Name Date Class THE MEANING OF OXIDATION AND REDUCTION

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1 20.1 THE MEANING OF OXIDATION AND REDUCTION Section Review Objectives Define oxidation and reduction in terms of the loss or gain of oxygen or hydrogen and the loss or gain of electrons State the characteristics of a redox reaction and identify the oxidizing agent and reducing agent Vocabulary oxidation-reduction reactions redox reactions oxidation reduction reducing agent oxidizing agent Part A Completion Use this completion exercise to check your understanding of the concepts and terms that are introduced in this section. Each blank can be completed with a term, short phrase, or number. Oxidation reduction, or 1, reactions are an important 1. category of chemical reactions. Oxidation is considered to be any 2. shift of electrons 2 from an atom. Reduction includes any 3. shift of electrons 3 an atom. An oxidation reaction is always 4. accompanied by a 4 reaction. The substance that does the 5. oxidizing (the 5 agent) is 6. The substance that does 6. the reducing (the 7 agent) is Part B True-False Classify each of these statements as always true, AT; sometimes true, ST; or never true, NT. 9. Reduction is the complete or partial gain of electrons by a substance. 10. In the reaction 2Na Cl 2 y 2NaCl, sodium is the reducing agent. 11. In the reaction 2Na Cl 2 y 2NaCl, sodium is being reduced. Chapter 20 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 517

2 12. To protect an iron ship hull, you should attach a metal that is easily reduced. Part C Matching Match each description in Column B to the correct term in Column A. Column A 13. combustion 14. oxidation 15. oxidizing agent 16. corrosion 17. zinc 18. gold Column B a. a metal that loses electrons easily b. complete or partial loss of electrons or gain of oxygen c. oxidation of metals to metallic ions by oxygen and water in the environment d. a metal that resists corrosion e. a chemical change in which oxygen reacts with another substance, often producing energy in the form of heat and light f. a substance that accepts electrons in a redox reaction Part D Questions and Problems Answer the following in the space provided. 19. Define oxidation and reduction in terms of the loss or gain of electrons. 20. In the equation given, identify the substance oxidized, the substance reduced, the oxidizing agent, and the reducing agent. Zn Cu 2 y Zn 2 Cu 21. Explain how putting a block of zinc or aluminum on the iron hull of a large ship will protect the ship from corrosion. 518 Core Teaching Resources

3 20.2 OXIDATION NUMBERS Section Review Objectives Determine the oxidation number of an atom of any element in a pure substance Define oxidation and reduction in terms of a change in oxidation number, and identify atoms being oxidized or reduced in redox reactions Vocabulary oxidation number Part A Completion Use this completion exercise to check your understanding of the concepts and terms that are introduced in this section. Each blank can be completed with a term, short phrase, or number. The oxidation number of an element in an uncombined state 1. is 1. The oxidation number of a monatomic ion is the same 2. in magnitude and 2 as its ionic 3. The sum of the 3. oxidation numbers of the elements in a neutral compound is In a polyatomic ion, however, the sum is equal to the Oxidation numbers help you keep track of 6 6. transfer in redox reactions. An oxidation number increase is 7. 7, while a 8 is reduction. 8. Part B True-False Classify each of these statements as always true, AT; sometimes true, ST; or never true, NT. 9. Oxygen is more electronegative than chlorine. 10. The oxidation number of each oxygen atom in most compounds is The oxidation number of Cl in KClO 3 is The oxidation number of each hydrogen atom in most compounds is The oxidation number for copper in a copper penny is 2. Chapter 20 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 519

4 14. In the reaction C H 2 O y CO H 2, the oxidation number of the hydrogen doesn t change. 15. In the reaction C H 2 O y CO H 2, the oxidation number of the carbon increases. 16. An increase in the oxidation number of an atom indicates oxidation. Part C Matching Match the oxidation number of nitrogen in each formula in Column B to the correct oxidation number in Column A. Column A Column B a. N 2 b. HNO 3 c. NO d. NH 2 OH e. NH 3 f. N 2 O 3 g. N 2 O Part D Questions and Problems Answer the following in the space provided. 26. Define oxidation and reduction in terms of a change in oxidation number. 27. Use the change in oxidation number to determine which elements are oxidized and which are reduced in these reactions. (Note: It is not necessary to use balanced equations.) a. HNO 3 HBr y NO Br 2 H 2 O b. KMnO 4 HCl y MnCl 2 Cl 2 H 2 O KCl c. Sb HNO 3 y Sb 2 O 5 NO H 2 O h. N 2 H 4 i. NO 2 d. C H 2 SO 4 y CO 2 SO 2 H 2 O 520 Core Teaching Resources

5 20.3 BALANCING REDOX REACTIONS Section Review Objectives Balance a redox equation using the oxidation-number-change method Balance a redox equation by breaking a redox equation into oxidation and reduction half-reactions and then using the half-reaction method Vocabulary oxidation-number-change method half-reaction half-reaction method Part A Completion Use this completion exercise to check your understanding of the concepts and terms that are introduced is this section. Each blank can be completed with a term, short phrase, or number. One method for balancing redox equations involves 1. determining the change in 1 of the substances that are 2. oxidized and reduced. Coefficients are then used to make the 3. increase in oxidation number equal to the decrease. 4. The 2 method is another way to write a 3 5. equation for a redox reaction. In this method, the net 4 6. equation is divided into 5 half-reactions. Each half-reaction 7. is balanced independently. Finally, the half-reactions are 6. The half-reaction method is particularly useful in balancing equations for 7 reactions. Part B True-False Classify each of these statements as always true, AT; sometimes true, ST; or never true, NT. 8. The reduction half-reaction in the reaction MnO 4 Cl y Mn 2 Cl 2 involves MnO 4 y Mn 2 Chapter 20 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 521

6 9. In an oxidation half-reaction, electrons occur on the right side of the equation. 10. Electrons never appear in a balanced redox reaction e 2Cl y Cl 2 is a balanced half-reaction. 12. To balance the oxygen in a half reaction involving MnO 4 y Mn 2, 2H 2 O will be added to the product side of the equation. 13. In the equation 2FeBr 2 Br 2 y 2FeBr 3, the oxidation number of the iron doesn t change. Part C Matching Match each description in Column B to the correct term in Column A. Column A 14. half-reaction method 15. spectator ions 16. anions 17. oxidation half-reaction Column B a. ions that are present but do not participate in or change during the reaction b. Fe 2 y Fe 3 e c. balancing a redox equation by first balancing the oxidation and reduction half-reactions d. balancing a redox equation by comparing the increase and decrease in oxidation numbers 18. half-reaction 19. oxidation-numberchange method 20. reduction half-reaction Part D Questions and Problems Answer the following in the space provided. 21. Balance these redox equations using the oxidation-number-change method. a. HNO 3 (aq) HI(g) y NO(g) I 2 (s) H 2 O b. HNO 3 (aq) I 2 (s) y HIO 3 (aq) NO 2 (g) H 2 O(l) 22. Balance these redox equations using the half-reaction method. a. H 2 S(aq) HNO 3 (aq) y S(s) NO(g) H 2 O(l) b. Fe 2 Cr 2 O 2 7 y Fe 3 Cr 3 e. equation showing either the reduction or the oxidation of a species in an oxidation-reduction reaction f. ions that can serve as reducing agents g. 2e Br 2 y 2Br 522 Core Teaching Resources

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