Research on Enterprise Logistics Cost Management

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1 Research on Enterprise Logistics Cost Management XIA Xunjia, SHAN Shengdi Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha, Hunan Province, P.R. China Abstract: This paper presents the problems in the logistics cost of the management by analyzing the present phenomenon in logistics cost management, and puts forward from establishment scientific reasonable logistics cost accounting system, establishment efficient of logistics management system speeding up logistics information automatic construction etc respects to reduce logistics cost, then to promote the competition advantage and improve economic benefit and social benefit for our Chinese enterprises. Keywords: Logistics; Logistics cost; Cost management 1 Introduction Logistics cost management is the core of logistics management, for enterprises to enhance the efficiency of logistics management to determine the level of logistics services play a vital role. Thus, control of logistics cost has become a modern enterprise management in the process of one of the main tasks. Logistics cost management of development and economic development is closely related to the development of logistics depends on the socio-economic level of development and productivity, but also on the scientific the level of technological development. In the initial stage of economic development, business thinking is centered on manufacturing and basically too busy to take into account the circulation issues in the field of logistics. When rapid economic growth, increased competition, companies began to reduce production costs in areas other than the search for a way out, are beginning to realize the logistics of the role of enterprises to reduce costs, the total cost of the logistics concept has been introduced. As the economy continues to develop, the changes in the external environment on the one hand, to bring their own driving force to improve the logistics system, but also prompted the Government to amend the hotbed of high-cost logistics management policy, logistics cost management has been a gradual development of a logistics management sector, making the beginning of the logistics cost management organization, as well as the emergence of new outsourcing system management to reduce the form of logistics costs and improve competitiveness. 2 The Problems on Enterprise Logistics Cost Management China's logistics cost management in recent years have made marked progress, enterprises are beginning to realize the importance of the logistics cost, enhanced control and management of logistics costs, but compared with developed countries in Europe and the United States, the current cost of China's logistics business is still not optimistic about the situation. 2.1 Logistics cost management awareness weak, and management concepts slow With electronic information, scientific and technological progress, logistics cost has become a national core competitiveness of the national economy an important manifestation. More and more enterprises recognize that the modern logistics industry to be successful, the use of modern logistics in the means of cost control, cost-effective logistics down. But reality, the vast majority of enterprises in our country the concept of logistics cost management is still relatively weak understanding of the logistics enterprises are mostly limited to transportation, storage and other low-value-added services, and the logistics system design, rationalization of logistics, such as the development of information systems lack of value-added services to understand. Did not establish a sense of modern logistics, not fully aware of 119

2 modern logistics management is to reduce the total cost of production, improve the competitiveness of enterprises an important means. More serious is the lack of modern logistics in China is "the third profit source" concept, the logistics do not become the production process to optimize and enhance the key market operators, and logistics activities will be placed in a subsidiary status, the majority of enterprises will be storage, transport, handling transportation, purchasing, packaging, distribution and other logistics activities are scattered in different departments, one department was not included in the activities of the logistics system planning and unity. 2.2 Enterprise logistics information low, resulting in high logistics costs Although information and communication in development for the development of the logistics industry in China has laid a solid foundation, but the logistics of information technology applications in the enterprise behind, has become China's high logistics cost enterprises an important factor. At present, China's logistics enterprises in the technological level lags far behind the developed countries to use the level of logistics enterprises, both in the hardware technology of construction, the application of inadequate, especially for the development of soft technology lagged. Many companies have limited financial resources, logistics information in insufficient investment in facilities, in particular some of the traditional storage and transportation enterprises, faced with a serious aging facilities, logistics and other issues behind the operating means, resulting in inefficient logistics, time-consuming and laborious, long-term operating costs of enterprises, home high. Not only that, many companies lag behind in information technology, a low level of e-business, resulting in a means of information processing and handling are very backward, far from enough to meet current business and the pursuit of rapid response to provide customers with value-added services to maximize the needs. Low level of information-based logistics technologies will inevitably lead to corporate and management level of the hysteresis. 2.3 The existing cost accounting system is not conducive to the logistics cost management Financial balance sheet in the enterprise, the logistics cost is transportation to the outside companies to pay fees or transportation of goods to the warehouse to pay custodial fees and other traditional logistics costs, logistics centers and enterprise-related personnel costs, equipment depreciation costs and other operating expenses and other unified enterprise computing, and modern logistics management from the point of view, it is difficult to grasp the actual business of logistics costs. In corporate financial accounting system does not have a separate accounting logistics project; all costs are included in the cost of a column, difficult-to-business logistics costs occurred in a clear and comprehensive calculation and analysis. Basically, the cost of business will be divided into the cost of production and marketing costs, logistics costs and cost of sales mix. Logistics, including the supply of logistics, production logistics, sales logistics, recycling materials, waste streams, such as links, each link should have the relative cost of logistics. Sales Logistics is one of logistics, the cost is only part of the overall logistics cost. This led to the cost of business logistics and underestimated fuzzy; in logistics costs, many can not grasp the hidden costs. China's current accountings statements can be reflected in the cost of logistics costs are visible, that is dominant cost. Including equipment depreciation costs, transportation costs, handling, storage rental fees, processing fees, such as circulation, with the development of the logistics industry, this part of the cost of logistics cost in proportion will gradually reduce. And accounted for a larger proportion of the hidden costs such as stock sluggish product cost, return no-load costs, the cost of goods transferred in different places and so on, not be disclosed in the statements, the occurrence of difficult-to-business logistics costs of a variety of clear, comprehensive calculation and analysis. From the level of logistics services, logistics services arising from excessive cost and the standard service costs arising from mixed enterprises are unable to establish standards for the level of logistics services, as well as on the basis of standard logistics costs. 2.4 Low levels of enterprise logistics management, internal logistics system is not perfect 120

3 Enterprise Logistics Information lag makes some of the advanced management methods can not be the promotion of the enterprise, coupled with restrictions on the level of industrialization at this stage, seriously affecting logistics rationalization of our businesses and raise the level of physical management, resulting in a lower level of logistics, business logistics professional s low level of technology. The low level of logistics management determines the level of control and management of logistics costs low, resulting in high logistics costs and even increase. While many companies of its own logistics system reform, but did not really straighten out, the institutional design of the lack of scientific, forward-looking, and social development of the logistics division of labor and lack of coordination, not from the perspective of supply chain integration of the supply of logistics, production logistics and sales logistics, is still fragmented, sector division. The organizational structure of logistics integration is still difficult to achieve the goal of building a logistics center business there are many difficulties, the internal distribution difficult to achieve, resulting in high logistics costs. 3 The Strategy of Enhancing Enterprise Logistics Cost Management 3.1 Accelerate enterprise information and automation to reduce logistics costs Information is the soul of modern logistics, through the promotion of logistics information technology, a high degree of network-based information to improve the efficiency of logistics operating system, especially in all aspects of logistics operations using a variety of advanced logistics equipment and technology, is to improve operating efficiency and to reduce the cost of the services of one of the main means. Application of Modern Logistics Technology is bound to result in a large number of logistics cost reduction, logistics of all aspects of operational efficiency significantly increased, thus speeding up the pace of enterprise logistics, the logistics capacity to expand, and ultimately increases the efficiency of logistics management. Enterprises on the one hand, the use of information systems will enable a variety of logistics operations accurately and quickly, on the other hand, information systems through data collection, predictive analysis, to control the logistics cost of the possibility of the occurrence. Compared with the traditional way, on the one hand, the logistics information system can significantly shorten the reaction time to reduce the goods on every link in the logistics of the time lag flow; On the other hand, modern information technology and network technology in the information obtained by the breadth and accuracy with the superiority of the unparalleled logistics enterprises in time and space, as well as the decision-making capacity on a more reliable basis. Modern technology in warehouse management, transportation management and for improving the storage, transportation efficiency and reduce damage, goods are clearly worse results. To establish a modern logistics information system needs of multi-joint efforts. On the one hand, the Government should speed up the construction of logistics infrastructure and logistics based on the basis of network-based logistics platform, and under the guidance of the overall plan for the construction of logistics bases, the realization of logistics coordination and information sharing; On the other hand, according to the logistics demand conditions, the introduction of advanced logistics equipment and related technologies, such as corporate resource planning (ERP) and so on, to update the enterprise logistics behind the aging equipment, the realization of automated logistics systems, networking. 3.2 Consummate logistics costs accounting system and reduce logistics costs Traditional product cost accounting system regards the production units as a cost center; logistics sector is often identified as the general administration department, not as a cost center. In order to calculate the cost of the logistics process, logistics costs should be separated from the product cost out, as a separate cost centers. Each Production department's cost centers gather together the pure production cost, but various physical distributions department's cost centers gather together the physical distribution expense which it occurs respectively. This will not only make the cost of logistics costs and product separation, but also so that the procurement cost of materials, including the procurement aspect of no longer pay the freight, handling fees, but only reflect the purchase price, so as to valuation of inventory material to 121

4 provide a more reliable basis for. ABC (Activity Base Costing) accounting method, also known as activity-based costing, it is a strategic cost management refers to the operations or activities based on resources will be consumed by enterprise resource driver assigned to the operations or activities, and the operation collection operations of the operating costs allocated to the cost of moving objects due to the accounting method. An ABC motive of resources refers to the resources consumed in operating the type and quantity of work which reflects the quantity and the causal relationship between the consumption of resources. ABC of work motivation refers to the operating cost targets required for the type and quantity of the object it reflects the cost of using the operating frequency and intensity. ABC management principles calculation of the total cost of logistics of the conceptual formula is: total cost of logistics cost + = logistics services used by the total value of assets occupancy rate assets. ABC method can improve the optimization of operating chain operations to reduce consumption, improve operations quality and operations throughout the life cycle of strategic cost management. Application of ABC cost accounting and management of business logistics costs can be divided into the following three steps: First, define logistics enterprises of various operating systems. Retailers such as the sale of finished goods logistics process, with production lines for the production of materials to provide the logistics process have significant differences, whether accurate analysis operations to determine the quality of logistics costs; followed by confirmation of enterprise logistics system resources, resource driver to confirm to the allocation of resources to operations; the final confirmation of cost drivers, operating costs will be assigned to the product or service. Analysis of operating costs across the enterprise in the course of logistics management act as cost-ineffective, as well as the removal of the entire recycling process, the role of logistics management. 3.3 Establish efficient logistics management system to reduce logistics costs Logistics cost management companies, in addition to taking into account the impact of external factors and corporate information technology and logistics cost of these key issues, enterprises should also pay attention to giving full play to the role of the logistics sector, the establishment of efficient logistics management system. Enterprises should be based on the scale of production and raw material procurement, production process and product distribution business and other work characteristics, respectively, the joint use of logistics models, logistics professional model, the logistics subsidiary bodies such as the model form of the work to establish a highly efficient logistics system. Logistics management activities directly affect the level of logistics costs and improve logistics management is to strengthen the economic accounting logistics, selection of appropriate methods of cost control, capital management, personnel, raw material consumption, expenditures in every link of the logistics and so on, and continuously improving management practices to seek ways to reduce logistics costs. Therefore, enterprises should be established to reduce the cost of the incentive mechanism for all aspects of logistics to mobilize the enthusiasm of staff to strengthen the economic accounting, to reduce logistics costs. At the same time, the logistics work plan and related financial plans should be consistent, enterprise logistics sector and other sectors to enhance mutual cooperation in order to reduce logistics costs. 3.4 Select appropriate logistics mode, reduce logistics costs Logistics can be broadly classified into self-mode logistics, logistics Union and third-party logistics. Logistics in order to save costs and increase the level of production and management, enterprises should integrate their own status; select the appropriate model of the logistics business. It is a Logistics subsidiary of the establishment of logistics enterprise as a result of the logistics activities are scattered in the various functional departments of enterprises and the various operating segments, leading to difficulties in logistics management, logistics control and calculation of costs and many other ills of a response. The so-called logistics subsidiary of the logistics sector is the spin-off enterprises, to set up an independent company; the parent company is mainly responsible for logistics and other business enterprises. Through the establishment of a logistics subsidiary of the logistics cost can be clear, 122

5 the introduction of professional logistics technology, reasonably arrange the logistics process. A separate company as a result of logistics, and logistics would be simple and clear financial accounting, while the parent company is also easy to trade logistics to control costs and make more explicit the logistics cost and easy to control, but also conducive to the expansion of the field of logistics activities and the development of logistics operations, improve enterprises will help mobilize the enthusiasm and talents in favor of logistics, which will help control and reduce logistics costs. Third-party logistics is the use of external distribution companies, freight Transportation Company or a third party to carry out the business of logistics management functions and product distribution in whole or in part. With the social division of labor is getting smaller, there has been a large number of professional logistics companies, they have the technology and professional logistics management, logistics is the core business of these enterprises, they were able to fully concentrate on logistics management. Third-party logistics for small and medium-sized enterprises, especially to enhance the competitiveness of the role is very clear. In general, small and medium-sized scale and strength of the decision to establish their enterprises in the chain of logistics services and networks are not perfect at the time, if also invest a lot of money to carry out internal logistics management, not only weakened the capacity of core business concerns, and the macro level of society can not play the advantages of economies of scale in logistics. Third-party logistics and transportation costs to achieve significant savings, and demonstrates the use of logistics and technology professionals. In addition, a number of unexpected events, the additional costs, such as air and car rental issues such as work to reduce the increase in the supply chain in an orderly and predictable. Logistics outsourcing can not only reduce logistics costs, it can also enhance the service levels and operational efficiency and enhance the consistency of strategic action to reduce investment demand, bringing innovative technology and logistics management and effective channel management information systems. Therefore, the rational use of third-party logistics to reduce the logistics cost of great significance. References [1]. LI Li. The Study of Method of Information Organization and Analysis Based on Entropy in the process of Logistics Informationlization. Journal of Dezhou University, 2009,(2):18 (in Chinese) [2]. Tomak,K,Xia,M. Evolution of the B2B marketplaces.electronic Markets, 2002, 12 :84~91 [3]. Loch CH,CTerwiesch. Rush and Be Wrongor Wait and Be Late?AMod-el ofinformation in Collaborative Processes. Production&OperationsManagement, 2005, 14 (3) : [4]. Moberg C R, Cutler B D, Gross A, Speh T W. Identifying antecedents of information exchange within supply chains. International Journal of Physical Distribution and Logistics Management, 2002, 32 (9) : [5]. Tarn, J. M, A. R Muhammad, et al. E-fulfill-ment:the strategy and operational requirements.logistics Information Management, 2003, 16 (5) :350 [6]. XU Jian, BU Xiao-ming, WEN Xin, et al. Risk Prevention: Choice of Corporation Dynamic Alliance Partners. Journal of Northeastern University(Natural Science), 2008, (5):36 (in Chinese) [7]. Zhang Jie. A Study of the Establishment of Associations of Multi-agent-based Goods Flows. Social Sciences Journal of Colleges of Shanxi, 2009, (5):28 (in Chinese) [8]. Felix W.H. Chan. Logistics Management in China. Engineering Sciences 2005, (3):

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