Chemical Change:

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2 Section 1: Vocabulary Review Use the spaces provided below to give brief (but accurate!) definitions for each term. Besides past notes and work, your textbook is a great resource for finding definitions. Look for the bold words in each section of your text, as these are typically important vocabulary terms. Reading the Chapter Study Guides at the end of each chapter can also be very useful when locating definitions as well as helpful for reviewing key concepts and skills. Chemistry: Chemical Change: Law of Conservation of Mass: Mixture: Element: Atom: Molecule: Compound: Principal Energy Level: Ground State (of an atom): Excited State (of an atom): 1

3 Atomic Number: Name Block Isotopes: Mass Number: Atomic Mass: Atomic Mass Unit: Atomic Orbital: Pauli Exclusion Principle: Orbital Pair: Valence electrons: Octet Rule: Period: Group (family): Electronegativity: 2

4 Lewis structure: Name Block Covalent Bond: VSEPR: Hybridization: Polar: Diatomic elements (define and list the super seven ): Empirical Formula: Molecular Formula: Structural Formula: Formula unit Cations: Anions: Aqueous solution: 3

5 Write a balanced chemical equation that would be an actual example for each of the following: decomposition (analysis) combination (synthesis) single-replacement double-replacement combustion of a hydrocarbon neutralization reaction Stoichiometry: Mole: Molar mass: Precipitate: Intermolecular force Hydrogen bonds Dispersion (van der waals) forces 4

6 Boiling point: Miscible: Solubility: Molarity (give the equation used to calculate): Kelvin scale: Absolute zero (define in terms of kinetic energy): Bronsted-Lowry Acid: Bronsted-Lowry Base: Titration: Salt: Buffer: ph: 5

7 Section 2: Problems =Solve the following, showing your work with correct units and significant figures= cm x 2.1 cm = K K = K K = m x 12 m = kg 2.25 kg = Use dimensional analysis to make the following conversions): g =? kg ml =? L L =? ml mol Ba =? g Ba How many significant figures are represented in each of the following numbers? x x Round each of the following numbers to 3 significant figures: Convert using proper dimensional analysis: 32.6 ft/day =? cm/min 6

8 21. Complete the following table: a. b. c. Symbol Atomic # Mass # Protons Electrons Neutrons Ionic Charge Mn For an atom with atomic number = 15 a. Write its electron configuration. b. Draw its orbital diagram (be sure to label the orbitals 1s, 2s ). c. How many valence electrons does this atom have? 23. An atom is found to have the electron configuration of [Kr]5s 2 4d 10 5p 5 a. Identify this element: b. What family does this element belong to? 24. Given the following electron configuration of an atom in an excited state, 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 8 4p 2 5p 2 6s 1 a. Identify this element: b. Identify the element in the same family that has the smallest atomic radii: c. Identify the element in the same period that is the least electronegative: 25. Write the correct chemical formula for each of the following ions: a. phosphate b. hydroxide c. carbonate d. dichromate e. ammonium f. sulfate g. nitrate h. iodide 7

9 26. Using the periodic table below, a. Circle the only noble gas that does not have a p orbital. b. Number the groups 1A-8A c. Number the periods 1-7 d. Label the 2-s block, the 3p-block, 5d-block, and the 4-f-block. e. Label the halogens, transition elements, alkaline earth metals, alkali metals, and the noble gases. f. Put an X through all seven elements that are naturally diatomic. 27. Using the location of each on the periodic table, place the following elements in order of increasing electronegativity (least electronegative to most electronegative). Ca, F, S, K, Ne: 28. Writh the formula for the ions involved in each of the following compounds: (Example: Mg 3 (PO 4 ) 2 Mg 2+, PO 4 3- ) a. Na 2 SO 4 b. Al 2 O 3 c. Fe 3 (PO 4 ) 2 d. Sn(OH) 4 8

10 29. Complete the following table: Name Block Lewis Structure Molecular Shape (VSEPR model) Shape Name Molecular Polarity a. CHCl 3 b. H 2 O Brackets! c. PO 3 3- d. SO 3 Brackets! e. NH Write the correct formula for the following compounds: sulfur trioxide calcium sulfate phosphoric acid hydrofluoric acid mercuric fluoride stannous nitrate aluminum hydroxide ammonium carbonate 9

11 31. Write one proper name for each of the following compounds. (All hydrogen compounds are acids.) a. PbCl 4 b. NCl 4 c. S 3 F 6 d. Hg(NO 3 ) 2 e. HNO 2 f. H 2 S g. Fe(OH) 3 h. Sn 3 (PO 4 ) Write the correct chemical formula for each compound formed by the following: Nitrate Phosphate Fluoride Sulfate Hydroxide Ammonium Sodium Potassium Calcium Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 Magnesium Stannous Plumbic Mercury (II) Copper (I) 10

12 33. Balance the following equations: a. N 2 + H 2! NH 3 b. Cs + H 3 PO 4! Cs 3 PO 4 + H 2 c. MnO 2 + HCl! MnCl 2 + H 2 O + Cl 2 d. C 4 H 10 + O 2! CO 2 + H 2 O 34. Predict whether a reaction will occur for each of the following. If a reaction takes place, write a balanced chemical equation (including phases). If a reaction does not take place, write No RXN. a. Single-replacement reaction: i. Cl 2 (g) + KBr (aq)! b. Double-replacement reactions: i. NaOH (aq) + AlCl 3 (aq)! ii. Fe(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + MgCl 2 (aq)! iii. H 2 CO 3 (aq) + Ba(OH) 2 (aq)! 35. Aqueous solutions of magnesium chloride and sodium hydroxide are mixed together to produce solid magnesium hydroxide. a. Write a complete balanced equation for this reaction (include phases). b. What type of reaction is this? c. How many grams of magnesium chloride are required to react with 9.10 grams of sodium hydroxide? 11

13 36. Calculate the percent composition by mass of barium chloride. Name Block 37. An unknown compound is composed of 71.0% silver, 7.9% carbon, and 21.1% oxygen. a. Determine the empirical formula for this compound. b. What is the molecular formula and name of this compound if it has been determined to have the molar mass of grams? 38. Use the data below to determine the formula and name for the aluminum bromide hydrate, AlBr 3 XH 2 O. Mass of empty crucible and lid: 4.26 g Mass of crucible, lid, and hydrate: 8.60 g Mass of crucible, lid, and anhydrate (i.e., after heating): 7.35 g 12

14 39. Solve the following: Name Block a. Calculate the number of moles contained in 9.75 grams of cuprous nitrate. b. How many atoms are contained in 13.5 grams of mercury? c. What is the mass of 4.32 x molecules of ammonia (NH 3 )? 40. Solve the following: a. Write a balanced chemical equation for the double replacement reaction that occurs between aqueous solutions of aluminum sulfate and calcium hydroxide. b. How many formula units of calcium hydroxide are needed to produce moles of aluminum hydroxide? c. How many grams of aluminum sulfate are needed to produce 17.8 grams of calcium sulfate? 41. Solid lithium hydroxide reacts with gaseous carbon dioxide to produce solid lithium carbonate and water. a. Write a balanced chemical equation for this reaction: b. How many grams of carbon dioxide are required to react with 5.00 grams of lithium hydroxide? 13

15 42. Predict if the following reactions will occur. If a reaction occurs, write a balanced equation for the reaction (including phases) within the box provided. If no reaction takes place, write No RXN. a. Al (s) + ZnCl 2 (aq) b. MgCl 2 (aq) + Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 (aq) c. chlorine gas + aqueous ferric bromide d. aqueous potassium hydroxide + aqueous stannic nitrate 43. Complete and balance the following chemical equations. Include correct phases. (Assume all reactions take place.) a > Na 2 O(s) b. Mg(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + (NH 4 ) 3 PO 4 (aq) ----> c. HgO(s) ----> d. C 3 H 6 (g) + O 2 (g) > 14

16 44. 2Al(s) + 3H 2 SO 4 (aq)! Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 (aq) + 3H 2 (g) According to the above balanced chemical equation, if you place 5.00 grams of aluminum into 5.00 grams of sulfuric acid. a. How many grams of aluminum sulfate can be produced? b. What is the limiting reactant? c. Which reactant is in excess and by how much? d. If the actual yield of the aluminum sulfate is 5.35 grams, what is the percent yield? 45. From the data below, determine the activity series of these six elements: X, Y, Z, H, Mg, and Hg. Place your answers in the box shown below. Reactants Y + H 2 SO 4 Y + MgCl 2 Y + XSO 4 Z + HgCl 2 Z + HCl X + HNO 3 Observations Bubbles form No Reaction A dark substance begins to form on the B metal A liquid metal begins to appear No Reaction Bubbles form Answer: Most Active > Least Active 15

17 46. Write balanced chemical equations for the following reactions involving acids (include phases). a. Carbon dioxide + water. b. Aluminum metal + chloric acid (HClO 3 ). c. Sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) + acetic acid. 47. Draw a number line representing ph=0 to ph=14 and the corresponding [H + ] values. Then label the acid section, the base section, and the ph of a neutral solution. 48. a. Calculate the molarity of 1.60 L of a solution containing grams of HNO 3 (a strong acid). b. What would be the ph of this solution? 49. A solution has a hydrogen ion concentration of 3.42 x M. a. What is [OH - ] of the solution? b. What is the ph of the solution? c. Is the solution acidic or basic? 50. The ph of a solution is What is the [OH - ] of this solution? 51. How many grams of HCl are required to make 20.0 ml of a M solution? 16

18 52. How many grams of nitric acid (a strong acid) would be needed to make a ml solution with a ph=4.50? 53. What is the ph of a ml solution containing 2.25 grams of potassium hydroxide (a strong base)? 54. Label and connect the conjugate acid-base pairs in the following reactions: a. NH OH -! NH 3 + H 2 O b. C 2 H 3 O H 2 O! HC 2 H 3 O 2 + OH It takes 12.5 ml of M NaOH to neutralize ml of an unknown acid. What is the ph of the unknown acid? 56. the type of bonding that occurs between the atoms/molecules/ions listed below. (Select: Ionic, polar covalent, nonpolar covalent, dipole-dipole, hydrogen bonding, dispersion forces.) a. Between atoms of hydrogen and oxygen in a water molecule b. Between molecules of water c. Between atoms of bromine in a bromine molecule d. Between molecules of bromine e. Between ions of sodium and chlorine in sodium chloride f. Between molecules of fluoromethane 17

19 57. Write the proper phases [(s), (g), or (l) ] next to each of the following elements and compounds (assume normal conditions). H 2 O 2 I 2 Br 2 Sn CH 4 CO 2 Hg Ca Li Cl 2 H 2 O 58. For Iridium-178 a. Determine the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons #p= #n= #e - = b. Write its electron configuration using noble gas notation c. How many unpaired electrons does it contain? 58. Complete the following table using the terms element, compound, mixture, heterogeneous, homogeneous, and pure substance If you were graded on the overall effort you put into this class, what grade do you think you would deserve? (Please answer this as honestly as possible!) "#"#"#"#"#"#"#"# That s it... You re Done! Good Luck on the Final!!! 18

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