Name: Date: Period: Guided Notes Chemical Bonding Part 1

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1 Name: Date: Period: Guided Notes Chemical Bonding Part 1 Valence Electrons and Chemical Bonds A is the force that holds two atoms together. Chemical bonds form by the attraction between the positive nucleus of one atom and the negative electrons of another atom. Atom s try to form the the stable arrangement of eight valence electrons in the outer energy level by sharing, gaining or losing valence electrons. This is the Octet rule. Why do atoms bond? The stability of an atom, ion or compound is related to its energy: lower energy states are more stable. Metals and nonmetals gain stability by transferring electrons (gaining or losing) to form ions that have stable noble-gas electron configurations. Another way atoms can gain stability is by sharing valence electrons with other atoms. Drawing Valence Electrons H Mg Ga C As O Br Metallic Bonding Metallic Bond holds the atoms of metals together When bonding metals form known as cations surrounded by a sea of freely moving valence electrons. A metallic bond is formed between all metals. Examples include a piece of Copper, Zinc, Sodium, and Iron. Any metal Metallic bonds result from the attraction between metal atoms and the surrounding sea of delocalized electrons Valence electrons can move around the whole metal structure they are not confined to any one atom This model explains many of the properties of metals: The mobile electrons can enter/leave the metal structure, so metals are good conductors of heat and electricity!

2 The de-excitation (The electron falling back down to a lower energy level) is responsible for the shiny (luster) appearance of metals. Boiling points are much higher than melting points because of the energy required to separate atoms from the groups of cations and electrons. Metals are malleable because they can be hammered into sheets. Metals are ductile because they can be drawn into wires. Mobile electrons surrounding positively charged nuclei make metals good conductors of electricity and heat. As the number of delocalized electrons increases, so does hardness and strength. Ionic Bonding Ionic bonds form when atoms electrons. Formation of an Ionic Bond - The electrostatic force that holds oppositely charged particles together in an ionic compound is called an. Compounds that contain ionic bonds are called ionic compounds. Properties of Ionic Compounds Positive and negative ions exist in a ratio determined by the number of electrons transferred from the metal atom to the non-metal atom. The repeating pattern of particle packing in an ionic compound is called an. The strong attractions among the positive and negative ions result in the formation of the crystal lattice. A is the three-dimensional geometric arrangement of particles, and is responsible for the structure of many minerals. Physical Properties of Ionic Compounds Strong attraction between ions Soluble in water Conduct electricity in solution Conduct electricity when molten High melting points High boiling points Hard but brittle Solid at room temperature

3 This figure demonstrates how and why crystals break when an external force is applied. How are electron dot formulas for ionic bonds constructed? Electron dot formulas show the valence electrons and charges of these ions and may be used to illustrate the ionic bonds. Sodium and Chlorine Potassium and Oxygen Calcium and Chlorine

4 Guided Notes Chemical Bonding Part 2 Covalent Bonding In a Covalent Bond the valence electrons are between atoms Properties of Covalent Bonds Two non-metals bonded together Relatively weak bonds Usually a gas or liquid at room temperature Does not conduct electricity in solution Low melting/boiling point Soluble in alcohol and insoluble in water Nonpolar Covalent bond Covalent bond in which the bonding electrons are by the bounded atoms, resulting in a balanced distribution of an electrical charge. Polar Covalent bond Covalent bond in which the bonded atoms have an for shared electrons. Each atom has a charge Partial positive- (+δ) Partial negative- (- δ) The type of bond can usually be calculated by finding the difference in electronegativity of the two atoms that are bonding together. If the difference in electronegativities is between: 1.8 to 4.0: Ionic 0.4 to 1.7: Polar Covalent 0.0 to 0.3: Non-Polar Covalent Example: NaCl Example: H 2 O Na = 0.9, Chlorine = 3.0 H = 2.1, Oxygen = 3.5 Difference is Difference is so the bond is an so the bond is an Diatomic Molecules are covalent A diatomic molecule is a molecule only containing two atoms. The seven diatomic molecules are H 2, N 2, O 2, F 2, Cl 2, Br 2, I 2 These diatomic molecules are never by themselves.

5 Single Covalent Bonds -A single covalent bond results when two atoms share pair of electrons, as in the case of hydrogen gas, which is a diatomic molecule. Double Covalent Bonds- When atoms bond by sharing pairs of electrons, the result is a double covalent bond, as in a molecule of carbon dioxide, CO 2. The double bond is shown by four dots or two dashes. Triple Covalent Bonds- When atoms bond by sharing pairs of electrons, the result is a triple covalent bond, as in a molecule of nitrogen gas, N 2. The triple bond is shown by six dots or three dashes. Violations of Octet Rule Be: 4 B: 6 P: 8 OR 10 S: 8, 10, OR 12 Xe: 8, 10, OR 12 Lewis Dot Structures for Single, Double and Triple Bonds HF H 2 O N 2 H 2 C 2 H 2

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