Middleware in a Nutshell A Crash Course on Middleware Technologies

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1 Middleware in a Nutshell A Crash Course on Middleware Technologies Angelo Corsaro, Ph.D. Software Technologies Scientist Strategic and Technological Planning SELEX SI

2 Agenda Distributed Information Systems Middleware Concluding Remarks

3 Distributed Information Systems

4 Information System Structure Client Presentation Layer Application Logic Layer Resource Management Layer Information System

5 Information Systems Architecture The different Layers of an Information System logically represents functionality These Layers can be combined and distributed in different ways When distributed, Layers are referred as Tiers Depending on the Tiers organization we can distinguish four different kind of Information Systems 1-tier 2-tier 3-tier N-tier

6 1-tier Architecture Client Presentation Layer Application Logic Layer Resource Management Layer Pros: Max Performances Little or none Client side development, maintenance, and deployment costs Cons: Monolithic Structure The Server side is difficult and expensive to maintain Information System

7 2-tier Architecture Client Presentation Layer Application Logic Layer Resource Management Layer Information System Server Pros: Better computational load sharing The presentation layer can be customized based on client needs Good performances Cons: Tight Coupling between Application Logic and Resource Management Layer Leads to architectures in which Clients integrate multiple servers

8 3-tier Architecture Client Presentation Layer Application Logic Layer Resource Management Layer Pros: The mid-tier allow for a proper architectural integration of (legacy) server Improved scalability and reliability due to the possibility to distribute tiers Cons: Complex The mid-tier could be source of inefficiencies Problematic connectivity through the Internet Information System

9 N-tier Architectures Client Web Browser Pros: Provide a mean for better decoupling the presentation logic to clients Web Server HTML Filter Presentation Layer Additional Tiers can take care of supporting Internet Connectivity Cons: Application Logic Layer Complexity quickly grows with the number of tiers Resource Management Layer Information System

10 Middleware

11 Basic Definition A Middleware Service is a general-purpose service that sits between platforms and applications Application A Middleware Service: Meets the need of a wide variety of applications across many industries Must have implementations that run on multiple platforms Is distributed (if applicable) Should support standard API Middleware Platform (OS, HW) APIs APIs

12 Middleware Evolution Middleware platforms have been evolving driven by the Information Systems requirements and architectures 70 s 80 s 90 s 00 s time TP Monitors, RPC, MoM, ORBs, P/S, Component Middleware, EAIs, WebServices,

13 Middleware Species

14 Transaction Processing (TP) Monitors One of the oldest and best engineered form of middleware Coordinate the flow of transactions submitted to a system One of the earliest TP Monitors was the IBM Customer Information and Control Systems (CICS) developed in the late 60 s Modern TP Processing come in two flavors: TP-lite TP-heavy

15 Remote Procedure Call (RPC) One of the most basic form of middleware Provides support for transparently transform procedure calls into remote procedure calls With the shift from Procedural to Object Oriented Programming, RPCs have become RMIs (Remote Method Invocations) RPC/RMI are the most basic service of modern Object Request Broker Platforms

16 Object Request Broker (ORB) Object Request Brokers extend the concept of RPCs to the Object Oriented world by providing services and abstraction to support Distributed Object Programming Several ORBs platform have emerged, some of which are: CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Architecture) DCOM/COM+ (Distributed Component Object Model) Java RMI.Net Remoting Framework

17 Message Oriented Middleware (MOM) Provide capability for asynchronous message exchange between distributed applications Space and Time Decoupling Natural support for one to may communication Evolutions of MOM provide capabilities for QoS, message filtering, and message transformation A B C D E F Backbone M N O P P Q

18 Component Middleware Extend Traditional ORB Middleware Platforms by Providing support for Software Components (Encapsulated Unit of Business Logic, Deployment and Reuse) Promote and Enable a clear separation between Business Logic and nonfunctional requirements Provide support for Middleware Assisted Packaging and Deployment Example Component Middleware include Enterprise Java Beans (EJB) CORBA Component Model (CCM)

19 The Need for Web Services Traditional Middleware was designed to work in a LAN environment. It had several limitation when it was to go over the Internet The presence of Firewall changes the design spaces in two ways 1. No direct communication between the systems being integrated is possible (at least by using the protocols employed by existing middleware platforms) 2. Parties Outside the Firewall are not Trusted

20 Web Services A Web Service is a Software application identified by a URI, whose interfaces and bindings are capable of being defined, described, and discovered as XML artefacts. A Web Service supports direct interactions with other software using XML-based messages exchanged via Internet-based protocols (W3C Definition) Web Services are emerging as the Technology for solving B2B integration problems The key technology and standards behind Web Services are XML, SOAP, UDDI, and WSDL

21 Concluding Remarks Information Systems Architecture evolves continuously to take into account new integration scenarios as well as to improve Engineering Properties Middleware Technologies have been evolving in order to support the emerging needs of information systems Middleware Platforms have provided increasingly Scalability Flexibility Integration Capability Improved Software Engineering Paradigm (e.g. Distributed Objects vs. Distributed Components) There is no Silver Bullet Middleware each kind of Middleware serves a specific purpose, and has its place in a given Information System

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