Which term would best represent X? A) human B) tissue C) stomach D) chloroplast A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) 4

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1 1. ATP is a compound that is synthesized when A) chemical bonds between carbon atoms are formed during photosynthesis B) energy stored in chemical bonds is released during cellular respiration C) energy stored in nitrogen is released, forming amino acids D) digestive enzymes break amino acids into smaller parts 2. Respiration is best described as a process by which A) necessary nutrients are circulated B) hydrogen is used to synthesize glucose C) metabolic wastes are absorbed D) chemical energy is converted into a usable form 3. All of the following are true regarding cells except? A) All cells have genetic material B) All cells have cell walls C) All cells have plasma membranes D) All cells can divide to form new cells 4. Base your answer to the following question on The diagram below represents levels of organization in living things. 5. Which cell structures are correctly paired with their functions? A) The mitochondria produce enzymes, and ribosomes transport them. B) The ribosomes make proteins, and the nucleus stores genetic information. C) The cell membrane make enzymes, and cytoplasm transports them. D) The vacuole stores genetic information, and chloroplasts make proteins. 6. The cell represented below produces oxygen. Which structure allows the passage of this oxygen to the environment? A) A B) B C) C D) D 7. Within which structure shown in the diagram below are energy-rich organic compounds used to produce ATP? Which term would best represent X? A) human B) tissue C) stomach D) chloroplast A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) 4

2 8. Which cell structure contains information needed for protein synthesis? A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) 4 9. What organelle releases energy for metabolic activity in cells? A) chloroplast B) ribosome C) mitochondrion D) vacuole 10. Which diagram best represents the relative locations of the structures in the list below? A chromosome B nucleus C cell D gene A) B) C) D) 11. Base your answer to the following question on Which letter indicates a cell structure that directly controls the movement of molecules into and out of the cell? A) Q B) R C) S D) T 12. Which organelle is correctly paired with its function? A) nucleus provides carbohydrates for fermentation B) chloroplast serves as a site for photosynthesis C) centriole synthesizes digestive enzymes D) lysosome packages cellular products 13. What would most likely happen if the ribosomes in a cell were not functioning? A) The cell would undergo uncontrolled mitotic cell division. B) The synthesis of enzymes would stop. C) The cell would produce antibodies. D) The rate of transport of glucose in the cytoplasm would increase.

3 14. Which statement describes starches, fats, proteins, and DNA? A) They are used to store genetic information. B) They are complex molecules made from smaller molecules. C) They are used to assemble larger inorganic materials. D) They are simple molecules used as energy sources. 15. Water is classified as an inorganic compound because it A) does not contain carbon B) does not contain nitrogen C) contains hydrogen D) contains oxygen 16. Which compound is inorganic? A) glucose (C6Hl2O6) B) carbon dioxide (CO2) C) ethane (C2H6) D) stearic acid (Cl8H36O2) 17. A chemical analysis of organisms from each kingdom shows that living things are primarily composed of the elements A) carbon, hydrogen, chlorine, and sulfur B) carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen C) iron, calcium, hydrogen, and oxygen D) chlorine, carbon, calcium, and sulfur 18. Base your answer to the following question on Groups A and B in the table below contain molecular formulas of compounds. How would the compounds in these groups be chemically classified? A) group A - inorganic group B - organic B) group A - organic group B - inorganic C) group A - monosaccharides group B - disaccharides D) group A - disaccharides group B - monosaccharides 19. Base your answer to the following question on In the diagram below, which substance belongs in area Z? A) water B) oxygen C) nitrogen D) carbon 20. Which substance plays a major role in most of the chemical reactions that occur in a living cell? A) water B) glycogen C) glycerol D) maltose 21. Which class of molecules is responsible for speeding up chemical reactions? A) Sugars B) Fats C) Genetic material D) Enzymes 22. Which statement about enzymes is not correct? A) Enzymes are composed of polypeptide chains. B) Enzymes form a temporary association with a reactant. C) Enzymes are destroyed when they are used and must be synthesized for each reaction. D) Enzymes are specific because of their shape and catalyze only certain reactions. 23. Base your answer to the following question on Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a toxic by-product of cellular metabolism in aerobic organisms. The reaction below occurs within the cells to prevent the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide. In this reaction, catalase functions as an A) enzyme in the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide B) enzyme in the synthesis of hydrogen peroxide C) emulsifier in the digestion of hydrogen peroxide D) indicator in the detection of hydrogen peroxide

4 24. Which statement explains the importance of maintaining a constant internal environment to ensure proper enzyme functioning? A) Changes in ph and temperature will cause the enzyme reaction rate to be too fast. B) Temperature and ph determine amino acid sequences in enzymes. C) Changes in ph will change the genetic instructions of enzymes. D) Increasing the temperature and ph can alter the specific shape of enzymes. 25. The sweet taste of freshly picked corn is due to the high sugar content in the kernels. Enzyme action converts about 50% of the sugar to starch within one day after picking. To preserve its sweetness, the freshly picked corn is immersed in boiling water for a few minutes, and then cooled. Which statement most likely explains why the boiled corn kernels remain sweet? A) Boiling destroys sugar molecules so they cannot be converted to starch. B) Boiling kills a fungus on the corn that is needed to convert sugar to starch. C) Boiling activates the enzyme that converts amino acids to sugar. D) Boiling deactivates the enzyme responsible for converting sugar to starch 26. Since salivary enzymes normally operate best at a ph close to neutral, the optimum ph range for the hydrolysis of carbohydrates in the human mouth would be A) 3-5 B) 4-6 C) 6-8 D) The enzyme amylase will affect the breakdown of carbohydrates, but it will not affect the breakdown of proteins. The ability of an enzyme molecule to interact with specific molecules is most directly determined by the A) shapes of the molecules involved B) number of molecules involved C) sequence of bases present in ATP D) amount of glucose present in the cell 28. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below, which represents stages in the digestion of a starch, and on your knowledge of biology. The structure labeled X most likely represents A) an antibody B) a receptor molecule C) an enzyme D) a hormone

5 29. Base your answer to the following question on An enzyme and four different molecules are shown in the diagram below. Which molecules would this enzyme most likely affect in a reaction? A) molecule A, only B) molecule C, only C) molecules B and D D) molecules A and C 30. Glucose molecules are the building blocks of what class of macromolecule? A) Proteins B) Lipids C) Nucleotides D) Carbohydrates

6 31. Base your answer to the following question on on the chart below and your knowledge of Biology. In which section of the chart do the substances starch and glycogen belong? A) A B) E C) C D) I

7 32. Base your answer to the following question on Some structural formulas of organic molecules are shown below. Which structural formulas represent carbohydrate molecules? A) 1 and 5 B) 2 and 4 C) 3 and 2 D) 4 and Base your answer to the following question on Two molecules of the type illustrated below are combined by dehydration synthesis. Combining these two molecules produces A) a protein B) a lipid C) maltose D) starch

8 34. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below. For each of the following phrases, select the molecule, chosen from those shown below, which is best described by that phrase. A molecule that results from all dehydration synthesis reactions A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) 4 E) A disaccharide combines with water to produce two monosaccharides in the process known as A) hydrolysis B) dehydration synthesis C) aerobic respiration D) photosynthesis Base your answers to questions 36 and 37 on the structural formula below and on your knowledge of biology. 36. Which high-molecular-weight substances are made up of repeating units of these molecules? A) starch and cellulose B) hemoglobin and protease C) fats and oils D) polypeptides and nucleic acids 37. The process by which two or more of these molecules are bonded together in a muscle cell is known as A) enzymatic hydrolysis B) anaerobic respiration C) dehydration synthesis D) carbon fixation 38. What are the building blocks of lipids? A) Glucose B) Amino acids C) Fatty acids and glycerol D) Nucleic acids 39. Animals commonly store energy in the form of A) fat and glycogen B) waxes and oils C) minerals and urea D) water and carbon dioxide 40. Vegetable oils, such as corn oil, belong to which general class of organic substances? A) lipids B) proteins C) carbohydrates D) salts 41. Amino acids are the building blocks of which class of macromolecules? A) Proteins B) Lipids C) Carbohydrates D) Nucleotides

9 42. The function of most proteins depends primarily on the A) type and order of amino acids B) environment of the organism C) availability of starch molecules D) nutritional habits of the organism 43. In what class of organic molecules would hemoglobin, insulin, albumin, and maltase, all of which are composed of chains of amino acids, be placed into? A) proteins B) nucleic acids C) lipids D) carbohydrates 44. A pesticide that kills an insect by interfering with the production of proteins in the insect would most directly affect the activity of A) ribosomes B) minerals C) chloroplasts D) mitochondria 45. Researchers performing a well-designed experiment should base their conclusions on A) the hypothesis of the experiment B) data from repeated trials of the experiment C) a small sample size to insure a reliable outcome of the experiment D) results predicted before performing the experiment 46. Which statement best describes the term theory as used in the gene-chromosome theory? A) A theory is never revised as new scientific evidence is presented. B) A theory is an assumption made by scientists and implies a lack of certainty. C) A theory refers to a scientific explanation that is strongly supported by a variety of experimental data. D) A theory is a hypothesis that has been supported by one experiment performed by two or more scientists. 47. A company that manufactures a popular multivitamin wanted to determine whether their multivitamin had any side effects. For its initial study, the company chose 2000 individuals to take one of their multivitamin tablets per day for one year. Scientists from the company surveyed the participants to determine whether they had experienced any side effects. The greatest problem with this procedure is that A) only one brand of vitamin was tested B) the study lasted only one year C) the sample size was not large enough D) no control group was used 48. As part of an investigation, 10 bean seedlings in one setup were grown in the dark, while 10 seedlings in another setup were grown in sunlight. All other growth conditions were kept the same in both setups. The seedlings grown in the dark were white with long, slender stems. These seedlings eventually died. The seedlings grown in the sunlight were green and healthy. Which hypothesis was most likely being tested in this investigation? A) Plants grown in the dark cannot perform the process or respiration. B) Sunlight is necessary for the normal growth of bean plants. C) Light is necessary for the germination of bean seeds. D) Light is necessary for proper mineral absorption by plants.

10 49. A clear plastic ruler is placed across the middle of the field of view of a compound light microscope. A row of cells can be seen under low-power magnification (100 ). What is the average length of a single cell in micrometers (µm)? A) 10µm B) 100µm C) 200µm D) 2000µm 50. The diagram below represents the measurement of a biological specimen. What is the approximate length of the specimen in millimeters? A) 25 mm B) 30 mm C) 35 mm D) 40 mm 51. A laboratory procedure calls for heating 50 milliliters of a liquid sugar solution to 60 C. Which piece of laboratory equipment will not be needed? A) protective eyewear B) ruler C) thermometer D) graduated cylinder 52. Which environmental factor could have a temperature of 39ºC? A) water temperature at the North Pole in March B) water temperature in a lake in New York State in January C) air temperature in a desert in the southwestern United States during a day in July D) air temperature in the Adirondack Mountains of New York State in December

11 Base your answers to questions 53 through 56 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology. A student wants to bake the biggest loaf of bread in the local baking contest. Each contestant must use the same amounts of flour, sugar, and yeast, but is allowed to vary the type of sugar. Yeast is a microorganism that carries out cellular respiration, which produces carbon dioxide, making the bread rise. The student designs an experiment using the setup below to determine which sugar source (glucose, sucrose, or fructose) will cause the yeast to produce the most carbon dioxide and therefore, the biggest loaf of bread. 53. State one assumption the student makes in deciding which type of sugar should be used to produce the biggest loaf of bread. 54. In addition to bottles A, B, and C, the student sets up a control bottle, D. Write the contents of bottle D on the blank line on the diagram below. 55. Describe the specific type of data to be collected. 56. State one hypothesis this experiment would test.

12 57. Base your answer to the following question on Data from two different cells are shown in the graphs below. Which cell is most likely a plant cell? Support your answer. 58. Base your answer to question on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. In a cell, a variety of structures perform specific functions and interact to maintain homeostasis. The diagram below represents a typical cell with three cell structures labeled 1, 2, and 3. Select one cell structure labeled in the diagram and write its number in the space below. Explain how the cell structure you selected helps maintain homeostasis in a cell. In your answer, be sure to: identify the cell structure you selected state one function of this cell structure identify one substance that is often associated with the cell structure you selected and state how that substance is associated with the cell structure identify one other cell structure and explain how it interacts with the cell structure you selected to maintain homeostasis in the cell

13 59. Write the structures listed below in order from least complex to most complex. organ cell organism organelle tissue 60. Base your answer to the following question on The diagram below represents a cell viewed using a compound light microscope. Select one of the lettered parts from the diagram. Record the letter of the part chosen in the space provided on your answer paper and, using one or more complete sentences, state the function of the part. 61. Base your answer to the following question on Using appropriate information, fill in spaces A and B in the chart below. In space A identify an organ in the human body where molecules diffuse into the blood. In space B identify a specific molecule that diffuses into the blood at this organ.

14 Answer Key Homework 1/3 1. B 2. D 3. B 4. B 5. B 6. B 7. A 8. A 9. C 10. B 11. B 12. B 13. B 14. B 15. A 16. B 17. B 18. B 19. D 20. A 21. D 22. C 23. A 24. D 25. D 26. C 27. A 28. C 29. B 30. D 31. B 32. A 33. C 34. E 35. A 36. A 37. C 38. C 39. A 40. A 41. A 42. A 43. A 44. A 45. B 46. C 47. D 48. B 49. C 50. A 51. B 52. C 53. Yeast uses sugar for respiration. The type of sugar used will make a difference. When mixed in the bread dough, the yeast will undergo respiration the same as it does in the bottle. The sugar that results in the greatest amount of carbon dioxide production in the experiment will produce the biggest loaf of bread. It is the sugar that influences the size of the loaf of bread. Changing the kind of sugar would make a greater difference than changing the kind of flour balloon size/circumference amount of carbon dioxide in the balloon 56. If sucrose (or glucose or fructose) is the best sugar, then it will result in the greatest amount of carbon dioxide being produced. When yeast and sucrose (or glucose or fructose) are combined in a container with a balloon over it, the balloon will inflate the most. If sucrose (or glucose or fructose) is the sugar used, the loaf of bread produced will be the biggest. 57. Example: - Cell 1, because it contains chloroplasts. - Cell 1, because it has a cell wall. 58. (essay) 59. organelle cell tissue organ organism 60. Examples: A - It is the organelle in which photosynthesis takes place. or B - It is the organelle which stores materials. or C - It directs the activities of the cell. 61.

15 Answer Key Homework 1/3 58. Structure 1 ribosome site of protein synthesis amino acid used to make proteins nucleus the ribosome gets instructions from the nucleus determining which proteins are produced by the cell Structure 2 nucleus control of cell processes DNA makes up the chromosomes in the nucleus ribosome nucleus sends instructions to ribosomes for protein synthesis Structure 3 mitochondrion site of energy release/cell respiration ATP produced in the mitochondrion cell membrane allows glucose to enter cell and be used by the mitochondrion for energy release

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