Visible Light. Where It Starts Photosynthesis. Electromagnetic Spectrum. Pigments

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Visible Light. Where It Starts Photosynthesis. Electromagnetic Spectrum. Pigments"

Transcription

1 Visible Light Where It Starts Photosynthesis Chapter 6 Wavelengths humans perceive as different colors Violet (380 nm) to red (750 nm) Longer wavelengths, lower energy Electromagnetic Spectrum Pigments Shortest wavelength Longest wavelength Gamma rays X-rays UV radiation Visible light Infrared radiation Microwaves Radio waves Light-absorbing molecules Absorb some wavelengths and transmit others Color you see are the wavelengths not absorbed 1

2 Chlorophylls Main pigments in most photoautotrophs Wavelength absorption (%) chlorophyll a chlorophyll b Wavelength (nanometers) Light-Dependent Reactions Pigments absorb light energy, give up e - which enter electron transfer chains Water molecules are split, and NADH are formed, and oxygen is released Pigments that gave up electrons get replacements Light-Independent Reactions Photosynthesis Equation Synthesis part of photosynthesis Can proceed in the dark Take place in the stroma Calvin-Benson cycle 2

3 Chloroplasts Organelles of photosynthesis leaf s upper surface photosynthetic cells central vacuole chloroplast one photosynthetic cell inside the leaf vein stoma (gap) in lower epidermis section from the leaf, showing its internal organization Two outer membranes enclose a semifluid interior, the stroma Thylakoid membrane inside the stroma Inside the Chloroplast two outer membranes chloroplasts stroma thylakoid membrane system see next slide Linked Processes Two Stages of Photosynthesis Photosynthesis Aerobic Respiration sunlight energy H2O (water) CO2 (carbon dioxide) Energy-storing pathway Releases oxygen Energy-releasing pathway Requires oxygen lightdependent reactions ADP + P i NADPH NADP lightindependent reactions Requires carbon dioxide Releases carbon dioxide O2 H2O (metabolic water) glucose 3

4 Inside the Chloroplast Photosystems are embedded in thylakoids, containing 200 to 300 pigments and other molecules that trap sun s energy Two types of photosystems: I and II light harvesting complex PHOTOSYSTEM II thylakoid membrane electron transfer chain thylakoid compartment PHOTOSYSTEM I Photosystem Function: Reaction Center Molecule of chlorophyll a (P700 or P680) is the reaction center of a photosystem Reaction center accepts energy and donates electron to acceptor molecule Electron Transfer Chains and NADPH Formation Adjacent to photosystem LIGHT- HARVESTING COMPLEX PHOTOSYSTEM II sunlight PHOTOSYSTEM I Acceptor molecule donates electrons from reaction center photon a light-harvesting complex has a ring of pigment molecules H+H+ H+ NADPH NADP thylakoid compartment As electrons flow through chain, energy they release is used to produce and, in some cases, NADPH A photosystem is surrounded by densely packed light harvesting complexes. ADP + P i thylakoid membrane stroma 4

5 Formation When water is split during photolysis, hydrogen ions are released into thylakoid compartment More hydrogen ions are pumped into the thylakoid compartment when the electron transfer chain operates Formation Electrical and concentration gradient exists between thylakoid compartment and stroma flows down gradients into stroma through synthesis Flow of ions drives formation of Calvin-Benson Cycle Calvin-Benson Cycle 6CO 2 Overall reactants Carbon dioxide NADPH Overall products Glucose ADP NADP + Reaction pathway is cyclic and RuBP (ribulose bisphosphate) is regenerated 6 ADP 4 P i 1 6 RuBP 10 PGAL 1 P i Calvin-Benson cycle 12 PGA PGAL 12 ADP + 12 P i 12 NADPH 12 NADP + glucose-6-1-phosphate 5

6 Building Glucose PGA accepts phosphate from hydrogen and electrons from NADPH PGAL (phosphoglyceraldehyde) forms When 12 PGAL have formed 10 are used to regenerate RuBP 2 combine to form phosphorylated glucose Using the Products of Photosynthesis Phosphorylated glucose is the building block for: Sucrose The most easily transported plant carbohydrate Starch The most common storage form Summary of Photosynthesis The evolution of oxygen Light- Dependent Reactions Light- Independent Reactions sunlight 12H 2 O 6O 2 ADP + P i 6CO 2 6 RuBP Calvin- Benson cycle NADPH NADP + 12 PGAL 6H 2 O phosphorylated glucose About 3.8 billion years ago, the first organisms appeared on the young planet Earth. They were able to use the water vapor, nitrogen, methane and ammonia that made up Earth's atmosphere for food and energy, probably through a process facilitated or catalyzed by metals such as iron and magnesium. Between 3.3 and 3.5 billion years ago, cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) appeared. These single-celled organisms had the ability to convert energy from the sun into chemical energy through photosynthesis using hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Between 1 and 2 billion years ago, some bacteria adapted to use water (H2O) in photosynthesis. Oxygen, which is released as a byproduct of photosynthesis, appeared in Earth's atmosphere. About 500 million years ago, hemoglobin and myoglobin proteins evolved. end products (e.g., sucrose, starch, cellulose) 6

7 Making Plants make during photosynthesis Cells of all organisms make by breaking down carbohydrates, fats, and protein Glucose metabolism Cellular respiration Aerobic Produces 36 Takes place within mitochondrion Overview of Aerobic Respiration C 6 H O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 0 glucose oxygen carbon water dioxide Main Pathways Start with Glycolysis Glycolysis occurs in cytoplasm Reactions are catalyzed by enzymes Glucose (six carbons) 2 Pyruvate (three carbons) 7

8 Overview of Aerobic Respiration Glucose metabolism cytoplasm 2 energy input to start reactions mitochondrion e - glucose GLYCOLYSIS e - + (2 net) 2 pyruvate 2 NADH e CO 2 2 NADH e NADH 4 CO 2 e - + Krebs 2 FADH Cycle 2 2 ELECTRON TRANSPORT 32 PHOSPHORYLATION water e - + oxygen TYPICAL ENERGY YIELD: 36 Glycolysis Converts one molecule of glucose to two molecules of pyruvate Anaerobic Produces 2 molecules (net) Cytoplasmic Net Energy Yield from Glycolysis Energy requiring steps: 2 invested Energy releasing steps: 2 NADH formed 4 formed Net yield is 2 and 2 NADH Second-Stage Reactions Occur in the mitochondria Pyruvate is broken down to carbon dioxide More is formed More coenzymes are reduced inner mitochondrial membrane inner compartment outer mitochondrial membrane outer compartment 8

9 Results of the Second Stage All of the carbon molecules in pyruvate end up in carbon dioxide Coenzymes are reduced (they pick up electrons and hydrogen) One molecule of is formed Four-carbon oxaloacetate is regenerated Acetyl-CoA Formation Second Stage of Aerobic Respiration (CO 2 ) pyruvate coenzyme A NAD + Krebs Cycle NADH FADH 2 oxaloacetate NADH CoA acetyl-coa CoA NAD + NAD + FAD NAD + citrate ADP + phosphate group NADH NADH Electron Transfer Phosphorylation Occurs in the mitochondria Coenzymes deliver electrons to electron transfer chains Electron transfer sets up ion gradients Flow of down gradients powers formation Electron Transfer Phosphorylation Electron transfer chains are embedded in inner mitochondrial compartment NADH and FADH 2 give up electrons that they picked up in earlier stages to electron transfer chain Electrons are transferred through the chain The final electron acceptor is oxygen glucose GLYCOLYSIS ELECTRON TRANSFER PHOSPHORYLATION pyruvate KREBS CYCLE 9

10 Formation Summary of Transfers glucose 2 PGAL 2 NADH 2 pyruvate glycolysis ADP + P i INNER COMPARTMENT 2 acetyl-coa 2 Krebs Cycle 2 CO 2 2 FADH 2 2 NADH 6 NADH 2 FADH 2 4 CO 2 36 e KREBS CYCLE H+ ADP electron + P transfer i phosphorylation Importance of Oxygen Electron transfer phosphorylation requires the presence of oxygen Oxygen withdraws spent electrons from the electron transfer chain, then combines with to form water Summary of Energy Harvest (per molecule of glucose) Glycolysis 2 formed by substrate-level phosphorylation Krebs cycle and preparatory reactions 2 formed by substrate-level phosphorylation Electron transfer phosphorylation 32 formed 10

11 Anaerobic Pathways Fermentation Pathways Do not use oxygen Produce less than aerobic pathways Two types of fermentation pathways Alcoholic fermentation Lactate fermentation Begin with glycolysis Do not break glucose down completely to carbon dioxide and water Yield only the 2 from glycolysis Yeasts Single-celled fungi Carry out alcoholic fermentation Saccharomyces cerevisiae Baker s yeast Carbon dioxide makes bread dough rise Saccharomyces ellipsoideus Used to make beer and wine When life originated, atmosphere had little oxygen Evolution of Metabolic Pathways Earliest organisms used anaerobic pathways Later, noncyclic pathway of photosynthesis increased atmospheric oxygen Cells arose that used oxygen as final acceptor in electron transfer 11

12 Processes Are Linked Summary Aerobic Respiration Aerobic Respiration Reactants Sugar Oxygen Photosynthesis Reactants Carbon dioxide Water cytoplasm 2 energy input to start reactions mitochondrion e - glucose GLYCOLYSIS e pyruvate 2 NADH e NADH e NADH e - + Krebs 2 FADH 2 Cycle ELECTRON TRANSPORT PHOSPHORYLATION (2 net) 2 CO 2 4 CO Products Products e - + oxygen water Carbon dioxide Sugar TYPICAL ENERGY YIELD: 36 Water Oxygen Why do animals inhale oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide? Aerobic cellular respiration Oxygen acts as electron acceptor O 2 combines with hydrogen ions to form water Carbon dioxide is waste product Produces 36 Why is important? High energy bonds hydrolyzed by ases to produce ADP + P i + energy Kinases phosphorylate (add P i ) to other enzymes to activate them Facilitates muscle contraction, active transport, etc. 12

13 13

Chapter 6 WHERE IT STARTS PHOTOSYNTHESIS

Chapter 6 WHERE IT STARTS PHOTOSYNTHESIS Chapter 6 WHERE IT STARTS PHOTOSYNTHESIS Introduction Before photosynthesis evolved, Earth s atmosphere had little free oxygen Oxygen released during photosynthesis changed the atmosphere Favored evolution

More information

CIBI Midterm Examination II 17 October 2005

CIBI Midterm Examination II 17 October 2005 Name: CIBI 3031-062 Midterm Examination II 17 October 2005 Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. (2 points each) 1. Metabolism describes

More information

Introduction to Life Science BSC Fall Homework 3: Cellular Processes. Connect Due Date: 11/23/ :59PM. Multiple Choice Portion

Introduction to Life Science BSC Fall Homework 3: Cellular Processes. Connect Due Date: 11/23/ :59PM. Multiple Choice Portion Introduction to Life Science BSC 1005 Fall 2011 Homework 3: Cellular Processes Connect Due Date: 11/23/2011 11:59PM Instructions Complete this homework assignment as the material is covered in class. You

More information

Chapter 9 Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

Chapter 9 Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Chapter Outline Chapter 9 Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Section 1: Energy in Living Systems KEY IDEAS > What type of energy is used in cells, and what is the ultimate source of this energy? >

More information

Chapter 7. How Cells Release Chemical energy

Chapter 7. How Cells Release Chemical energy Chapter 7 How Cells Release Chemical energy Overview of Carbohydrate Breakdown Pathway Plants and all other photoautotrophs get energy from the sun, heterotrophs get by eating plants and one another ATP

More information

Biology Unit 4 Energy and Life. 4:1 Energy All living things require a constant supply of ENERGY. AUTOTROPH: organisms that make their own food

Biology Unit 4 Energy and Life. 4:1 Energy All living things require a constant supply of ENERGY. AUTOTROPH: organisms that make their own food Biology Unit 4 Energy and Life 4:1 Energy All living things require a constant supply of ENERGY. AUTOTROPH: organisms that make their own food HETEROTROPH: obtain energy from the food they consume GLUCOSE:

More information

Biology Chapter 7 Photosynthesis

Biology Chapter 7 Photosynthesis Biology Chapter 7 Photosynthesis 1 Introduction Nearly all living things depend on the cellular process called photosynthesis. Each year this process produces more than 150 billion metric tons of sugar

More information

How Cells Release Chemical Energy

How Cells Release Chemical Energy How Cells Release Chemical Energy Chapter 7 Learning Objectives: 1. What is the relationship between cellular respiration and breathing? 2. List the balanced chemical equation that summarizes the complete

More information

AP Bio Photosynthesis & Respiration

AP Bio Photosynthesis & Respiration AP Bio Photosynthesis & Respiration Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What is the term used for the metabolic pathway in which

More information

5.3 Cellular Respiration Releases Energy from Organic Compounds

5.3 Cellular Respiration Releases Energy from Organic Compounds 5.3 Cellular Respiration Releases Energy from Organic Compounds In this section, you will distinguish among aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, and fermentation explain how carbohydrates are oxidized

More information

ATP High-energy bond: Stores much energy *This energy is released when the bond is broken*

ATP High-energy bond: Stores much energy *This energy is released when the bond is broken* 1 The Need for Energy http://www.geocities.com/rebelloscience All organisms require energy for Active transport Cell division Movement Production of proteins Energy is stored in the molecule : adenosine

More information

Biology 20 Cellular Respiration Review NG Know the process of Cellular Respiration (use this picture if it helps):

Biology 20 Cellular Respiration Review NG Know the process of Cellular Respiration (use this picture if it helps): Biology 20 Cellular Respiration Review NG Know the process of Cellular Respiration (use this picture if it helps): 1) How many ATP molecules are produced for each glucose molecule used in fermentation?

More information

SBI4U: Respiration and Photosynthesis Test. [25 marks]

SBI4U: Respiration and Photosynthesis Test. [25 marks] Part 1: Multiple Choice SBI4U: Respiration and Photosynthesis Test Mr. Dykstra Name: [25 marks] 1. Which of the following molecules links glucose oxidation, fatty acid catabolism, and the catabolism of

More information

Basic Metabolism: Respiration and Photosynthesis

Basic Metabolism: Respiration and Photosynthesis Basic Metabolism: Respiration and Photosynthesis Respiration: : Breakdown of fuel (food) molecules to release energy. All living organisms. Photosynthesis: : Using sunlight energy & atmospheric CO 2 to

More information

1. f. Students know usable energy is captured from sunlight by chloroplasts and is stored through the synthesis of sugar from carbon dioxide.

1. f. Students know usable energy is captured from sunlight by chloroplasts and is stored through the synthesis of sugar from carbon dioxide. 1. The fundamental life processes of plants and animals depend on a variety of chemical reactions that occur in specialized areas of the organism s cells. As a basis for understanding this concept: 1.

More information

THE BASICS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS

THE BASICS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS THE BASICS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS Photosynthesis is used by plants, algae (protists), and some bacteria, transforms light energy into chemical energy, and uses carbon dioxide and water as starting materials.

More information

Energy, Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration

Energy, Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration Energy, Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration Name: Period: Date: I. ATP: Energy In A Molecule All is broken down by the body into small molecules through digestion o By the time food reaches your, it

More information

Photosynthesis: Using Light to Make Food

Photosynthesis: Using Light to Make Food Photosynthesis: Using to Make Food Chapter 7 Introduction: Plant Power Plants use water and atmospheric carbon dioxide to produce a simple sugar and liberate oxygen Earth s plants produce 160 billion metric

More information

Pathways that Harvest and Store Chemical Energy

Pathways that Harvest and Store Chemical Energy Pathways that Harvest and Store Chemical Energy Chapter 6 Pathways that Harvest and Store Chemical Energy Key Concepts 6.1 ATP, Reduced Coenzymes, and Chemiosmosis Play Important Roles in Biological Energy

More information

Where It Starts. Photosynthesis

Where It Starts. Photosynthesis Where It Starts Photosynthesis Chapter 6 Before you go on: Review the answers to the following questions to test your understanding of previous material. 1. What are coenzymes (a.k.a. carrier molecules)

More information

Energy in a Cell. Concept Mapping. Chapter 9. Photosynthesis: Trapping the Sun s Energy

Energy in a Cell. Concept Mapping. Chapter 9. Photosynthesis: Trapping the Sun s Energy hapter 9 Energy in a ell oncept Mapping Use with hapter 9, Section 9.2 Photosynthesis: Trapping the Sun s Energy omplete the concept map describing photosynthesis. Use these words or phrases once: chemical

More information

Respiration and Photosynthesis

Respiration and Photosynthesis Respiration and Photosynthesis 1. Where does the energy in an ecosystem originate? 2. Define catabolism. 3. What are the two types of cellular respiration? 4. If oxygen is present, how many ATPs can the

More information

True or False: 1. Reactions are called endergonic if they occur spontaneously and release free energy.

True or False: 1. Reactions are called endergonic if they occur spontaneously and release free energy. True or False: 1. Reactions are called endergonic if they occur spontaneously and release free energy. 2. Enzymes catalyze chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy 3. Biochemical pathways are

More information

Cellular Energetics Study Guide

Cellular Energetics Study Guide Name Period Date Cellular Energetics Study Guide Part A. Photosynthesis 1. What roles do autotrophs fill in the biosphere? (p.108) 2. Draw and label a chloroplast from a leaf cell. Indicate the role of

More information

Answers Chapters 8 & 9 Review Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration

Answers Chapters 8 & 9 Review Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration Answers Chapters 8 & 9 Review Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration Photosynthesis: 1. What is the term for the ability to perform work? Energy 2. Organisms that make their own food are called producers

More information

Photosynthesis & Respira0on

Photosynthesis & Respira0on Indicator B 3.1: Summarize the overall process by which photosynthesis converts solar energy into chemical energy and interpret the chemical equation for the process. Indicator B 3.2: Summarize the basic

More information

7/26/2015. Glucose is OXIDIZED/REDUCED to. Oxygen is OXIDIZED/REDUCED to. Lecture 6 Outline (Ch. 9, 10) Steps of Respiration. Steps of Respiration

7/26/2015. Glucose is OXIDIZED/REDUCED to. Oxygen is OXIDIZED/REDUCED to. Lecture 6 Outline (Ch. 9, 10) Steps of Respiration. Steps of Respiration Lecture 6 Outline (Ch. 9, 10) I. Citric Acid Cycle II. III. IV. Electron transport chain & oxidative phosphorylation Anaerobic respiration Respiration with other molecules V. Chloroplasts VI. Light VI.

More information

ATP High-energy bond: Stores much energy *This energy is released when the bond is broken*

ATP High-energy bond: Stores much energy *This energy is released when the bond is broken* The Need for Energy All organisms require energy for Active transport Against the concentration gradient, low to high concentration Cell division-spindle fibers attaching and pulling chromosomes to centrioles

More information

Chapter 7. Harvesting Energy: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration

Chapter 7. Harvesting Energy: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration Chapter 7 Harvesting Energy: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration Including some materials from lectures by Gregory Ahearn University of North Florida Ammended by John Crocker Copyright 2009 Pearson Education,

More information

Adv. Biology: Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Study Guide

Adv. Biology: Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Study Guide Adv. Biology: Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Study Guide Chapter 8 All vocabulary See Notes Energy: ATP, ADP, AMP; ATP cycle o ATP: Adenosine Triposphate - the most important biological molecule

More information

Chapter 9 Review Worksheet Cellular Respiration

Chapter 9 Review Worksheet Cellular Respiration Name: Hour: Chapter 9 Review Worksheet Cellular Respiration Energy in General 1. Differentiate an autotroph from a hetertroph as it relates to obtaining energy and the processes in this chapter. Autotrophs

More information

Chapter 9 Review Worksheet Cellular Respiration

Chapter 9 Review Worksheet Cellular Respiration 1 of 5 11/9/2011 8:11 PM Name: Hour: Chapter 9 Review Worksheet Cellular Respiration Energy in General 1. Differentiate an autotroph from a hetertroph as it relates to obtaining energy and the processes

More information

CHAPTER 4. Section 1 Do we get energy from food?

CHAPTER 4. Section 1 Do we get energy from food? Section 1 Do we get energy from food? CHAPTER 4 Food contains energy but it has to be broken down in order to be used. That means that energy comes from food but not directly. All cells, including plant

More information

Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis

Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis A Meridian Biology AP Study Guide by John Ho and Tim Qi Metabolism: Totality of an organism s chemical reactions Free Energy Change : G = H T S Where G = Gibbs free

More information

Name Date Class. energy phosphate adenine charged ATP chemical bonds work ribose

Name Date Class. energy phosphate adenine charged ATP chemical bonds work ribose Energy in a Cell Reinforcement and Study Guide Section.1 The Need for Energy In your textbook, read about cell energy. Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage. energy phosphate adenine

More information

Cellular Respiration (Chapter 8) Outline. A. All active organisms, including the infamous killer bees, use energy on a steady basis.

Cellular Respiration (Chapter 8) Outline. A. All active organisms, including the infamous killer bees, use energy on a steady basis. The Killers Are Coming! The Killers Are Coming! Cellular Respiration (Chapter 8) Outline A. All active organisms, including the infamous killer bees, use energy on a steady basis. B. Carbon dioxide and

More information

Name Chapter 9: Photosynthesis: Capturing Energy Mrs. Laux AP Biology Take home test #5 DUE: MONDAY, OCTOBER 26, 2009 MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

Name Chapter 9: Photosynthesis: Capturing Energy Mrs. Laux AP Biology Take home test #5 DUE: MONDAY, OCTOBER 26, 2009 MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. Light behaves not only as waves, but also as particles, which are referred to as: A. electrons. B. protons. C. photons. D. radiation. E. neutrons. 2. An electron absorbs a

More information

CELL/ PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ CELLULAR RESPIRATION Test 2011 ANSWER 250 POINTS ANY WAY IN WHICH YOU WANT

CELL/ PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ CELLULAR RESPIRATION Test 2011 ANSWER 250 POINTS ANY WAY IN WHICH YOU WANT CELL/ PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ CELLULAR RESPIRATION Test 2011 ANSWER 250 POINTS ANY WAY IN WHICH YOU WANT Completion: complete each statement. (1 point each) 1. All cells arise from. 2. The basic unit of structure

More information

How Cells Release Chemical Energy Cellular Respiration

How Cells Release Chemical Energy Cellular Respiration How Cells Release Chemical Energy Cellular Respiration Overview of Carbohydrate Breakdown Pathways Photoautotrophs make ATP during photosynthesis and use it to synthesize glucose and other carbohydrates

More information

ENERGY AND METABOLISM 1

ENERGY AND METABOLISM 1 ENERGY AND METABOLISM 1 Respiration and Fermentation 1. Some bacteria can use carbon dioxide rather than oxygen as the prime oxidizing molecule and therefore produce methane (CH4) rather than water as

More information

Evolution of Metabolism. Introduction. Introduction. Introduction. How Cells Harvest Energy. Chapter 7 & 8

Evolution of Metabolism. Introduction. Introduction. Introduction. How Cells Harvest Energy. Chapter 7 & 8 How ells Harvest Energy hapter 7 & 8 Evolution of Metabolism A hypothetical timeline for the evolution of metabolism - all in prokaryotic cells!: 1. ability to store chemical energy in ATP 2. evolution

More information

Photosynthesis (CO 2 + H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 )

Photosynthesis (CO 2 + H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 ) The vital role of A This is the energy-rich compound that is the source of energy for all living things. It is a nucleotide, comprising a 5C sugar (ribose); an organic base (adenosine); and 3 phosphate

More information

Chapter 6 - Photosynthesis

Chapter 6 - Photosynthesis Chapter 6 - Photosynthesis Sunlight as an Energy Source Photosynthesis The synthesis of organic molecules from inorganic molecules using the energy of light trees kelp kelp cyanobacteria Sites of Photosynthesis

More information

Cellular respiration. The process by which cells harvest the energy stored in food

Cellular respiration. The process by which cells harvest the energy stored in food Cellular respiration The process by which cells harvest the energy stored in food 1 SAVING FOR A Rainy Day Suppose you earned extra money by having a part-time job. At first, you might be tempted to spend

More information

-Loss of energy -Loss of hydrogen from carbons. -Gain of energy -Gain of hydrogen to carbons

-Loss of energy -Loss of hydrogen from carbons. -Gain of energy -Gain of hydrogen to carbons Cellular Respiration- Equation C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 +6H20 and energy -The energy is released from the chemical bonds in the complex organic molecules -The catabolic process of releasing energy from food

More information

Photosynthesis.

Photosynthesis. Photosynthesis http://shirt.woot.com/ What is the function of chloroplasts within photosynthetic organisms? Photosynthesis is the process by which light energy is changed into chemical energy that is both

More information

Big Idea 2B Basic Review. 1. Which of the following is the currency of energy in organisms? a. DNA b. RNA c. ATP d. AMP

Big Idea 2B Basic Review. 1. Which of the following is the currency of energy in organisms? a. DNA b. RNA c. ATP d. AMP Big Idea 2B Basic Review 1. Which of the following is the currency of energy in organisms? a. DNA b. RNA c. ATP d. AMP 2. When changing from ADP to ATP: a. A phosphate group is lost b. The phosphate groups

More information

LAB 6: Photosynthesis : Capture of Light Energy

LAB 6: Photosynthesis : Capture of Light Energy LAB 6: Photosynthesis : Capture of Light Energy Photosynthesis Equation 12H 2 O + 6CO 2 LIGHT ENERGY 6O 2 + C 2 H 12 O 6 + 6H 2 O water carbon dioxide oxygen glucose water We will be testing the effect

More information

Chapter 8: Photosynthesis: An Overview

Chapter 8: Photosynthesis: An Overview Name Class Date Chapter 8: Photosynthesis: An Overview Lesson Objectives Describe the role of light and pigments in photosynthesis. Explain the role of electron carrier molecules in photosynthesis. State

More information

What are the basic steps in glycolysis, the TCA cycle, and the electron transport system? An Introduction to Cellular Metabolism.

What are the basic steps in glycolysis, the TCA cycle, and the electron transport system? An Introduction to Cellular Metabolism. What are the basic steps in glycolysis, the TCA cycle, and the electron transport system? An Introduction to Cellular Metabolism Figure 25 1 1 Carbohydrate Metabolism Generates ATP and other high-energy

More information

Cellular Respiration Review

Cellular Respiration Review MULTIPLE CHOICE: Circle ALL that are TRUE. There may be MORE THAN one correct answer. is the first step in cellular respiration that begins releasing energy stored in glucose. A. Alcoholic fermentation

More information

Chapter 7 AN OVERVIEW OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Introduction. Introduction. 7.1 Autotrophs are the producers of the biosphere

Chapter 7 AN OVERVIEW OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Introduction. Introduction. 7.1 Autotrophs are the producers of the biosphere Chapter 7 hotosynthesis: Using to Make Food Introduction lants, algae, and certain prokaryotes convert light energy to chemical energy and store the chemical energy in sugar, made from carbon dioxide and

More information

Chapter 10 Notes. Photosynthesis

Chapter 10 Notes. Photosynthesis Chapter 10 Notes Photosynthesis The Process That Feeds the Biosphere Plants use the energy of sunlight to make organic molecules from water and carbon dioxide. This conversion process is called photosynthesis.

More information

Photosynthesis Photosynthesis is the action of transforming sunlight energy into chemical energy. Photosynthesis produces:

Photosynthesis Photosynthesis is the action of transforming sunlight energy into chemical energy. Photosynthesis produces: Photosynthesis Photosynthesis is the action of transforming sunlight energy into chemical energy. Photosynthesis produces: energy for use by the autotroph and for use later down the food chain. oxygen

More information

ENERGY AND METABOLISM 1

ENERGY AND METABOLISM 1 ENERGY AND METABOLISM 1 Photosynthesis 1. Absorption of sunlight allows photosynthesis to start with low free energy reactants and end with high free energy products. (T/F) 2. CAM photosynthesis is a special

More information

CHAPTER 7 CELLULAR RESPIRATION

CHAPTER 7 CELLULAR RESPIRATION CHAPTER 7 CELLULAR RESPIRATION MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. When cells break down food molecules, energy a. is released all at once. b. is released entirely as body heat into the environment. c. is temporarily stored

More information

Chapter 6 Photosynthesis

Chapter 6 Photosynthesis Can we directly utilize the energy of the sun? What is the energy rich molecule that our cells use? ATP What do we use as energy molecules prior to the production of ATP? Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins

More information

9.1 Cellular Respiration: An Overview

9.1 Cellular Respiration: An Overview 9.1 Cellular Respiration: An Overview Lesson Objectives Explain where organisms get the energy they need for life processes. Define cellular respiration. Compare photosynthesis and cellular respiration.

More information

Chapter 7. Harvesting Energy: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration

Chapter 7. Harvesting Energy: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration Chapter 7 Harvesting Energy: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration Including some materials from lectures by Gregory Ahearn University of North Florida Ammended by John Crocker Copyright 2009 Pearson Education,

More information

Study Guide A. Answer Key. Cells and Energy

Study Guide A. Answer Key. Cells and Energy Cells and Energy Answer Key SECTION 1. CHEMICAL ENERGY AND ATP 1. molecule; food molecules 2. high-energy; lower-energy 3. phosphate group 4. a; d; b; c 5. b; e 6. c; d 7. a; f 8. chemical energy; light

More information

8/13/2009. Cellular Metabolism. Metabolism. Cellular Metabolism. Summary of Cellular Respiration. Aerobic Cellular respiration

8/13/2009. Cellular Metabolism. Metabolism. Cellular Metabolism. Summary of Cellular Respiration. Aerobic Cellular respiration Metabolism Cellular Metabolism Consists of all of the chemical reactions that take place in a cell Biol 105 Lecture 6 Read Chapter 3 (pages 63 69) Cellular Metabolism Aerobic cellular respiration requires

More information

Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Practice Exam

Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Practice Exam Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Practice Exam True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. 1. All organisms require energy to carry out life processes. 2. Animals that live exclusively

More information

Photosynthesis. Photosynthesis. Photoautotrophs capture sunlight and convert it to chemical energy. Green Energy

Photosynthesis. Photosynthesis. Photoautotrophs capture sunlight and convert it to chemical energy. Green Energy Photosynthesis Converting light energy into chemical energy Photosynthesis 6CO2 + 12H2O + light energy C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O Summary Formula: 6CO2 + 6H2O Green Energy C6H12O6 + 6O2 Photoautotrophs capture

More information

Respiration. Respiration. Respiration. How Cells Harvest Energy. Chapter 7

Respiration. Respiration. Respiration. How Cells Harvest Energy. Chapter 7 How Cells Harvest Energy Chapter 7 Organisms can be classified based on how they obtain energy: autotrophs: are able to produce their own organic molecules through photosynthesis heterotrophs: live on

More information

Test Prep Pretest. influence the rate of photosynthesis? a. light intensity c. carbon dioxide concentration b. oxygen concentration d.

Test Prep Pretest. influence the rate of photosynthesis? a. light intensity c. carbon dioxide concentration b. oxygen concentration d. Skills Worksheet Test Prep Pretest In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or best answers each question. 1. Photosynthetic organisms get energy

More information

Biology: Life on Earth

Biology: Life on Earth Teresa Audesirk Gerald Audesirk Bruce E. Byers Biology: Life on Earth Eighth Edition Lecture for Chapter 8 Harvesting Energy: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration Copyright 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

More information

Harvesting Energy: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration. Chapter 8

Harvesting Energy: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration. Chapter 8 Harvesting Energy: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration Chapter 8 Overview of Glucose Breakdown The overall equation for the complete breakdown of glucose is: C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + ATP The

More information

Chapter Six (Photosynthesis)

Chapter Six (Photosynthesis) Chapter Six (Photosynthesis) 1 SECTION ONE: THE LIGHT REACTIONS OBTAINING ENERGY Organisms can be classified according to the way they obtain energy. Autotrophs are organisms that use energy from sunlight

More information

1. Overview of Respiration

1. Overview of Respiration Chapter 6: CELLULAR RESPIRATION 1. Overview of Respiration 2. Glycolysis 3. The Citric Acid Cycle 4. Oxidative Phosphorylation 1. Overview of Respiration What is Cellular Respiration? It is the process

More information

Chapter 6: CELLULAR RESPIRATION

Chapter 6: CELLULAR RESPIRATION Chapter 6: CELLULAR RESPIRATION 1. Overview of Respiration 2. Glycolysis 3. The Citric Acid Cycle 4. Oxidative Phosphorylation 1. Overview of Respiration What is Cellular Respiration? It is the process

More information

Chapter 4. Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Worksheets. 63 www.ck12.org

Chapter 4. Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Worksheets. 63 www.ck12.org Chapter 4 Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Worksheets (Opening image copyright by Derek Ramsey, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/file:monarch_butterfly_ Danaus_plexippus_Feeding_Down_3008px.jpg, and

More information

Nutrients Vanessa Jason Biology Roots )

Nutrients Vanessa Jason Biology Roots ) Nutrients 2013 Vanessa Jason Biology Roots ) Cellular Respiration Have you ever wondered why you need to breathe? Why you need oxygen? You need oxygen in order for your body to USE the food that you eat!

More information

8 CELLULAR RESPIRATION

8 CELLULAR RESPIRATION Cellular Respiration Test Study Guide Redox Reactions What does it mean when something is reduced? Oxidized? What is an oxidizing agent? Reducing agent? Be able to apply these to the cellular respiration

More information

6O2 + C6H12O6 6CO2 + 6H2O

6O2 + C6H12O6 6CO2 + 6H2O Cellular Respiration and Fermentation I. Overview A. Remember that photosynthesis makes glucose (and other carbohydrates) from the energy of the sun. Organisms that do not perform photosynthesis consume

More information

Energetics Practice Test

Energetics Practice Test Name: Class: _ Date: _ ID: A Energetics Practice Test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Pyruvic acid is converted to ethyl alcohol and lactic

More information

* Is chemical energy potential or kinetic energy? The position of what is storing energy?

* Is chemical energy potential or kinetic energy? The position of what is storing energy? Biology 1406 Exam 2 - Metabolism Chs. 5, 6 and 7 energy - capacity to do work 5.10 kinetic energy - energy of motion : light, electrical, thermal, mechanical potential energy - energy of position or stored

More information

8.1 Overview of Photosynthesis

8.1 Overview of Photosynthesis Chapter 08 Lecture and Animation Outline To run the animations you must be in Slideshow View. Use the buttons on the animation to play, pause, and turn audio/text on or off. Please Note: Once you have

More information

DO NOT WRITE ON THIS SOCRATIVE DO NOT WRITE ON THIS RESPIRATION

DO NOT WRITE ON THIS SOCRATIVE DO NOT WRITE ON THIS RESPIRATION SOCRATIVE RESPIRATION 1. Base your answer to the following question on the choices below. (A) Glycolysis (B) Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) (C) Calvin Cycle (light independent reactions of photosynthesis)

More information

CELLULAR RESPIRATION REVIEW PACKET

CELLULAR RESPIRATION REVIEW PACKET Name: Date: Period: CELLULAR RESPIRATION REVIEW PACKET MULTIPLE CHOICE. Circle ALL that are TRUE. There may be MORE THAN one correct answer. is the first step in cellular respiration that begins releasing

More information

PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND CELLULAR RESPIRATION

PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND CELLULAR RESPIRATION reflect Wind turbines shown in the photo on the right are large structures with blades that move in response to air movement. When the wind blows, the blades rotate. This motion generates energy that is

More information

Transfers of electrons during chemical reactions (oxidation-reduction reactions)

Transfers of electrons during chemical reactions (oxidation-reduction reactions) Transfers of electrons during chemical reactions (oxidation-reduction reactions) Relocation of electrons in food molecules releases energy which can be used to synthesize ATP ATP is used to do ALL types

More information

Photosynthesis takes place in three stages:

Photosynthesis takes place in three stages: Photosynthesis takes place in three stages: Light-dependent reactions Light-independent reactions The Calvin cycle 1. Capturing energy from sunlight 2. Using energy to make ATP and NADPH 3. Using ATP and

More information

Chapter Cellular Respiration 1. Cellular respiration involves various metabolic pathways that break down carbohydrates and other metabolites

Chapter Cellular Respiration 1. Cellular respiration involves various metabolic pathways that break down carbohydrates and other metabolites Chapter 8 8.1 Cellular Respiration 1. Cellular respiration involves various metabolic pathways that break down carbohydrates and other metabolites with the concomitant buildup of ATP. 2. Cellular respiration

More information

Summary of Metabolism. Mechanism of Enzyme Action

Summary of Metabolism. Mechanism of Enzyme Action Summary of Metabolism Mechanism of Enzyme Action 1. The substrate contacts the active site 2. The enzyme-substrate complex is formed. 3. The substrate molecule is altered (atoms are rearranged, or the

More information

Chapter 5: Photosynthesis: The Energy of Life pg

Chapter 5: Photosynthesis: The Energy of Life pg UNIT 2: Metabolic Processes Chapter 5: Photosynthesis: The Energy of Life pg. 210-240 All living organisms require energy to survive. All living organisms perform cellular respiration to meet their energy

More information

A. Incorrect! The Calvin cycle is a series of reactions that take place in the stoma of chloroplasts, fixing CO 2 and making carbohydrates.

A. Incorrect! The Calvin cycle is a series of reactions that take place in the stoma of chloroplasts, fixing CO 2 and making carbohydrates. DAT Biology - Problem Drill 04: Photosynthesis No. 1 of 10 #01 1. What term does the statement below refer to? In a photosynthesis process, an electron is excited from P700 and delivered to its receptor,

More information

Chapter 10: Photosynthesis

Chapter 10: Photosynthesis Chapter 10: Photosynthesis Energy and Carbon Sources Electromagnetic Spectrum and Light Chloroplasts Photosynthesis Overview Light Reactions C 3 Cycle Photorespiration Supplemental Carbon Fixation: C 4

More information

Powering the Cell: Cellular Respiration

Powering the Cell: Cellular Respiration Powering the Cell: Cellular Respiration Lesson Objectives Name the three stages of cellular respiration. Give an overview of glycolysis. Explain why glycolysis probably evolved before the other stages

More information

Photosynthesis. Outline - Photosynthesis. Photosynthesis Equation. Overview of Photosynthesis & Respiration. Reduction + 6 H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6

Photosynthesis. Outline - Photosynthesis. Photosynthesis Equation. Overview of Photosynthesis & Respiration. Reduction + 6 H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 Fig. 10.1 Photosynthesis Outlin Photosynthesis 1. An Overview of Photosynthesis & Respiration 2. Autotrophs, photoautotrophs, and producers 3. Electromagnetic Spectrum & light energy 4. Chloroplast structure

More information

Metabolism Poster Questions

Metabolism Poster Questions Metabolism Poster Questions Answer the following questions concerning respiration. 1. Consider the mitochondrial electron transport chain. a. How many hydrogen ions can be pumped for every NADH? b. How

More information

Cellular Respiration: How Cells Use Stored Energy. Killer Bees. ATP -- Energy Storage. Chapter 8

Cellular Respiration: How Cells Use Stored Energy. Killer Bees. ATP -- Energy Storage. Chapter 8 Cellular Respiration: How Cells Use Stored Energy Chapter 8 Killer Bees Descendents of African honeybees that were imported to Brazil in the 1950s More aggressive, wider-ranging than other honeybees Africanized

More information

SOME Important Points About Cellular Energetics by Dr. Ty C.M. Hoffman

SOME Important Points About Cellular Energetics by Dr. Ty C.M. Hoffman SOME Important Points About Cellular Energetics by Dr. Ty C.M. Hoffman An Introduction to Metabolism Most biochemical processes occur as biochemical pathways, each individual reaction of which is catalyzed

More information

Oxygen is reduced during cellular respiration, accepting electrons (and hydrogen) lost from glucose.

Oxygen is reduced during cellular respiration, accepting electrons (and hydrogen) lost from glucose. Chapter 5-Photosynthesis Photosynthesis is the main route by which that energy enters the biosphere of the Earth. To sustain and power life on Earth, the captured energy has to be released and used in

More information

6/21/2007. Cellular Respiration Liberation of Energy by Oxidation of Food

6/21/2007. Cellular Respiration Liberation of Energy by Oxidation of Food Cellular Respiration Liberation of Energy by Oxidation of Food Energy and Food All living things need energy. Some living things can make their food from CO2 and H2O - Producers plants, algae Animals feeding

More information

Cell Energy (Photosynthesis and Respiration) Notes

Cell Energy (Photosynthesis and Respiration) Notes Cell Energy (Photosynthesis and Respiration) Notes I. Energy ability to do work; forms of energy: heat, light, chemical, electrical, mechanical, kinetic, potential A. Energy for living things comes from

More information

Glycolysis 9/21/2009 1

Glycolysis 9/21/2009 1 Glycolysis 9/21/2009 1 Glycolysis glycolysis is another word for the breakdown of glucose if glucose is broken done in the presence of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water you have the formula: C6H12O6 +

More information

BIOL 1020 CHAPTER 10 LECTURE NOTES. 1. List and differentiate the 4 possible groups of organisms based on how they obtain energy and useful carbon.

BIOL 1020 CHAPTER 10 LECTURE NOTES. 1. List and differentiate the 4 possible groups of organisms based on how they obtain energy and useful carbon. Chapter 10: Photosynthesis BIOL 1020 CHAPTER 10 LECTURE NOTES 1. List and differentiate the 4 possible groups of organisms based on how they obtain energy and useful carbon. 2. Define the following: electromagnetic

More information

Cellular Respiration. Review. Glycolysis. The Krebs Cycle

Cellular Respiration. Review. Glycolysis. The Krebs Cycle Cellular Respiration Review Cellular respiration is the first major topic for which you apply your knowledge of chemistry. For the most part, however, the chemistry is descriptive that is, you won t have

More information

Cellular Respiration

Cellular Respiration Cellular Respiration INTRODUCTION TO CELLULAR RESPIRATION Nearly all the cells in our body break down sugars for ATP production Most cells of most organisms harvest energy aerobically The aerobic harvesting

More information

Lecture 8: Cellular Respiration

Lecture 8: Cellular Respiration Lecture 8: Cellular Respiration I. Overview of Aerobic Respiration A. Redox process where energy contained in chemical bonds in glucose is converted to ATP 1. Aerobic respiration a. Requires oxygen C.

More information