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1 Changes to Energy Works! Since publication of the Energy Works! Teacher s Guide, corrections have been made to the information in the unit s printed materials. Please replace the corresponding page in your text with the revised page provided. This errata set includes the following: p. xx, Unit Overview The definition for energy has been revised for accuracy. Student Sheet 2: What Are Potential and Kinetic Energy? Student Sheet 2: What Are Potential and Kinetic Energy? (Teacher s Version) The diagram of the traveling arrow in Part A has been modified. The diagram of the traveling arrow in Part A has been modified p. 26, Lesson 3 Background Information The Background Information has been revised for accuracy. Appendix A, Glossary, p. 80 Revised glossary definition for mechanical Replaced glossary definition for heat energy with a new definition for thermal Photocopy and distribute these replacement pages as needed. If you have questions about these changes or about the unit in general, call Carolina s product information staff at ext (8 a.m. 5 p.m. ET, M F), or 1112

2 Energy Works! Unit Overview Energy is one of the most important topics in science; however, because it is a complex and somewhat abstract topic, students need lots of concrete experiences and need to recognize many ways of applying the ideas to themselves and their daily lives. Thus, students begin Energy Works! by tracing the flow of energy that comes into their bodies and giving examples of how they use that energy to grow, live, and function. As a pre-unit assessment activity, students hunt for different types of energy in the classroom. Students then classify energy into two broad categories: kinetic (moving) energy and potential (stored) They participate in interactive demonstrations that help them better understand the difference between the two. In a series of four hands-on lessons, students gain experiences with different kinds of energy and see how energy is converted to different forms within a system. Students are encouraged to record new questions they have and ideas they form in their science notebooks, a process which helps prepare them to conduct their own experiments. Through research and discussion, students become aware of the relative advantages and disadvantages of alternative energy versus fossil fuels. They have practical experiences constructing wind- and water-operated apparatus and testing them. Again, students record new questions and ideas in their science notebooks. Finally, students return to the questions they have been generating and recording throughout their investigations and select a question to investigate in more depth. They plan projects to design and construct apparatus that demonstrate the main ideas of the unit: that there are different forms of energy, that energy can be converted from one form to another, and that energy is the ability to do work or create change. As a culmination, students revisit their preunit assessment activity to evaluate how much they have learned about Lessons Where Do You Get Your Energy?...1 What Are Potential Energy and Kinetic Energy?...11 How Can We Show Energy Is Transferred and Converted?...25 What Are Alternative Forms of Energy?...51 What Have We Learned About Energy?...75 Content Standards National Science Education Standards K 4 Science as Inquiry Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry Understandings about scientific inquiry Physical Science Properties and changes of properties in matter Motion and forces Transfer of energy Science and Technology Abilities of technological design Understandings about science and technology Science in Personal and Social Perspectives Types of resources Unifying Concepts and Processes Systems, order, and organization Evidence, models, and explanation Constancy, change, and measurement Form and function National Science Education Standards 5 8 Science as Inquiry Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry Understandings about scientific inquiry Physical Science Properties and changes of properties in matter Motion and forces Transfer of energy Science and Technology Abilities of technological design Understandings about science and technology Unifying Concepts and Processes Systems, order, and organization Evidence, models, and explanation Constancy, change, and measurement Form and function xx BUILDING BLOCKS OF SCIENCE

3 Student Activity Sheet 2 Name What Are Potential Energy and Kinetic Energy? Date: Team of Scientists: A) B) Equipment: 1 ping-pong ball A. Think Look at each picture. Is the energy stored or working? Write potential (stored) or kinetic (working) on the line below Carolina Biological Supply Company Student Activity Sheet 2

4 Student Activity Sheet 2: Teacher s Version What Are Potential Energy and Kinetic Energy? A. Think Look at each picture. Is the energy stored or working? Write potential (stored) or kinetic (working) on the line below. 1. (kinetic) 2. (potential) Student Activity Sheet 2 (Teacher s Version) 2011 Carolina Biological Supply Company

5 Cutting Wire Adjusting Cutters Stripping Wires Place the wire in the cutters and close tight Make a small opening here......by adjusting the screw Put the wire in the opening and twist Pull the insulation off with the cutters Figure 3.1 How to cut and strip wires BACKGROUND INFORMATION In this series of activities, students are asked to think more deeply about specific kinds of energy and how they are converted to different forms of energy within a system. As they do so, students are encouraged to raise questions and record them in their science notebooks. This list of questions provides them with a list of topics to investigate in Lesson 5, when teams design their own experiments. Students will encounter several major forms of energy during this lesson: Solar energy is radiant energy emitted by the sun that can be converted into other forms of energy such as heat and electricity. The sun s energy comes from naturally occurring fusion, the process in which hydrogen atoms combine. Solar energy can be converted directly into thermal Objects with higher temperatures have more thermal energy than objects with lower temperatures. Solar energy can be used to heat water or indoor spaces (as seen in Investigation #1: The Sun s Energy when the soil becomes warmer). It can also be collected by photovoltaic cells and converted to electricity. Chemical energy is a form of potential energy stored in a substance (in the bonds of atoms and molecules). Chemical energy may be converted to or from electrical energy, heat, or light during chemical reactions. In these activities, students encounter chemical energy in batteries. Kinetic energy is the movement of an organism, object, or substance from one place to another. Sound (due to vibrations) is one kind of motion, as is demonstrated by the electrical mystery box (buzzer) in Investigation #3: Mystery Box. Rotating is another kind of motion, as seen with the motor in Investigation #4: Solar Cells in which solar energy is converted to electrical energy and then into mechanical (motion) energy to turn a motor shaft. Electrical energy is a form of energy resulting from charged particles (usually electrons). When the electrons move through a wire, electrical energy is kinetic. When it is stored in a battery, electrical energy is potential We get electricity from the conversion of other sources such as moving water, solar energy, and natural resources such as coal, oil, or nuclear power. 26 ENERGY WORKS!

6 Glossary alternative energy: Energy that is not derived from fossil fuels. Examples include wind energy, solar energy, biomass energy, wave energy, water energy, and tidal biomass energy: Any organic material that can be burned as a source of fuel. Examples include wood, corn, animal manure, and animal and plant oils. chemical energy: A form of energy stored in a substance (in the bonds of atoms and molecules). Chemical energy may be converted to or from electrical energy, heat energy, or light convert: To change from one form to another. electrical energy: A form of energy resulting from charged particles. When moving through a wire, it is kinetic energy; when stored in a battery, it is potential energy: The ability to perform work, cause motion, or create change. fossil fuel: Energy from the remains of plants and animals that died millions of years ago. Three types of fossil fuels are coal, oil, and natural gas. geothermal energy: Energy transferred from the internal heat of the earth, exhibited spectacularly in some places by volcanic eruptions, hot springs, or geysers. Most man-made geothermal energy systems involve buried water pipes about 6 10 feet below the surface of the earth. hydroelectric energy: Electric energy converted from the kinetic energy of moving water. kinetic energy: The energy of motion. For example, moving objects, wind, and flowing water have kinetic mechanical energy: The energy of an object due to its macroscopic position or macroscopic velocity. photosynthesis: The process by which green plants make their own food from carbon dioxide and water, using energy from sunlight. potential energy: Stored energy (due to the position or condition of the object) that has the ability to change into other forms of For example, water stored behind a dam has (gravitational) potential Once it is released and moving, its potential energy is converted to kinetic energy, or the energy of movement. radiant energy: Electromagnetic energy in the form of waves such as visible light, radar, x-rays, and radio waves. solar energy: The radiant energy and light energy from the sun. sound energy: Energy traveling through a substance in regular vibrations, or waves. thermal energy: The internal energy of a system or object. Objects with higher temperatures have more thermal energy than objects with lower temperatures. transfer of energy: Movement of energy from one object, location, or part of a system to another. turbine: A machine in which a wheel revolves using energy from water, air, steam, or gas. When attached to a generator it can make electricity. water energy: Kinetic energy of moving water (running or falling water, waves, and tides) that is harnessed by the use of a variety of devices to turn generators that convert energy of motion into electrical wind energy: Kinetic energy of moving air that is harnessed by the use of wind turbines to turn generators that convert energy of motion into electrical nuclear energy: Also called atomic energy, nuclear energy is the energy stored in the nucleus of an atom. Some of the atom s mass is converted to energy when a nuclear reaction occurs Carolina Biological Supply Company

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