1 Jussi Niemi Paradigm Competition: An Experimental Note on Finnish Verbs Abstract In languages with a high number of inflectional paradigms, morphological forms may interact across paradigms irrespective of stringent paradigm-defining properties such as phonological shape. The present pseudo-verb inflection task of Finnish shows that in spite of transparent phonological constraints on paradigm membership, one morphological paradigm, viz., that of the so-called contracted verbs, shows an overwhelming effect among the verbs of this language. This override effect is not fortuitous, since it can be explained, e.g., with the relative lack of phonological alternation in affixation. In this respect, Finnish appears to favor agglutination, although in some other areas the language shows developmental traits towards increasing fusionality. 1. Introduction The topic of the present study, i.e., Finnish verb inflection, involves a complex bundle of forms containing transparent morpho(phono)logy and competition of closely-related paradigms. Finnish verbs may be claimed to have as many as 45 (e.g. Nykysuomen sanakirja [ Dictionary of Presentday Finnish ], 1973, 2401 pages), or 25 (non-defective) inflectional classes (e.g. Suomen kielen perussanakirja [ Basic Dictionary of Finnish ], 1990, 2008 pages). Allowing for drastic morphophonological and phonological abstractions the number of these paradigms can be somewhat reduced (Karlsson 1983: 212 & passim). Whatever the number of paradigms in the descriptions of theoretical morphology, it is a pre-theoretical fact that in this language multi-member phonological strings (partially) determine the various surface inflectional patterns (for mathematical modelling of Finnish verb inflection, see the analogy model of Skousen 1989; for Optimality- A Man of Measure Festschrift in Honour of Fred Karlsson, pp
2 228 JUSSI NIEMI Theoretical accounts on the inter-paradigmatic competition, variation and diachronic tendencies in the complex (noun) inflection of Finnish, see, e.g., Anttila 1997a, 1997b, 1999, Anttila & Yu Cho 1998, Kiparsky 2003, Nikolaev & Niemi 2005). Another feature that makes the present language inflectionally a highly complex one is that speakers often have to choose among both stem and suffix allomorphs to arrive at the correct output (for the importance of bound stem allomorphs in processing in Finnish, see Niemi, Laine & Tuominen 1994, Järvikivi & Niemi 2002a, 2002b). In spite of the formal changes in affixation, the morphological segmentation of Finnish complex words is relatively straightforward (Sproat 1992). In other words, in the typical case, morphological boundaries are not phonologically blurred, although affixation often involves drastic formal changes to use a metaphor in the area flanking the boundary. In addition to competing stem and affixal allomorphy, the assumed processing load in Finnish verb inflection is enhanced still as we observe that (i) in language production and reception the morphological operator(s) of Finnish speakers must be highly active since about half of the words (i.e., 48 %) carry a non-zero inflectional marker in spoken language, and in written text, the proportion is higher still, as about 77 per cent of running words contain a non-zero inflectional marker (Pajunen & Palomäki 1984: 50 51, esp. Table 6). (ii) As specifically for verbs, they lack a morphologically simplex form. Thus, even the dictionary entry infinitive (the so-called T infinitive) carries an affix (for psycholinguistic experiments on the base form status of the three competing inflectional forms, viz., between the bound T infinitive stem, e.g., haka-, men-, of beat, and go, respectively, the T infinitive, e.g., haka-ta, men-nä and the 3sg., e.g., hakkaa, menee, see Niemi, Laine & Koivuselkä-Sallinen 1994). (iii) The potential number of surface forms per lexeme is relatively high, since each non-defective Finnish verb may have up to 12,000 to 15,000 surface forms (Karlsson & Koskenniemi 1985).
3 PARADIGM COMPETITION IN INFLECTION Method 2.1 Subjects and Data 48 monolingual Finnish-speaking year-old schoolchildren were group-tested in the present experiment. 80 pseudoverbs were created by changing the consonant onset of real verbs (for a noun inflection study with this segmental manipulation procedure, see Niemi & Heikkinen 2000, Niemi & Niemi 2002). The pseudoverbs represented four paradigms (20 verbs in each): (i) Oi-dA paradigm with multisyllabic stems. Here the stem-final Oi- sequence is an unambiguous paradigm assigner (/da/ is here the T infinitive marker). This paradigm was chosen as a distractor typically needed in these type of tasks to divert the subjects attention from the actual research issue. The Oi-dA paradigm is a good candidate for a distractor class, as it is inflectionally distant from any other paradigm and thus unlikely to cause a considerable number of inter-paradigmatic errors. The three remaining and crucial, potentially competing paradigms were the following: (ii) The so-called contracted verb paradigm carries, inter alia, suffixal agglutination with concomitant grade alternation of the steminternal stop consonants in the present and past tenses (like haka-ta, INF, cf. [hän] hakkaa [s/he] beats, hakka-si [s/he] beat ). This paradigm is highly productive, since, e.g., it attracts novel disyllabic items, e.g., computerese items like seiva-ta save [a file], meila-ta send , or colloquial/slang verbs like roka-ta rock and roll and skeita-ta roller-skate. Moreover, in such language contact situations in which Finnish is the subordinate language, speakers tend to place loan verbs from the superordinate language in the contracted verb paradigm (see, e.g., Martin 1993 for American Finnish). Finally, forms resembling the contracted verbs are often incorrectly used in other paradigms at the early stages of language acquisition (Niemi & Niemi 1987). In the more complex, less agglutinative (iii) antaa and (iv) ottaa paradigms the stem final /a/ is either raised to an /o/ (anta- : anto-i) or deleted (otta- : ott-i), depending on the labiality of the first syllable vowel. The four paradigms with the relevant inflectional forms are presented in Table 1.
4 230 JUSSI NIEMI Table 1. Paradigms and inflectional forms used and lexical frequencies (Karlsson 1983) of verbs in the pseudoverb inflection task exemplified through real items. Oi-dA Contr. vb. Antaa Ottaa 1st infinitive Tupakoi-da haka-ta anta-a otta-a ma infinitive tupakoi-massmassmassa hakkaa- anta- otta-massa Past tupakoi hakka-si anto-i ott-i negation 1 tupakoi hakkaa anna ota Gloss smoke beat give take Lexical 961 1, ,904 frequency (Karlsson 1983, Table on p. 210; total no. of verbs: 15,623) The purpose of the present study is, for the first time, to test the relative productivity of Finnish verbs in a controlled off-line production task with stimuli whose output should unambiguously produce in the eyes of a theoretical morphologist representatives of their target paradigms only. 2.2 Procedures The written-form experiment carried 80 (4 x 20) multi-sentence test-items constructed in the following manner (below with approximate English translations). The subjects task was to fill in the cloze slots, in writing, with the appropriate morphosyntactic form of the pseudoverb given in the ma infinitive form of the first sentence, e.g.: (1) Anneli on sauhamassa. (2) Eilenkin hän [expected: sauhoi]. Anneli is wug-inf-in [ wugging ]. Yesterday-too she. (3) Tainankin pitäisi [exp.: sauhaa], mutta silti hän ei [exp.: sauha]. Taina-too should, but still she does not. 3. Results In spite of the unambiguous transparency of paradigm membership of the pseudoverbs the overall error rate is as high as 47.0%. Table 2 shows the 1 The negation marker is a verb, with the main verb in an unaltered NEG form in the present tense (e.g., e-n tupakoi I-do-not smoke, e-t tupakoi, you-do-not smoke ).
5 PARADIGM COMPETITION IN INFLECTION 231 stimulus output relations between the four inflectional paradigms studied here. The response pattern shows that the Oi-dA paradigm is as expected extremely robust to any inter-paradigmatic effects, since practically all these instances remain within their own paradigm. Similarly, the majority of the contracted verb items are correctly produced. However, the antaa and ottaa paradigms obtain the lowest scores, with about % correctness rates. The most significant attractor is the contracted verb paradigm, since the shifts away from the antaa and ottaa types heavily concentrate on this paradigm with circa 85% attraction rates. It is to be noted that these observations pertain to paradigms, not to types of morphological operations (in the grammatical sense of the term) or to morphological categories, since the three inflectional categories behave similarly within the same paradigm (Figure 1). Table 2. Confusion matrix of errors (in %) within the four paradigms (outliers excluded, N s of the outliers as low as 4.2%, or 482 instances). Produced Oi-dA Contr. vb. antaa ottaa Total N Expected Oi-dA Contr. vb antaa ottaa The 45 errors are partly ambiguous as to the distinction antaa ottaa. However, the errors in the past form showed that antaa was the most attractive error category of the two (i.e. vowel alternation a : o is preferred over the vowel loss a > ø). Thus these items were analysed as antaa output.
6 232 JUSSI NIEMI tupakoida tupakoi ( PAST) tupakoi ( NEG) hakata hakkasi hakkaa antaa antoi anna ottaa otti ota Figure 1. Percentage of errors broken down by inflectional category. 4. Conclusions It may be concluded that the present metalinguistic, off-line data show that contracted verbs (a) are resistant to error, and (b) that this paradigm attracts items from the neighboring antaa and ottaa paradigms. One of the reasons for this state of affairs is it is here claimed due to their semiotically relatively expedient affixation (Karlsson 1983, for a semiotic view of morphology, see Dressler 1985). Somewhat elaboratedly we may claim the following: as regards the stems, the forms studied here do not involve any stem final vowel change, while the other competing paradigms do (antaa : anto-i, ottaa : ott-i). The only morphophonological operation to use a metaphor (see the importance of allomorph in this language, Järvikivi & Niemi, 2002a, 2002b) that is applicable to the contracted verbs in these environments is the weakening (grade alternation) of the (possible) internal stops only. And this process (or stem to stem relation) is applicable throughout Finnish morphology irrespective of syntactic category (cf. hattu : hatu-n, and aate : aattee-n, nom.sg. and accusative-genitive sg. of hat and idea, respectively, and sata hundred : sada-s hundredth ). Thus, in affixation the contracted verbs require relatively straightforward agglutination (with concomitant consonant gradation changes, if applicable, and with phonological adjustment like vowel harmony). As for the suffixes, the T infinitive marker and the -si past tense marker represent the prototypical CV syllable, and thus they exhibit ideal candidates for a high degree of
7 PARADIGM COMPETITION IN INFLECTION 233 isomorphy between meaning and (affixal) form (one morpheme one syllable, see Dressler 1985). It should be stressed in this connection that also in the case of nouns the more agglutinative paradigms are the invading ones in Finnish (see Niemi & Heikkinen 2000, Niemi & Niemi 2002). Finally, the negation form in this paradigm (like hakkaa) is homophonous with the 3sg., which has been claimed to be one of the cognitive base forms of the Finnish verb, the two others being the stem (like haka-) and the T infinitive (haka-ta) (see Karlsson 1983, Niemi, Laine & Koivuselkä- Sallinen 1994). 3 References Anttila, Arto (1997a) Variation in Finnish Phonology and Morphology. PhD thesis, Stanford University. (1997b) Deriving variation from grammar. In Frans Hinskens, Roeland van Hout & W. Leo Wetzels (eds.) Variation, Change and Phonological Theory, pp Current Issues in Linguistic Theory 146. Amsterdam & Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins. (1999) Derived environment effects in colloquial Helsinki Finnish. Rutgers Optimality Archive (ROA), URL: Anttila, Arto & Young-Mee Yu Cho (1998) Variation and change in Optimality Theory. Lingua 104: Dressler, Wolfgang (1985) Morphonology: The Dynamics of Derivation. Linguistica Extranea, Studia 12. Ann Arbor, MI: Karoma Publishers. Järvikivi, Juhani & Niemi, Jussi (2002a) Allomorphs as paradigm indices: On-line experiments with Finnish free and bound stems. SKY Journal of Linguistics 15: Interestingly enough, but somewhat beyond the research interest of the present article, in the colloquial speech of young speakers the 3rd p. paradigmatic levelling effect seems to affect (a) even the T infinitives of the contracted verbs (e.g., En viitsi skeittaa (for skeita-ta) I do not bother/like to skate ), and (b) the ma infinitives in structures like En pysty skeittaa (for skeittaa-ma-an) I am unable to skate. There may also be phonological factors involved, since, e.g., the /ea/ verbs (and adjectives) tend to carry a long monophthong instead of the vowel combination, i.e., owing to a phonological change these type of verb forms tend to be homophonous with the 3rd p. forms (En viitsi hakea coll. En viitsi hakee I do not bother to fetch/get [X], see Anttila 1999, for a detailed OT account of the phenomenon and its variation). The diachronically relevant question is now whether spoken Finnish at large will eventually adopt the new, mixed Helsinki-slang-type paradigm for what once basically was (and still for most of the speakers is at least in writing (see present results)) the contracted verb paradigm (for the contracted verb T infinitive in Helsinki slang, see, e.g., Paunonen 2000: 20 21).
8 234 JUSSI NIEMI (2002b) Form-based representation in the mental lexicon: Priming (with) bound stem allomorphs in Finnish. Brain and Language 81: Karlsson, Fred (1983) Suomen kielen äänne- ja muotorakenne. Porvoo, Helsinki & Juva: Werner Söderström Osakeyhtiö. Karlsson, Fred & Kimmo Koskenniemi (1985) A process model of morphology and lexicon. Folia Linguistica XIX.1 2: Kiparsky, Paul (2003) Finnish noun inflection. In Diane Nelson & Satu Manninen (eds.) Generative Approaches to Finnic and Saami Languages: Case, features and constraints, pp CSLI Lecture Notes. Stanford: CSLI Publications. Martin, Maisa (1993) Muoto-opin seikkoja. In Pertti Virtaranta, Hannele Jönsson- Korhola, Maisa Martin & Maija Kainulainen (eds.) Amerikansuomi, pp Tietolipas 125. Helsinki: Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura. Niemi, Jussi & Heikkinen, Janne (2000) Paradigmatic and syntagmatic inflectional morphology in Specific Language Impairment. Journal of Language and Verbal Behaviour 3: Niemi, Jussi, Matti Laine & Päivi Koivuselkä-Sallinen (1994) Mental morphology and the Finnish verb: Aphasiological and normal data. Brain and Language 47: Niemi, Jussi, Matti Laine & Juhani Tuominen (1994) Cognitive morphology in Finnish: Foundations of a new model. Language and Cognitive Processes 9: Niemi, Jussi & Sinikka Niemi (1987) Acquisition of inflectional marking: A case study of Finnish. Nordic Journal of Linguistics 10: Niemi, Sinikka & Jussi Niemi (2002) Emergent nature of morphological paradigms: Plural inflection in Swedish and Finnish. In Renate Pajusalu & Tiit Hennoste (eds.) Tähendusepüüdja: pühendusteos professor Haldur Õimu 60. sünnipäevaks 22. jaanuaril Catcher of the Meaning: Festschrift for Professor Haldur Õim on the Occasion of his 60th Birthday, pp Tartu Ülikooli üldkeeleteaduse õppetooli toimetised 3. Tartu: Tartu Ülikool. Nikolaev, Alexandre & Jussi Niemi (2005) Suomen nominien taivutuksesta: rytmi-, sivupainoa ja agglutinaatiohypoteesien testausta. Virittäjä 109: Pajunen, Anneli & Palomäki, Ulla (1984) Tilastotietoja suomen kielen rakenteesta / Frequency analysis of spoken and written discourse in Finnish, 1. Kotimaisten kielten tutkimuskeskuksen julkaisuja 30. Helsinki: Kotimaisten kielten tutkimuskeskus. Paunonen, Heikki (2000) Tsennaaks Stadii, bonjaaks slangii: Stadin slangin suursanakirja. Porvoo, Helsinki & Juva: Werner Söderström Osakeyhtiö. Skousen, Royal (1989) Analogical Modeling of Language. Dordrecht: Kluwer. Sproat, Richard (1992) Morphology and Computation. ACL-MIT Series in Natural Language Processing. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
9 PARADIGM COMPETITION IN INFLECTION 235 Acknowledgments. The study is part of the project Words in the Mind, Words in the Brain, which is an MCRI (Major Collaborative Research Initiative, Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada) project co-ordinated by prof. Gary Libben (Linguistics, University of Alberta). I would like to thank Janne Heikkinen and Juhani Järvikivi for their assistance in stimulus preparation and Janne Heikkinen for his meticulous scoring of the response data. Contact information: Jussi Niemi Linguistics University of Joensuu P.O. Box 111 (Yliopistokatu 4) FI Joensuu jussi(dot)niemi(at)joensuu(dot)fi
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Chapter 1. Introduction 1.1. Topic of the dissertation The topic of the dissertation is the relations between transitive verbs, aspect, and case marking in Estonian. Aspectual particles, verbs, and case
ISSN 1798-4769 Journal of Language Teaching and Research, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 1-7, January 2010 Manufactured in Finland. doi:10.4304/jltr.1.1.1-7 EFL Learners Synonymous Errors: A Case Study of Glad and
Some Implications of Controlling Contextual Constraint: Exploring Word Meaning Inference by Using a Cloze Task Abstract 20 vs Keywords: Lexical Inference, Contextual Constraint, Cloze Task 1. Introduction
SYNTAX: THE ANALYSIS OF SENTENCE STRUCTURE OBJECTIVES the game is to say something new with old words RALPH WALDO EMERSON, Journals (1849) In this chapter, you will learn: how we categorize words how words
Study Plan for Master of Arts in Applied Linguistics Master of Arts in Applied Linguistics is awarded by the Faculty of Graduate Studies at Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST) upon the fulfillment
TESOL / NCATE Program Standards STANDARDS FOR THE ACCREDIATION OF INITIAL PROGRAMS IN P 12 ESL TEACHER EDUCATION Prepared and Developed by the TESOL Task Force on ESL Standards for P 12 Teacher Education
B.ED / B.A COURSE DESCRIPTIONS 100 SERIES AKS 100: INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF LANGUAGE Language as a system. Linguistics and the study of language; the main branches of linguistics including: phonetics,
Master of Arts Program in Linguistics for Communication Department of Linguistics Faculty of Liberal Arts Thammasat University 1. Academic Program Master of Arts Program in Linguistics for Communication
Word-formation in English by Ingo Plag Universität Siegen in press Cambridge University Press Series Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics Draft version of September 27, 2002 i TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction...
A Survey of ASL Tenses Karen Alkoby DePaul University School of Computer Science Chicago, IL firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract This paper examines tenses in American Sign Language (ASL), which will be
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The McRuffy Kindergarten Reading/Phonics year- long program is divided into 4 units and 180 pages of reading/phonics instruction. Pages and learning goals covered are noted below: SEPTEMBER Unit 1 1 Short
Developing Academic Language Skills to Support Reading and Writing Kenna Rodgers February, 2015 IVC Series Academic Language: What is it? the language of school. -Jim Cummins the hidden curriculum of school.