Food Market Diversification Approach Lithuanian case

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1 Food Market Diversification Approach Lithuanian case Jolanta Drozdz, Artiom Volkov Agricultural Policy and Foreign Trade Division, Lithuanian Institute of Agrarian Economics CAP and the Competitiveness of the Polish and European Food Sector November 26 th - 28 th 2014, Józefów, Poland

2 The main goal of the paper is to investigate the market diversification approach in Lithuanian agricultural and food sector. The tasks are as follows: 1. to analyse the transformation of Lithuanian international trade conditions before and after the EU accession; 2. to investigate the dynamics of international trade flows and structure of agri-food exports; 3. to compare export geography of Lithuanian agricultural and food products before and after the EU accession; 4. to explore the level of agricultural and food products exporters orientation on international markets.

3 1. Transformation of Lithuanian international trade conditions

4 Source: Ansoff Matrix modified by authors, 2014

5 *1990 restoration of an independent state of Lithuania; *1993 trade liberalization started, changes in national legislation; *2001 Lithuania became a member of WTO; *2004 Lithuania became a member State of the European Union. *2008 Global financial crisis *2014 Russian ban

6 2. Dynamics of international trade flows and structure of agri-food exports

7 International trade of Lithuanian agri-food products, billion EUR 5,00 4,00 Exports Imports Balance 4,70 3,72 3,00 2,00 1,00 0,00 Financial crisis 2,57 2,36 EU Integration WTO membership 0,98 0,62 0,34 0,50 0,60 0,21 0, ,16-1,00 Source: Statistics Lithuania, 2014

8 Structure of Agri-food Exports and imports by CN sections, per cent 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% IV. Prepared foodstuffs; beverages, spirits and vinegar; tobacco III. Animal or vegetable fats and oils 50% 40% II. Vegetable products 30% 20% 10% I. Live animals; animal products 0% Source: Statistics Lithuania, 2014

9 1600,0 1400,0 1200,0 Direct payments for livestock 1000,0 800,0 600,0 400,0 Direct payments for crop production 200,0 0, Source: Ministry of Agriculture, National Paying Agency, 2014

10 4 Dairy produce; eggs; honey 21% Other 34% 8 Edible fruit and nuts 5% Source: Statistics Lithuania, Preparations of meat, fish 3 Fish and 6% crustaceans, molluscs 8% 10 Cereals 11% 24 Tobacco 15% 89,2 per cent Lithuanian origin

11 4 Dairy produce; eggs; honey 15% Other products 37% 10 Cereals 13% 16 Preparations of meat, fish 5% 2 Meat and edible meat offal 5% Source: Statistics Lithuania, Edible vegetables 23 Residues and 7% waste; animal fodder 7% 8 Edible fruit and nuts 11% 68,9 per cent Lithuanian origin

12 4 Dairy produce; eggs; honey 13% Other 27% 10 Cereals 12% 2 Meat and edible meat offal 5% 23 Residues and waste; animal fodder 5% 3 Fish and crustaceans, molluscs 5% Source: Statistics Lithuania, Tobacco 7% 8 Edible fruit and nuts 10% 7 Edible vegetables 9% 22 Beverages, spirits and vinegar 7% 64,3 per cent Lithuanian origin

13 3. Lithuanian agrifood exports geography

14 >10 % Huge importer >5-10 % Strong importer >1-5 % Big importer >0,1-1% Significant importer >0,01-0,1% Small importer >0-0,01 % Very small importer 0% No exports Source: prepared by authors

15 >10 % Huge importer >5-10 % Strong importer >1-5 % Big importer >0,1-1% Significant importer >0,01-0,1% Small importer >0-0,01 % Very small importer 0% No exports Source: prepared by authors

16 >10 % Huge importer >5-10 % Strong importer >1-5 % Big importer >0,1-1% Significant importer >0,01-0,1% Small importer >0-0,01 % Very small importer 0% No exports Source: prepared by authors

17 >10 % Huge importer >5-10 % Strong importer >1-5 % Big importer >0,1-1% Significant importer >0,01-0,1% Small importer >0-0,01 % Very small importer 0% No exports Source: prepared by authors

18 >10 % Huge importer >5-10 % Strong importer >1-5 % Big importer >0,1-1% Significant importer >0,01-0,1% Small importer >0-0,01 % Very small importer 0% No exports Source: prepared by authors

19 >10 % Huge importer >5-10 % Strong importer >1-5 % Big importer >0,1-1% Significant importer >0,01-0,1% Small importer >0-0,01 % Very small importer 0% No exports Source: prepared by authors

20 >10 % Huge importer >5-10 % Strong importer >1-5 % Big importer >0,1-1% Significant importer >0,01-0,1% Small importer >0-0,01 % Very small importer 0% No exports Source: prepared by authors

21 4. Agri-food exporters orientation on international markets

22 Source: prepared by authors

23 Source: prepared by authors

24 Agri-food products Level of processing Intention for exports Existing export markets Expected export markets Meat and meat products High Dried and coldsmoked meat products; frozen veal Russia, Belgium, Netherlands, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, South-East Asia Saudi Arabia, Philippines, USA, Africa, Japan, South Korea, China Milk and milk products High Cheese, curds, butter, milk sugar, lactose EU, Russia, USA China, USA, Japan Ice cream High Ice cream in a waffle cup Germany, USA, United Kingdom, Ireland, Denmark There is no need

25 Agri-food products Level of processing Intention for exports Existing export markets Expected export markets Fish Average Mackerel, fish meal Sweden, Poland, Denmark, France There is no need Fish products High Grains Low Grains Crab sticks, surimi products Baltic countries, EU, Scandinavian countries, Asian countries, USA EU, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Egypt Brasil Asian and African countries Grain products High Frozen wheat gluten, gluten-dried powder EU, USA There is no need

26 Agri-food products Level of processing Intention for exports Existing export markets Expected export markets Bread and other bakery products High Frozen bread, biscuits Latvia, Poland, Germany, Ireland, United Kingdom, Spain, Netherlands, USA, Cyprus, Israel, Portugal, Italy, France, Belgium, Greece, African countries Scandinavian countries, Canada, New Zealand, Brasil Chocolate and chocolate products High Chocolate, chocolate candies, toffee Latvia, Germany, United Kingdom, Estonia, Israel, Poland, Ireland, USA, Russia Sweden, Romania, Netherlands Beer High Cider, kvass EU, Russia, USA Norway, Austria, Hungary

27 Despite many efforts of liberalizing foreign trade of agri-food products in early nineties, membership in WTO in 2001, real benefit was get, when Lithuania entered the EU. Agri-food exports and imports volumes rose intensively, on average 23 per cent for exports and 21 per cent for imports during the period Analysis showed that exporting firms simultaneously seek to balance their growth across both the geographic and product diversification domains. Lithuanian agricultural products, which get higher EU support (ex. direct payments), prevail on foreign markets (ex. milk products, grains, wheat gluten, etc.).

28 After the EU accession Lithuania became a gateway for other European exporters for reaching Eastern countries. The volumes of Lithuanian origin products in total agri-food exports fell down from 89.2 per cent in 2003, till 64.3 per cent in Analysis of the export geography of Lithuanian origin agri-food products showed that country has three stable markets (Russia, Germany and Latvia). It is strongly dependent on those markets. Nevertheless market diversification appears from In 2013 this tendency has strengthen. Breakthrough in agri-food exports is expected to the African, Asian, Scandinavian countries and Australia

29

41 T Korea, Rep. 52.3. 42 T Netherlands 51.4. 43 T Japan 51.1. 44 E Bulgaria 51.1. 45 T Argentina 50.8. 46 T Czech Republic 50.4. 47 T Greece 50.

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