecules of pyruvate Anaerobic Produces 2 molecules (net) Cytoplasmic Net Energy Yield from Glycolysis Energy requiring steps: 2 invested Energy releasing steps: 2 NADH formed 4 formed Net yield is 2 and 2 NADH Second-Stage Reactions Occur in the mitochondria Pyruvate is broken down to carbon dioxide More is formed More coenzymes are reduced inner mitochondrial membrane inner compartment outer mitochondrial membrane outer compartment 8

9 Results of the Second Stage All of the carbon molecules in pyruvate end up in carbon dioxide Coenzymes are reduced (they pick up electrons and hydrogen) One molecule of is formed Four-carbon oxaloacetate is regenerated Acetyl-CoA Formation Second Stage of Aerobic Respiration (CO 2 ) pyruvate coenzyme A NAD + Krebs Cycle NADH FADH 2 oxaloacetate NADH CoA acetyl-coa CoA NAD + NAD + FAD NAD + citrate ADP + phosphate group NADH NADH Electron Transfer Phosphorylation Occurs in the mitochondria Coenzymes deliver electrons to electron transfer chains Electron transfer sets up ion gradients Flow of down gradients powers formation Electron Transfer Phosphorylation Electron transfer chains are embedded in inner mitochondrial compartment NADH and FADH 2 give up electrons that they picked up in earlier stages to electron transfer chain Electrons are transferred through the chain The final electron acceptor is oxygen glucose GLYCOLYSIS ELECTRON TRANSFER PHOSPHORYLATION pyruvate KREBS CYCLE 9

10 Formation Summary of Transfers glucose 2 PGAL 2 NADH 2 pyruvate glycolysis ADP + P i INNER COMPARTMENT 2 acetyl-coa 2 Krebs Cycle 2 CO 2 2 FADH 2 2 NADH 6 NADH 2 FADH 2 4 CO 2 36 e KREBS CYCLE H+ ADP electron + P transfer i phosphorylation Importance of Oxygen Electron transfer phosphorylation requires the presence of oxygen Oxygen withdraws spent electrons from the electron transfer chain, then combines with to form water Summary of Energy Harvest (per molecule of glucose) Glycolysis 2 formed by substrate-level phosphorylation Krebs cycle and preparatory reactions 2 formed by substrate-level phosphorylation Electron transfer phosphorylation 32 formed 10

11 Anaerobic Pathways Fermentation Pathways Do not use oxygen Produce less than aerobic pathways Two types of fermentation pathways Alcoholic fermentation Lactate fermentation Begin with glycolysis Do not break glucose down completely to carbon dioxide and water Yield only the 2 from glycolysis Yeasts Single-celled fungi Carry out alcoholic fermentation Saccharomyces cerevisiae Baker s yeast Carbon dioxide makes bread dough rise Saccharomyces ellipsoideus Used to make beer and wine When life originated, atmosphere had little oxygen Evolution of Metabolic Pathways Earliest organisms used anaerobic pathways Later, noncyclic pathway of photosynthesis increased atmospheric oxygen Cells arose that used oxygen as final acceptor in electron transfer 11

12 Processes Are Linked Summary Aerobic Respiration Aerobic Respiration Reactants Sugar Oxygen Photosynthesis Reactants Carbon dioxide Water cytoplasm 2 energy input to start reactions mitochondrion e - glucose GLYCOLYSIS e pyruvate 2 NADH e NADH e NADH e - + Krebs 2 FADH 2 Cycle ELECTRON TRANSPORT PHOSPHORYLATION (2 net) 2 CO 2 4 CO Products Products e - + oxygen water Carbon dioxide Sugar TYPICAL ENERGY YIELD: 36 Water Oxygen Why do animals inhale oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide? Aerobic cellular respiration Oxygen acts as electron acceptor O 2 combines with hydrogen ions to form water Carbon dioxide is waste product Produces 36 Why is important? High energy bonds hydrolyzed by ases to produce ADP + P i + energy Kinases phosphorylate (add P i ) to other enzymes to activate them Facilitates muscle contraction, active transport, etc. 12

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