# Design Engineering Guide

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1 Design Engineering Guide Page General Standard NFP Mounting dditional Information Cylinder Basics Tie Rod Mount Flange Mount Side Mount and Lug Mounts Pin Mount and Trunnion Mount Solid Flange Mount, Key Mount and Double Rod End Cylinder Cylinder Loading & Sizing Cylinder Force & Speed (ir and Hydraulic) Fluids and Seals Mounting Modifications / ccessories Rod Boot Data Non-Rotating Cylinder Design Custom Product Examples Power Units: Gear and Vane Info Valves: D03 and D05 Info Fluid Power Formulas Glossary of Fluid Power Terms x x x 184 x x 185 x 186 x x 187 x

2 Cylinder Basics BSIC CYLINDER OPERTING PRINCIPLES Series H Series MH Series LH Cylinders are used to convert fluid power into mechanical motion. cylinder consists of a cylindrical body, closures at each end, movable piston, and a rod attached to the piston. When fluid pressure acts on the piston, the pressure is transmitted to the piston rod, resulting in linear motion. The piston rod thrust force developed by the fluid pressure acting on the piston is easily determined by multiplying the line pressure by the piston area. FORCE = PRESSURE x RE or F = P EXMPLE: Find the thrust force of a 4" diameter piston operating with a line pressure of 100 psi. The piston area has to be determined first to solve this problem. The area of a circular surface is πr 2, where r is the radius. In the case of a 4" diameter piston, the area equals square inches (πr 2 ). Since a pressure of 100 psi acts on each square inch, the total thrust force will be 100 x or 1257 lbs. When calculating the pull force of a cylinder, the area covered by the piston rod must be subtracted from the total area of the piston. The pressure does not act on the area covered by the piston rod. Tables are provided on pages (as well as within each Series' Section) to save mathematical calculations for determining thrust force, pull force, and cylinder speed. See page 31, Series H; page 67, Series LH; and page 97, Series and Series MN. Series TYPES OF CYLINDERS Standard cylinders have been designed to meet the wide range of applications. The following types of cylinders provide an overview of what is available. Power Units/Valves Manipulators Cyl ccessories Hyd-Pneu Devices Series MN 178 SINGLE-CTING CYLINDER The single-acting cylinder is pressurized at one end only, with the opposite end vented to atmosphere through a breather filter (air cylinder) or vented to a reservoir (hydraulic cylinder). The return stroke of the cylinder is accomplished by some external means. SPRING RETURN CYLINDER The spring return cylinder is normally considered a single acting cylinder. The operation of this type of cylinder is the same as a single acting cylinder, except that a spring is used to accomplish the return stroke. DOUBLE-CTING CYLINDER The most familiar double acting cylinder is the single rod end. This type of cylinder provides power in both directions, with a pressure port at either end. Single rod end cylinders exert greater forces when extending than when retracting, since the piston area on the blind end is larger than the piston area on the rod end (due to the area covered by the piston rod). DOUBLE ROD END CYLINDER The double rod end cylinder is used when it is necessary for the cylinder to exert equal force and operate at equal speed in both directions. It also can be used to operate limit valves or switches. POSITIONL OR DUPLEX CYLINDER Duplex cylinders are similar to tandem cylinders in that both are cylinders connected in line, but the pistons of a duplex cylinder are not physically connected; the rod of one cylinder protrudes into the non-rod end of the second, and so forth. duplex cylinder may be more than two in-line cylinders and the stroke lengths of the individual cylinders may vary. This results in a component that can achieve a number of different fixed stroke lengths depending on which of the cylinders and on which end the cylinders are pressurized. TNDEM CYLINDER tandem cylinder consists of two cylinders mounted in line with the pistons, connected by a common piston rod. The main advantage of this cylinder is the multiplication of force, during the entire stroke, without requiring higher operating pressures or larger bores.

3 Standard NFP Mountings DESIGN INFORMTION TIE ROD MOUNT SIDE ND LUG MOUNTS SOLID FLNGE MOUNT NFP MX1 NFP MX3 NFP MS4 side mount NFP MS7 NFP ME5 NFP ME6 NFP MX no mount NFP MX2 When using tie rods extended on the rod end, the best application is a tension load. For a thrust load application, the tie rods should be extended on the blind end of the cylinder. Tie rod mounts are suited for many applications, but it should be noted that they are not as rigid as flange mounted cylinders and often require additional support for long stroke applications. NFP MS2 NFP MT3 The side or lug mounted cylinder provides a fairly rigid mount. This type of mount can tolerate a slight amount of misalignment when the cylinder is fully extended, but as the piston moves toward the blind end, the tolerance for misalignment decreases. It is important to note that if the cylinder is used properly (without misalignment), the mounting bolts are either in simple shear or tension without compound stresses. The solid flange mount is the strongest, most rigid method of mounting a cylinder. Industry standards for this type of mounting only cover 1½" through 8" bore cylinders. Milwaukee Cylinder, however, offers this mount on cylinders up to 12" bore. FLNGE MOUNT NFP MF5 NFP MF6 NFP MF1 NFP MF2 The flange mount is one of the strongest, most rigid methods of mounting. With this type of mount, there is little allowance for misalignment. When long strokes are required, the free end opposite the mounting should be supported to prevent sagging and possible binding of the cylinder. When the cylinder is used in a thrust load application, a blind end flange should be used. For tension applications, rod end flange mounts should be used. PIN ND TRUNNION MOUNT NFP MP1 pin mount NFP MT1 NFP MT2 NFP MT4 ll pin and trunnion mounted cylinders need a provision on both ends for pivoting. This type of mounting is designed to carry shear loads and requires that the trunnion or pivot pins are rigidly held by closely fit bearings for the entire pin length. KEY MOUNT The key mount retainer plate is a mounting option designed to add stability to foot and side mounted cylinders. The retainer plate is extended below the mounting surface of the cylinder. This extension may be fit into a milled keyway, eliminating the need for welded keys or locator pins. DOUBLE ROD END CYLINDERS Double rod end cylinders are available NFP MDX in every mounting style except the clevis mount (61) and fixed eye mount (62). It should be noted by the designer that when a double flange mount is required, there will be tie rod nuts protruding on one end. 179

6 ir Cylinder Force and Speed Hyd-Pneu Devices Series MN Series Series LH Series MH Series H IR CYLINDER FORCE n air cylinder must be oversized to move a load. s illustrated, a 4" bore air cylinder will balance a 1000 pound load with 80 psi of air pressure. To move this load at a slow rate of speed, the cylinder must be oversized. The designer should remember that when calculating cylinder force on the return (pull) stroke, the rod area must be deducted from the piston area. When a double rod end cylinder is used, deduct for both directions of stroke when calculating the thrust force. IR CYLINDER SPEED The exact speed of an air cylinder cannot be calculated. ir cylinder sizing depends on the degree of overpowering required to move the load at the desired speed, valving, piping, and other factors which usually are unknown and cannot be measured. When a fast speed is required, the bore size and line pressure should be twice that which is needed to balance the load resistance. The lines to the valve and cylinder should be as short as possible. When selecting the directional valve to be used in an air application, the orifice of the valve should be equal to the cylinder port size. The air cylinder speed chart shows the proper port size under average conditions. Note: This ir Cylinder Speed Chart is based on average conditions. Conditions where the cylinder is operating at twice the thrust force required and a line pressure of 80 to 100 psi. IR CYLINDER SPEED CHRT CTUL VLVE ORIFICE SIZE Cyl ccessories Manipulators Power Units/Valves BORE DI 1/32 1/16 1/8 1/4 3/8 1/2 3/4 1 11/ / / / bove figures are in inches per second. 182

7 Hydraulic Cylinder Force and Speed HYDRULIC CYLINDER FORCE Table 3 on page 31 or 67 shows the thrust force developed by various bore diameters when working at various pressures. These figures do not include a factor covering a reduction in force due to seal or packing friction in the cylinder. This type of friction is estimated to affect the cylinder thrust force by 10%. dditional pressure must be developed by the pump, not only to overcome frictional loss, but also flow losses in the circuitry. The engineer should realize that the usable pressure in the cylinder may be from 10% to 25% less than the pump and relief valve gauge reading. This type of friction is estimated to affect the cylinder thrust force by 10%. dditional pressure must be developed by the pump, not only to overcome frictional loss, but also flow losses in the circuitry. The engineer should realize that the usable pressure in the cylinder may be from 10% to 25% less than the pump and relief valve gauge reading. HYDRULIC CYLINDER SPEED Figures shown in the body of this chart are cylinder rod travel speeds in inches per minute. The extension speeds represent the net piston area for the various rod diameters shown. HYDRULIC CYLINDER SPEEDS (inches per minute) PISTON DI ROD DI 1 GPM 3 GPM 5 GPM 8 GPM 12 GPM 15 GPM 20 GPM 25 GPM 30 GPM 40 GPM 50 GPM 75 GPM

8 Fluids and Seals Series MN Series Series LH Series MH Series H FLUIDS Hydraulic fluid heats, cools, lubricates, and sometimes corrodes mechanical components, picks up and releases gases, and sweeps sludge into supposedly free clearances. The fluid is just as important as any other part of the hydraulic system. In fact, a major portion of hydraulic problems stem from the use of improper types of fluids or fluids containing dirt and other contaminants. To understand the fluids used in today s industry, you have to divide them into two general areas: petroleum fluids and fire resistant fluids. These in turn break down into a number of different types with different properties. Not all fluids are compatible with the standard seal combinations offered by cylinder manufacturers. In the chart below is a small sample of the fluids available and the seals with which they are compatible. Specific information on seal compatibility is available from either the fluid supplier or the component manufacturer. FLUID NME SELS SEL COMPTIBILITY with COMMON FLUIDS BUN N SEL This type of seal is excellent with petroleum products. The seal is rated for a temperature range from -20 F to +200 F, but when used for low temperatures, it is necessary to sacrifice some low temperature resistance. It is a superior material for compression set, cold flow, tear and abrasion resistance. This seal is generally recommended for petroleum, water, diester and water-glycol. POLYURETHNE SEL The polyurethane seal provides excellent mechanical and physical properties. Polyurethane does not provide a good low pressure seal, due to its poor compression and permanent set properties. This seal is generally recommended for petroleum, water/oil, and phosphate ester. ETHYLENE PROPYLENE This seal is excellent when used with Skydrol 500 and Phosphate Ester Fluids. The seal is rated for a temperature range from -65 F to +350 F. This seal is generally recommended for phosphate ester, steam (to 400 F), water, and ketones. VITON SEL Viton seals are compatible with a wide range of fluids. This seal is rated for a temperature range from -15 F to +350 F. This seal is generally recommended for petroleum, silicate ester, diester, halogenated hydrocarbons, and most phosphate esters. MILITRY SPECIFICTION TRDE NME/NUMBER BUN-N POLYURETHNE EP VITON FLUROCRBON Houghto-Safe 600 Series Recommended Unsatisfactory Recommended Satisfactory Hyd-Pneu Devices Water Glycol Houghto-Safe 500 Series Recommended Unsatisfactory Recommended Insufficient data MIL-H22072 Houghto-Safe 271 Series Recommended Unsatisfactory Recommended Satisfactory Ucon Hydrolube Recommended Unsatisfactory Recommended Recommended Celluguard Recommended Unsatisfactory Recommended Recommended Water Oil/Emulsion Houghto-Safe 5040 Series Recommended Unsatisfactory Unsatisfactory Recommended Cyl ccessories Gulf FR Recommended Recommended Unsatisfactory Recommended Water Soluble Oil Recommended Insufficient data Recommended Insufficient data Water, Fresh Recommended Unsatisfactory Recommended Satisfactory Water, Salt Recommended Unsatisfactory Recommended Satisfactory Houghto-Safe 1000 Series Unsatisfactory Insufficient data Recommended Recommended Manipulators Phosphate Ester MIL-19547B Houghto-Safe 1120 Series Unsatisfactory Unsatisfactory Recommended Recommended Pyrogard 42, 43, 53, 55 Unsatisfactory Unsatisfactory Recommended Recommended Skydrol 500 Type 2 Unsatisfactory Unsatisfactory Recommended Unsatisfactory Skydrol 7000 Type 2 Unsatisfactory Unsatisfactory Recommended Unsatisfactory Power Units/Valves Diester MIL-H-7808 Lube Oil ircraft Satisfactory Unsatisfactory Unsatisfactory Satisfactory Silicate Ester MIL-H-8446B Brayco 846 Satisfactory Recommended Unsatisfactory Recommended Kerosene Recommended Recommended Unsatisfactory Recommended Jet Fuel MIL-J-5624 JP-3, 4, 5 (RP-1) Recommended Satisfactory Unsatisfactory Recommended Diesel Fuel Recommended Marginal Unsatisfactory Recommended Gasoline Recommended Satisfactory Unsatisfactory Recommended MIL-H-6383 Preservative Oil Recommended Recommended Unsatisfactory Recommended Petroleum Base MIL-H-5606 ircraft Hyd. Fluid Recommended Satisfactory Unsatisfactory Recommended 184 Note: This chart is for general information and should not be taken as warranty or representation for which legal responsibility is assumed. The chart and the information on this page is offered only for your convenience, consideration, investigation and verification.

10 Rod Boot Data Series H Standard Material: Neoprene Nylon ROD DI. (in) COVER I.D COVER O.D ROD BOOT DT CHRT ROD BOOT STYLE MINIMUM LENGTH FCTOR ⅝ ¾ 3 R ⅛ 3⅜ RB Series MN Series Series LH Series MH Special Material: Consult Factory ROD BOOTS When cylinders are used in areas of high contamination or where contaminants have an air hardening property, the exposed piston rod should be covered with a rod boot to protect the rod bearing and seals. rod boot is simply a collapsible cover. It is of sewn construction made from a neoprene coated fabric. The rod boots are impervious to oil, grease and water. They will operate effectively from 0 F to +200 F without cracking. 1⅜ 1½ 3¾ RC ¾ 1⅞ 4⅛ RD ⅜ 4⅝ RE ½ 2⅞ 5⅛ RF ⅜ 7 Consult Factory 3½ 3⅞ 7½ Consult Factory 4 4½ 8¼ Consult Factory 4½ 5 8⅜ Consult Factory 5 5¼ 9 Consult Factory 5½ 5¾ 9½ Consult Factory NOTE: ROD EXTENSION MUST BE INCRESED TO CCOMMODTE BOOT Hyd-Pneu Devices Cyl ccessories To Compute: W = (Stroke x Min. Length Factor) + 1⅜" Round up to the nearest ⅛" Manipulators Example: 61, 3¼" bore x 12" stroke x 1" rod W = (12 x 0.07) = (.84) = 2.22" Round up to the neareset ⅛" W = 2.25" Power Units/Valves 186

11 Non-Rotating Cylinder Design SPLINE SHFT SPLINE SHFT SPLINE SLEEVE FETURES: ll cylinder series Cushioned or non-cushioned cylinders ll bore and rod combinations except ⅝" diameter rod Spline shaft and mating sleeve prevent natural rotation of piston rod during stroke Mounting styles 11, 21, 31, 35, 41, 42, 43, 71, 72, 73, 74. Consult factory for other mounting styles Engineering dimensional drawing provided with each cylinder ordered NOTE: Not available in double rod end cylinders or with stroke lengths over 45 inches. Rotational limits or torsional load information must be supplied to factory. GUIDE ROD FETURES: GUIDE ROD ll cylinder series Cushioned or non-cushioned cylinders ll mounting styles Double rod end cylinders ll bore and rod combinations 8-inch bore and larger Guide rod design through piston prevents natural rotation of piston rod Engineering dimensional drawing provided with each cylinder ordered NOTE: Rotational limits or torsional load information must be supplied to factory. 1/3BORE DI.2 1/3ROD DI.2 VILBILITY ⅝ N/ 1½ 1 N/ ⅝ N/ 2 1 N/ 1⅜ N/ ⅝ 1 N/ 2½ 1⅜ N/ 1¾ N/ 1 1⅜ N/ 3½ 1¾ N/ 2 N/ 1 1⅜ 4 1¾ 2 N/ 2½ N/ 1 1⅜ 1¾ 5 2 2½ 3 N/ 3½ N/ 1⅜ 1¾ 2 6 2½ 3 3½ 4 N/ 3 3½ 7 4 4½ 5 N/ 187

13 Specials are Our Standard Custom Products Whether you require a different material, seals, mounting, other modification or a completely unique custom product, Milwaukee Cylinder has the resources to meet your needs. We also offer mechanical locking, position sensing, nonrotating and other specialty cylinder types. HEVY-DUTY CYLINDER The Series HD cylinder is a heavy-duty, non-tie rod design rated for continuous 5,000-psi operation. It has been designed specifically for punching and piercing operations in thick metal requiring tonnage ratings from 17-1/2 to 100 tons. CONTROLLED ROTTING CYLINDER Sand shell cores for casting turbine rotors required a large cam roll and three men to turn the cope. Due to the curved blades on the rotor, the cope of the pattern had to be rotated as it was being removed. Milwaukee Cylinder engineered a precision cylinder in which the rod would rotate during the first two inches of upward travel and then travel straight up for eleven more inches. This controlled rotation released the blades in the pattern from the sand core without incurring breakage. TILT SYSTEM CYLINDER Milwaukee Cylinder was chosen to design and manufacture a custom hydraulic cylinder functioning as the tilting mechanism. We developed a cylinder that could extend and retract a precise distance, allowing a specific degree of tilt in either direction. 189

14 Power Units: Gear and Vane Info Hydraulic Power Units from Milwaukee Cylinder are available in Gear Pump and Vane Pump designs. Series H Series MH HOW VNE PUMP WORKS The MCVEV series uses a vane style pump element that has both volume adjustment and maximum pressure adjustment. The output flow and pressure are determined by the position of the cam ring and the vane rotor. B HOW GER PUMP WORKS The MCVEG series uses a gear style pump element. The driven gear is coupled to the motor. The idler gear is driven by the rotation of the driven gear. Oil is pulled into the suction port, carried in the gap between the gear teeth, and comes out of the pressure port. djustment of the system pressure requires a relief valve in the circuit. Pressure Pressure Series LH Series Series MN Suction Suction. To adjust the volume output, the position of the cam ring is moved to reduce the clearance between the vane rotor and the cam ring. B. To adjust the maximum output pressure, the spring adjustment is set so the internal pressure in the cam ring centers the cam ring around the rotor. Power Units/Valves Manipulators Cyl ccessories Hyd-Pneu Devices Calculating System Requirements Cylinder rea (in)* = πr 2 Cylinder Volume = (in 3 ) = Cylinder rea x Stroke Flow Requirement (gpm) = Cylinder Volume x # of Cylinders x (60 Speed Required**) 231 in 3 per gal * lternate formula: (Bore Diameter) 2 x ** In seconds Calculating Reservoir Size The oil capacity of the reservoir used in a hydraulic power unit (HPU) provides the oil volume required to operate the cylinders and other devices in a system, and also absorbs and radiates the heat produced during the operation of the HPU. Using a small reservoir may result in an overheated system. The guideline for sizing the reservoir is 3 to 4 times the flow rate of the pump (gpm). Example: Cylinder Bore: 4.00" Stroke Length: 12" Number of Cylinders: 4 Speed Required = 6 sec. Cylinder Radius (r) = 4" bore diameter 2 = 2" radius Cylinder rea = π x 2" x 2" = 3.14 x 4 in 2 = in 2 Cylinder Volume = in 2 x 12" = in 3 Flow Requirement = in 3 x 4 x (60 6 sec) 231 in 3 per gal = in 3 x 10 = in in 3 per gal 231 in 3 per gal = 26 gpm For example, a 5 gpm HPU should use a gallon reservoir. Further reduction of heat buildup in the reservoir may require the use of a heat exchanger. low oil level and high temperature switch in the reservoir can be used to shut the system down if the oil level in the reservoir falls below a usable level or if the oil temperature rises to a unsafe temperature. 190

15 Valves: D03 and D05 Info D03 ND D05 DIRECTIONL VLVES Spool type valves are typically used with a hydraulic power unit (HPU) where the system provides continuous flow. This helps to compensate for losses due to internal leakage in the valves. Milwaukee Cylinder offers spool valves in two industry standard sizes: D03: Flow rates of gpm D05: Flow rates of 25 gpm The operation of a valve is described by the flow paths to the circuit ("way"), the number of valve operating positions ("position") and the type of flow path in the center position ("center"). Other characteristics used in describing a valve describe the type of operator used: solenoid, manual lever, cam, air, and operator options such as spring centered and detented. Common valve configurations are: 4 way / 3 position / TNDEM Center CENTER POSITION: Pessure to Tank USES: Idles pump in the center position CCESSORY VLVES In many circuits, accessory valves are used with the directional valve to provide additional control of the flow in the system: Holding: Check valve on the pressure port P T B Dual pilot operated check valves on "" and "B" P T B Control of flow rate: B P T P T B 4 way / 3 position / OPEN Center CENTER POSITION: ll ports to Tank USES: Idles pump in the center position commonly used with pilot operated check valve Control of pressure (on pressure port) B P T B P 4 way / 3 position / CLOSED Center CENTER POSITION: ll ports blocked USES: Used in system with multiple valves P 4 way / 3 position / FLOT Center CENTER POSITION: & B to to Tank, P blocked USES: Used in system with mulitple valves with pilot operated check valves T B T B Manifolds Manifolds are available for D03 and D05 size valves as either pump mounted or remote mounted. They are available in single and multiple valve models. For systems operating up to 3000 psi, choose an aluminum manifold. The pump mounted manifolds used on the Milwaukee Cylinder power units are aluminum, as these units operate at 3000 psi or below. For applications using higher pressure power units, up to 5000 psi, select the remote mount ductile iron manifolds. Porting: D03: P and T: #10 SE and B: #8 SE P 4 way / 2 position T NO CENTER POSITION USES: Used in systems where cylinders are always either advanced or retracted P B T D05: P and T: #12 SE and B: #8 SE 191

16 Fluid Power Formulas FORMUL WORD FORMUL LETTER FORMUL Series H FLUID PRESSURE (pounds per square inch) PRESSURE = force (pounds) unit area (square inches) P = F or psi = F Series MH CYLINDER RE (square inches) CYLINDER FORCE (pounds, push or pull) RE = π x radius 2 (inches) = π/4 x diameter 2 (inches) = πr 2 = πd 2 or =.785d 2 4 FORCE = pressure (psi) x net area (square inches) F = psi x or F = P CYLINDER VELOCITY or SPEED (feet per second) VELOCITY = 231 x flow rate (GPM) 12 x 60 x net area (square inches) v = 231Q or v =.3208Q 720 Series LH CYLINDER VOLUME CPCITY (gallons of fluid) VOLUME = π x radius 2 (inches) x stroke (inches) 231 = net area (inches) x stroke (inches) 231 v = πr 2 L 231 v = L 231 L = length of stroke CYLINDER FLOW RTE (GPM) FLOW RTE = 12 x 60 x velocity (feet/second) x net area (square inches) 231 Q = 720v 231 or Q = 3.117v Series TORQUE = pressure (psi) x f.m. displacement (cu. in./rev.) 2π T = psi d or T = Pd 2π 2π FLUID MOTOR TORQUE (inch pounds) = horsepower x rpm T = HP n Series MN FLUID MOTOR TORQUE /100 psi (inch pounds) TORQUE = flow rate (gpm) x pressure (psi) x rpm = f.m. displacement (cu. in./rev.).0628 (cu. in./rev.) T = 36.77QP or T = 36.77psi n n T 100psi = d.0628 FLUID MOTOR SPEED (revolutions per minute) SPEED = 231 x flow rate (gpm) f.m. displacement n = 231Q d Hyd-Pneu Devices FLUID MOTOR POWER (horsepower output) PUMP OUTLET FLOW (gallons per minute) HORSEPOWER FLOW = torque output (inch pounds) x rpm = rpm x pump displacement (cu. in./rev.) 231 HP = Tn Q = nd 231 Cyl ccessories PUMP INPUT POWER (horsepower required) FLOW RTE through PIPING (additional required oil to reach pressure) HORSEPOWER INPUT = flow rate output (gpm) x pressure (psi) 1714 x efficiency (overall) DDITIONL VOLUME = pressure (psi) x volume of oil under pressure 250,000 HP IN = QP or GPM x psi 1714Eff 1714Eff V = PV pprox. 1 2% 250,000 per 1000 psi Manipulators Power Units/Valves GS LWS for CCUMULTOR SIZING: Where P = psia (absolute) = psig (gauge pressure) psi FORMUL WORD FORMUL LETTER FORMUL PRESSURE or VOLUME (W/Constant T ) Temperature PRESSURE or TEMPERTURE (W/Constant V ) Volume VOLUME or TEMPERTURE (W/Constant P ) Pressure PRESSURE or VOLUME (W/Temperature change due to heat of compression Original Pressure x Original Volume = Final Pressure x Final Volume P1V1 = P2V2 [isothermic] Original Pressure x Final Temperature = Final Pressure x Original Temperature P1T2 = P2V1 [isochoric] Original Volume x Final Temperature = Final Volume x Original Temperature V1T2 = V2T1 [isobaric] Original Temperature x Final Volume n = Final Pressure x Final Volume n P1V1 n = P2V2 n n-1 n-1/n Final Temperature Original Volume Final Pressure Original Temperature = Final Volume = Original Pressure For Nitrogen in the Exponent: n = 1.4 For full adiabatic conditions i.e., the FULL HETING theoretical condition n = 1.3 For rapid cycling (most heating normally experienced) n = 1.1 For NORML cycling n = 1.0 Where gas time to return to normal temperature before discharge or recharge ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) T2 = V1 n-1 n-1/n = P2 T1 V2 V1 192

17 Fluid Power Glossary CCUMULTOR a container in which fluid is stored under pressure as a source of fluid power. IR, COMPRESSED air at any pressure greater than atmospheric pressure. B BLEEDER, IR a device for the removal of air from an oil system. BRETHER, IR a device permitting air movement between the atmosphere and the component in which it is installed, while preventing contaminations from entering the component. C CP, BLIND END a cylinder end closure which completely covers the bore area. CP, ROD END the cylinder and enclosure which covers the differential area between the bore area and the piston rod area. CVITTION a localized gaseous condition within a liquid stream which occurs where the pressure is reduced to the vapor pressure. CLEVIS a U shaped mounting device which contains a common pin hole at right angle or normal to the axis of symmetry through each extension. COMPRESSIBILITY the change in volume of a unit of volume of a fluid when subjected to a unit change of pressure. CUSHION a device which provides controlled resistance to motion. CUSHION, CYLINDER a cushion built into the cylinder to restrict flow at the outlet port, thereby arresting the motion of the piston rod. CYCLE a single complete operation consisting of progressive phases, starting and ending at the neutral position. CYLINDER a device which converts fluid power into linear mechanical force and motion. CYLINDER, DJUSTBLE STROKE a cylinder in which fluid force can be applied to the moveable element in either direction. CYLINDER, NON-ROTTING a cylinder in which the relative rotation of the cylinder housing and the piston and piston rod, plunger or ram, is fixed. CYLINDER, SINGLE CTING a cylinder in which the fluid force can be applied to the moveable element in only one direction. CYLINDER, TNDEM two or more cylinders with interconnected piston assemblies. D DUROMETER HRDNESS a measure of elastomer hardness by use of a durometer. F FILTER a device whose primary function is the retention by porous media of insoluble contaminants from a liquid. FITTING a connector or closure for fluid power lines and passages. FLOW, LMINR a flow situation in which fluid moves in parallel laminar or layers. Flow Rate the volume, mass, or weight of a fluid passing through any conductor, per unit of time. FLOW, TURBULENT a flow situation in which fluid particles move in a random manner. FLUID FRICTION friction due to the viscosity of fluids. FLUID STBILITY resistance of a fluid to permanent changes in properties. G GGE an instrument or device for measuring, indicating, or comparing a physical characteristic, such as pressure or volume. H HYDRULIC PUMP a device which converts mechanical force and motion into fluid power. I INTENSIFIER a device which converts low pressure fluid power into high pressure fluid power; also called a booster. L LUBRICTOR a device which adds controlled or metered amounts of lubricant into an air system. M MNIFOLD a conductor which provides multiple connection ports. MUFFLER a device for reducing gas flow noise. P PCKING a sealing device consisting of bulk deformable material or one or more mating deformable elements, reshaped by manually adjustable compression to obtain and maintain effectiveness. It usually uses axial compression to obtain radial sealing. PORT an internal or external terminus of a passage in a component. PORT BLEED a port which provides a passage for the purging of gas from a system or component. PORT, CYLINDER a port which provides a passage to or from an actuator. PORT, EXHUST a port which provides a passage to the atmosphere. PRESSURE force per unit area, usually expressed in pounds per square inch. PRESSURE, BURST the pressure which creates loss of fluid thru the component envelope, resulting from failure. PRESSURE, CRCKING the pressure at which a pressure operated valve begins to pass fluid. PRESSURE, OPERTING the pressure at which a system is operated. PRESSURE, PEK the maximum pressure encountered in the operation of a component. PRESSURE, RTED the qualified operating pressure which is recommended for a component or a system by the manufacturer. PRESSURE, SHOCK the pressure existing in a wave moving at sonic velocity. PRESSURE, STTIC the pressure in a fluid at rest. PRESSURE, SURGE the pressure existing from surge conditions. PRESSURE, WORKING the pressure at which the working device normally operates. PRESSURE VESSEL a container which holds fluid under pressure. R RESERVOIR a container for the storage of liquid in a fluid power system. RESTRICTOR a device which reduces the cross-sectional flow area. REYN the standard unit of absolute viscosity in the English system. It is expressed in pound-seconds per square inch. S SERVOVLVE a valve which modulates output as a function of an input command. Silencer a device for reducing gas flow noise. Noise is decreased by tuned resonant control of gas expansion. SUBPLTE an auxiliary ported plate for mounting components. SURGE a transient rise of pressure or flow. T TUBE a line whose size is its outside diameter. Tube is available in varied wall thicknesses. V VLVE a device which controls fluid flow direction, pressure, or flow rate. VLVE, DIRECTIONL CONTROL a valve whose primary function is to direct or prevent flow through selected passages. VLVE, FLOW CONTROL a valve whose primary function is to control flow rate. VLVE, SEQUENCE a valve whose primary function is to direct flow in a predetermined sequence. VLVE POSITION, DETENT a predetermined position maintained by a holding device, acting on the flow-directing elements of a directional control valve. VLVE POSITION, NORML the valve position when signal or actuating force is not being applied. VISCOSITY a measure of internal friction or the resistance of a fluid to flow. Terms and definitions are extracted from NSI Glossary of Terms for Fluid Power with permission of the publisher, National Fluid Power ssociation, Milwaukee, Wisconsin

18 Series H Website Highlights Series MH Series LH MilCad software Product specifications Product literature Online quote request Distributor locator Design Engineering Guide to assist with product application selection Series MN Cyl ccessories Manipulators Power Units/Valves Hyd-Pneu Devices Series 2D and 3D cylinder configurator - Hydraulic and pneumatic - NFP and ISO - ccessories Download your selections - Over forty 3D formats - Twenty-five 2D formats One-time registration required 194

19 Specials are Our Standard WRRNTY Seller warrants the goods sold hereunder to be free from defects in material and workmanship for a period of twelve months after the date of shipment from Seller s plant. If the goods are in accordance with or in reference to an engineering drawing specified by or furnished to the customer, the specifications and information on the drawing shall be applicable in determining such correct use, operation and application. When claiming a breach of the above warranty, Buyer must notify Seller promptly in writing, whereupon Seller will either examine the goods at their site or issue shipping instructions for return to Seller. When any goods sold hereunder are proved not as warranted, Seller s sole obligation under this warranty shall be to repair or replace the goods, not including installation or any other charges, at its option, without charge to Buyer. THIS WRRNTY COMPRISES SELLER S SOLE ND ENTIRE WRRNTY OBLIGTION ND LIBILITY TO BUYER, ITS CUSTOMERS ND SSIGNS IN CONNECTION WITH GOODS SOLD HEREUNDER. LL OTHER WRRNTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO WRRNTIES OF MERCHNTBILITY ND FITNESS, RE EXPRESSLY EXCLUDED. CONSEQUENTIL DMGES: In no event shall Seller be liable for consequential or special damages arising out of a delay in or failure of delivery, defects in material or workmanship, or arising out of a breach by Seller of any other term or obligation of Seller under this contract. While every care has been taken in the preparation of this catalog and all data contained within is deemed accurate at the time of printing, Milwaukee Cylinder does reserve the right to make changes to the specifications of any product, or discontinue any product, contained within this catalog without prior notice. ll information in this catalog can be changed due to product improvements without prior notice. Copyright 2012, ctuant Corp. ll rights reserved. ny copying or other use of material in this catalog (text, illustrations, drawings, photos) without express written consent is prohibited. 195

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