Ziggurat Ancient Mesopotamian temple tower; Large mud brick temple located in the center of the city-state

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1 Civilization Highly developed culture; Centralized society with developed forms of religion, ways of governing, and learning Scribe A person who writes things for others Polytheism Belief in many gods Monarchy Form of government where one person has complete authority (king) Equal Justice Fair treatment Ziggurat Ancient Mesopotamian temple tower; Large mud brick temple located in the center of the city-state Empire Group of (city) states controlled by one ruler Theocracy Government controlled by religious leaders Irrigation system A controlled means of supplying land with water Cuneiform First written language developed by the Sumerians. It comes from a Latin word that means, wedge. They used a wedge-shaped stylus to etch their writing in clay tablets. City-state Small, independent villages Each with its own ruler and their own farmland Code of Hammurabi First written laws; Collection of 282 laws that governed the people of Babylon; Laws dealt with almost all areas of daily life: marriage, divorce, slaves, murder, stealing Status Importance- used with social structure to indicate society ranking Social Structure Complex organization, which includes different jobs and social levels. Levees A wall of earth built to prevent a river from flooding its banks

2 Geography: Where was the Fertile Crescent (Mesopotamia) located? - between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers -stretched from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean Sea. Why was it called the Fertile Crescent? When the rivers flooded it left silt, which fertilized the soil making it excellent farmland Land was shaped like a crescent Mesopotamia means land between the rivers Mesopotamia is located in modern day Iraq on the continent of Asia. What geographic features helped civilizations develop in Mesopotamia? Flat land Rivers- flooding provided silt, which fertilized the soil What inventions help create a stable food supply? Complex irrigation system- they built a network of dams, levees, canals, and reservoirs Plow (tool for tilling the soil to prepare it for planting) Wheel- farm carts, domestication of animals What is the importance of a scribe? Scribes kept records, wrote letters for other people, and copied down stories and songs recorded laws and taxes Explain how having a stable food supply led to a complex division of labor (different people have different jobs) When people KNEW they had enough food for the community, they could afford to branch out and do different jobs. They developed different skills such as skilled metalworkers, artisans and craftsmen. Others could serve in the army. There were different classes of people. TEAM- different roles on the team-all work together List the social classes and the type of people found in each class. Upper Class (Nobles)- Priests, landowners, and government officials (large two story homes near the center of the city-state) Middle Class (Common class)-merchants, craftsman, farmers, fisherman, artisans (Lived in mud brick houses at the edge of the city; farmers lived outside the city) Lower Class- Slaves, unskilled workers (lived with owners and had no property of their own)

3 Describe the ZIGGURAT. Towers made from mud bricks Believed that the gods lived in the ziggurat and they built special temples at the top for them. Outside the ziggurat, they attached a long staircase so the gods could climb down to earth. King and priests stood inside the tower to ask for the gods blessing. Describe a Sumerian city-state. Ziggurat located in the middle of the city City surrounded by a mud brick wall and a moat Farmland located outside the wall and moat and had a irrigation system from the river to the farmland Upper class housing located near the center which were two story houses that were whitewashed Middle class one-story houses were located near the edge of the city Bronze gates allowed limited access in and out of the city Describe the development of early writing. Sumerian writing- Pictographs (simple pictures that represent real objects) Ideographs- combination of pictographs to represent ideas or actions Stylus writing (cuneiform) wedge shaped writing Phonograms- symbols represent the sound or syllable Phoenicians invented what we know as the alphabet about 1000 BCE Explain Hammurabi s most famous law: an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth. These laws explained that whoever caused injury should be punished with that same injury. Did the Code of Hammurabi offer equal justice? Why or why not? Equal Justice- Fair treatment Hammurabi s laws applied to everyone, but the punishment depended on the person s gender and social class Put the following empires in order in which they controlled the Mesopotamia area. List the contribution/achievements of the civilizations in Mesopotamia Empire Current Day Location Contribution/Achievement 1.Sumerian NOT an empire Individual City States Iraq Developed city-states irrigation system Plow sailboat Cuneiform (writing) Wheel 2.Akkadians Iraq -World s first empire - ruled by Sargon who became the first emperor 3.Babylonians Iraq -Ruled by Hammurabi who united the empire with his codes -Code of Hammurabi- claimed the gods had told him to create the laws. The laws were based on the gods will, the laws could never be changed Written on stele and placed in a temple for all to see Covered situations like stealing, causing injury, marriage, divorce, trade, payment of work 4.Phoenicians Lebanon First alphabet

4 The Mesopotamians were faced with four key problems as they tried to survive in a difficult environment. As they solved a problem, it created a new problem that needed to be resolved. Complete the following flowchart with the problems and the solution that Mesopotamia encountered. Problem #1 Sumerians could not produce enough food in the foothills of the Zagros Mountains Solution to Problem #1 People moved out of the foothills and onto the plains between the rivers Problem #2 Uncontrolled water supplyflooding in some seasons, and not enough at other times Solution to Problem #2 Sumerians developed irrigation systems with levees, canals, dams and reservoirs Problem #3 Irrigation system had to be maintained Solution to Problem #3 People were forced to work together. As they worked together they formed larger communities Problem #4 Cities fought over the right to use water Solution to Problem #4 Sumerians built walls and moats around their cities

5 Write a characteristic of a civilization in each box and then give an example of how Sumer demonstrated this characteristic. Technology Example: Plow, wheel Stable Food Supply Example: Plow, irrigation system, clay tablet showing food distribution, and domesticated animals Government Example: Laws, kings, military, theocracy Writing Example: Cuneiform, Code of Hammurabi, scribes, Epic of Gilgamesh Social Structure Characteristics of a Civilization Religion Example: Ziggurat, priests, statues of Gods, polytheism, theocracy Highly Developed Culture (Arts) Example: classes of people, kings, artisans, farmers, slaves, specialized jobs, complex division of labor Music Example: Lyre Visual arts Example: statues, Standard of Ur Literature Example: Epic of Gilgamesh, poetry Architecture Example: Ziggurat, arch

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