Explain the Principles of Healthy Eating

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1 Module 1 Explain the Principles of Healthy Eating The aim of this Module is to explain the principles of healthy eating. This will include how diet is linked to health, components of a healthy diet, nutrients in food and also healthy food preparation. Learning Outcomes On completion of this Module you will be able to: Understand how an unhealthy diet can lead to lifestyle diseases Understand which foods provide energy Calculate and individuals energy requirements Identify sample foods from each of the five food groups Understand the role of nutrients in maintaining body health Identify how different cooking methods can affect the nutritional value of food How diet is linked to health In this section we are going to look at how diet is linked to health. This will include gaining an understanding of how an unhealthy diet is associated with lifestyle diseases, which foods provide sources of energy and also the factors affecting energy requirements. Healthy Diet A healthy diet contains all the essential items i.e. macronutrients (fruit, vegetables, wholegrains, water and protein). A healthy balance of foods provides the energy and nourishment needed to both survive and enjoy life. The key to healthy eating is a varied and well balanced diet. A healthy diet for an adult provides everything the body needs to say fit and healthy, and this is also true for that of a child, which also needs a healthy diet for growth and development. Lifestyle Diseases It is important to understand that an unhealthy diet is associated with lifestyle diseases. Lifestyle diseases associated with an unhealthy diet are obesity, heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, certain types of cancer, dental caries and osteoporosis.

2 Obesity Obesity is when someone has put on weight to the point it could endanger their health. Obesity can result from a combination of eating too many calories and not doing enough physical activity. Being overweight or obese increases the risk of heart disease, type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure and osteoarthritis. To attain and maintain a healthy weight, it is important to have a well-balanced and varied diet. Additionally, physical activity has benefits not only for controlling weight over the long term but also in controlling appetite, ensuring beneficial effects on the heart and blood and helping to reduce the risks of cardiovascular disease. Recommendations for a healthier diet: Trim the fat off meat and skin off poultry Choose low fat varieties of dairy and other products Increase your intake of starchy foods, decreasing fatty foods Increase intake of a variety of fruit and vegetables to at least 5 portions a day ( 5 a day ) Heart disease Cardiovascular disease refers to all diseases of the heart and blood vessels, including coronary disease, stroke and heart failure. Coronary heart disease refers mainly to conditions that affect the heart, such as angina and heart attack. This develops when the blood vessels that supply the heart become narrowed and hardened with fatty deposits. Recommendations for a healthier diet: Choose low fat cooking methods Trimming fat off meat and skin off poultry Reducing fat intake by choosing low fat options Reduce salt intake as high salt increases blood pressure which increase the risk of stroke and heart disease Increase fruit and vegetable intake to add potassium and provide antioxidants (Vitamins A, C & E)

3 Diabetes To explain, the pancreas gland in the abdomen produces a hormone called insulin; it controls the glucose (sugar) within the body. There are two main types of diabetes. Type 1 Diabetes is when the pancreas produces little or no insulin and blood sugar levels rise. Type 1 mainly affects children and young adults and is not linked to obesity. Type 2 Diabetes is when the pancreas produces inadequate insulin for the body s needs; its effectiveness is then reduced. Type 2 is linked to obesity and inactivity. Diabetes is treated in two ways, with medication and a combination of a healthy diet with exercise. Recommendations for the prevention of the onset of Type 2 Diabetes Well balanced and varied diet Wholegrain foods, high in fibre Reduce high in fat foods Reduce energy dense foods Combining protein foods with carbohydrates at most meals to balance blood glucose Osteoporosis Osteoporosis is a condition where the density of bones decrease. Bones become weak and are more likely to fracture or break. During childhood and early adult life, the amount of bone density increases. A healthy diet along with exercise can help to prevent osteoporosis. Recommendations for the prevention of osteoporosis: Eat oily fish Increase intake of fruit and vegetables Ensure intake of Vitamin D and Calcium Avoid salt, alcohol, fizzy drinks and smoking

4 Dental caries Dental caries are also known as cavities or tooth decay. The ability to chew and swallow our food is essential for us to obtain the nutrients needed for good health. To explain how tooth caries are formed; the bacteria in dental plaque use fermentable carbohydrates to form acids. These acids dissolve the minerals such as calcium and phosphate from our teeth. This is called demineralisation. However, our saliva not only clears away food debris but also neutralises the acids produced from the bacteria in dental plaque, therefore providing calcium and phosphate for our teeth. This is called remineralisation. Tooth caries will only occur if demineralisation exceeds remineralisation over a period of time. Fruit acids can also damage tooth enamel, as can fizzy drinks and alcohol. Recommendations for the prevention of dental caries: Good oral hygiene A well balanced diet that is low in refined carbohydrates Sources of energy The food that you eat provides sources of energy. The three nutrients that provide you with energy are carbohydrates (sugars and starch), proteins and fats. Carbohydrate sources are fuel foods and help to fill you up, provide energy you need for physical activity and provide necessary fibre to your diet. Carbohydrates are foods such as bread, chapattis, breakfast cereals, pasta, potatoes, yams, rice and couscous. It is recommended that you eat 6 or more portions of these foods on a daily basis. One portion is a medium potato or slice of bread. Proteins are the building blocks of your body, which maintain healthy tissues and repair damage. Proteins include red meats, poultry, game, fish and eggs as well as vegetarian alternatives such as Soya based products, quinoa, nuts and beans. Milk and dairy products also offer a good source of protein.

5 Module One: Explain the Principles of Healthy Eating Activity 1 Using the Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) calculation, estimate your own BMR. Activity 2 Using your findings from Activity 1, calculate your Physical Activity level (PAL).

6 Activity 3 Using the findings from activity 1 and 2, determine your own energy requirements Activity 4 Answer the following questions: 1. What is the definition of a healthy diet? 2. What is the difference between a healthy diet of an adult and that of a child?

7 3. Name three lifestyle diseases that are associated with an unhealthy diet. 4. Which three nutrients are sources of energy from food? 5. What are the amounts of energy supplied by each nutrient? 6. Explain what factors would affect a person s energy requirements.

8 7. What is the relationship between energy intake, energy expenditure and weight? 8. Explain why it is important to control salt intake. Activity 5 Identify the five food groups and a variety of foods that belong in each. Food Group Types of Food Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Group 5

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