Inequality, pro-poor growth and development policy. Edward Anderson School of International Development University of East Anglia

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Inequality, pro-poor growth and development policy. Edward Anderson School of International Development University of East Anglia"

Transcription

1 Inequality, pro-poor growth and development policy Edward Anderson School of International Development University of East Anglia

2 i. The adverse effects of inequality Since the 1970s, a large literature has emerged which documents the many adverse effects of income inequality on socio-economic outcomes, including: rates of economic growth (Alesina and Rodrik 1994, Persson and Tabellini 1996, Perotti 1996, Halter et al 2014); the duration of economic growth spells (Berg et al 2012); levels of income (Easterly 2007); the growth elasticity of poverty reduction (Ravallion 1997, Bourguignon 2002); secondary and tertiary school enrolment (Odedokun and Round 2004) subjective well-being (Alesina et al 2004). One recent paper which has attracted quite a lot of recent attention is Ostry et al (2014)

3 Source: Ostry et al (2014: 18)

4 Source: Ostry et al (2014: 19)

5 ii. The importance of pro-poor growth White and Anderson (2001) decomposed growth in the income of the poorest 20% into a growth component and a redistribution component in over one quarter of cases, redistribution is more important than overall growth in explaining the income growth of the poor (p.277) A similar decomposition analysis was done for absolute poverty measures by Kraay (2006), yielding broadly similar results: For the sample of all spells, between 43% and 70% of the variation in changes in poverty is due to the growth component, with the remainder due to changes in relative incomes. (p.210)

6 Variation in changes in absolute poverty due to the growth component All spells (n=185) Long-run spells (n=77) Headcount 70% 97% Poverty gap 53% 79% Squared poverty gap 43% 69% Watts index 46% 72% Source: Kraay (2006: Tables 2 and 3)

7 iii. Policies for tackling inequality and promoting pro-poor growth Static redistribution Taxes and transfers Asset redistribution Dynamic redistribution Agricultural and rural development Research and incentives to encourage labourintensive investments Infrastructural investment to reduce the remoteness of many of the poorest Social policies to promote education, health and social capital Measures to eliminate biases against women as producers and consumers Improved access to capital through financial sector reforms and micro-credit schemes Source: Killick (2002) The avoidance of macroeconomic crises

8 [Although] a substantial number of instruments have been identified none are new and not all are of great proven potency (Killick 2002: 5). Hence, distribution matters *but+ unfortunately our understanding of the determinants of the pattern of growth is weak. Perhaps our major finding is about how much is left unexplained. (White and Anderson 2001: 285). Cross-country evidence is unlikely to be very informative about the policies and institutions that are likely to lead to poverty-reducing patterns of growth in relative incomes *M+ore micro-level and case-study research may be useful in shedding light on the determinants of poverty-reducing distributional change (Kraay 2006: 200)

9 iv. A systematic review of the literature What policies promote pro-poor growth, rather than growth per se? (White and Anderson 2001: 267) In my current work I am part of a team at UEA* carrying out two DFIDfunded Systematic Reviews on two closely related questions, namely: (Q2) What policies and interventions have been strongly associated with changes in in-country income inequality? (Q8) What policies and interventions have been strongly associated with the translation of growth into reductions in income poverty? *including myself, Maren Duvendack, Lucio Esposito and Maria Jalles D Orey

10 The aims of each review To map the available evidence that seeks to evaluate the effects of government policies and interventions on income inequality and/or the translation of growth into poverty reduction in low and middle income countries; To establish whether any particular types of policies or interventions tend to reduce or increase income inequality and/or the translation of economic growth into poverty reduction on average; To explain heterogeneity in the estimated effect of such policies or interventions, across countries, regions or over time, or research methods used ( method heterogeneity; To understand better the processes and mechanisms through which government policies and interventions affect income inequality.

11 Inclusion criteria Population is limited to low and middle-income countries (at the time of intervention) Outcome restricted to income inequality [or income poverty] measured using a summary indicator (e.g. Gini coefficient or Theil index for inequality or the Headcount or Watts index for poverty) Study designs: ex-post quasi-experimental studies; ex-ante simulation studies; quantitative case studies, using decomposition analysis; and qualitative case studies which draw on primary data. Studies published since 1990, in English, Spanish or Portuguese Most publication types (articles, books, book chapters, working papers) but exclude MA and PhD theses, media briefing papers etc.

12 Results so far: screening Q2. Income inequality Q8. Income poverty Total records 13,552 14,485 Excluded by abstract 11,015 9,902 Not yet screened 1,166 3,710 Full reports screened 1, Excluded by full text 1, Awaiting decision Full reports included

13 Results so far: mapping % of included studies Q2. Income Inequality Q8. Income poverty Study design Ex-post quasi-experimental 46% 44% Ex-ante simulation 40% 56% Decomposition analysis 13% - Qualitative case studies <1% <1% Policy category Fiscal (tax/spending) 70% 63% Trade 18% 22% Other 12% 16%

14 Conclusion The most pressing questions are thus: which policies affect the pattern of growth, and are these policies favourable or harmful to overall growth? (White and Anderson 2001: 268) The systematic reviews currently being carried out are an attempt to answer the first of these questions more systematically As for the second question

15 Alesina, Alberto, Rafael Di Tella, and Robert MacCulloch Inequality and Happiness: Are Europeans and Americans Different? Journal of Public Economics 88(n9-10): Alesina, A. and Perotti, R. (1996). Income distribution, political instability, and investment, European Economic Review, 40, Berg, A., J.D. Ostry, and J. Zettelmeyer, 2012, What Makes Growth Sustained? Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 98(2), pp Bourguignon, F. (2003). The growth elasticity of poverty reduction: explaining heterogeneity across countries and time periods. Inequality and growth: Theory and policy implications, 1, 1. Easterly, W., 2007, Inequality Does Cause Underdevelopment: Insights from a New Instrument, Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 84(2), pp Halter, D., Oechslin, M., and Zweimuller, J. (2014). Inequality and Growth: the neglected time dimension. Journal of Economic Growth 19: Killick, T. (2002). Responding to Inequality. Briefing Paper No 3, March 2002, Overseas Development Institute. Kraay, A. (2006). When is growth pro-poor? Evidence from a panel of countries. Journal of Development Economics, 80, Odedokun, M. and Round, J. (2004). Determinants of income inequality and its effects on economic growth: evidence from African countries. Ostry, J.D., Berg, A. and Tsangarides, C. G. (2014). Redistribution, Inequality and Growth. IMF Staff Discussion note. SDN/14/02. Perotti, R. (1996). Growth, income distribution and democracy: what the data say. Journal of Economic Growth 1(2): Persson, T. and Tabellini, G. (1994). Is inequality harmful to growth? The Amreican Economic Review 84(3): Ravallion, M. (1997). Can high-inequality developing countries escape absolute poverty? Economics Letters, 56, White, H. and Anderson, E. (2001), Growth versus Distribution: Does the Pattern of Growth Matter? Development Policy Review 19:

Pro-poor growth: a review of what we know (and of what we don't)

Pro-poor growth: a review of what we know (and of what we don't) Pro-poor growth: a review of what we know (and of what we don't) J. Humberto Lopez * The World Bank (PRMPR) This draft: September 11 Abstract Over the past few years pro-poor growth has become a very popular

More information

Economic Growth, Inequality and Poverty Reduction in China

Economic Growth, Inequality and Poverty Reduction in China Economic Growth, Inequality and Poverty Reduction in China Sangui Wang Renmin University of China Economic Growth, Poverty and Inequality in China 1 China has achieved remarkable economic growth since

More information

Poverty and income growth: Measuring pro-poor growth in the case of Romania

Poverty and income growth: Measuring pro-poor growth in the case of Romania Poverty and income growth: Measuring pro-poor growth in the case of EVA MILITARU, CRISTINA STROE Social Indicators and Standard of Living Department National Scientific Research Institute for Labour and

More information

Inequality Briefing Briefing Paper No 2 (2 of 3). March 2002

Inequality Briefing Briefing Paper No 2 (2 of 3). March 2002 Inequality Briefing Briefing Paper No 2 (2 of 3). March 2002 Why Inequality Matters for Poverty Felix Naschold (Overseas Development Institute) 1. Introduction After around twenty years of neglect, inequality

More information

Downloads from this web forum are for private, non-commercial use only. Consult the copyright and media usage guidelines on

Downloads from this web forum are for private, non-commercial use only. Consult the copyright and media usage guidelines on Econ3x3 www.econ3x3.org A web forum for accessible policy-relevant research and expert commentaries on unemployment and employment, income distribution and inclusive growth in South Africa Downloads from

More information

Governance, Growth and Poverty Reduction

Governance, Growth and Poverty Reduction Economic & DESA Working Paper No. 75 ST/ESA/2009/DWP/75 June 2009 Governance, Growth and Poverty Reduction Social Affairs Mushtaq H. Khan Abstract Poverty reduction is a function of economic growth, income

More information

Economic Growth for Poverty Reduction in Africa: Recent History and Current Issues

Economic Growth for Poverty Reduction in Africa: Recent History and Current Issues Economic Growth for Poverty Reduction in Africa: Recent History and Current Issues Andy McKay University of Bath, UK Background Paper prepared specifically for the IV Mediterranean Seminar on International

More information

Distributions in motion: Economic growth, inequality, and poverty dynamics

Distributions in motion: Economic growth, inequality, and poverty dynamics Working Paper Series Distributions in motion: Economic growth, inequality, and poverty dynamics Francisco Ferreira ECINEQ WP 2010 183 ECINEQ 2010-183 October 2010 www.ecineq.org Distributions in motion:

More information

1. Purpose and Country Context

1. Purpose and Country Context 1. Purpose and Country Context This Country Program Evaluation (CPE) evaluates World Bank Group (International Bank for Reconstruction and Development [IBRD], or the Bank, International Finance Corporation

More information

THE EFFECT OF ECONOMIC GROWTH ON POVERTY IN EASTERN EUROPE

THE EFFECT OF ECONOMIC GROWTH ON POVERTY IN EASTERN EUROPE ZARZĄDZANIE PUBLICZNE 1 2(9 10)/2010 Zeszyty Naukowe Instytutu Spraw Publicznych Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego Institute of World and Regional Economics, University of Miskolc THE EFFECT OF ECONOMIC GROWTH

More information

Redistribution, Inequality, and Growth

Redistribution, Inequality, and Growth February 2014 SDN/14/X X SDN/14/02 X 1 I M F S T A F F D I S C U S S I O N N O T E Redistribution, Inequality, and Growth Jonathan D. Ostry, Andrew Berg, and Charalambos G. Tsangarides INTERNATIONAL MONETARY

More information

Growth and Inequality: Issues and Policy Implications

Growth and Inequality: Issues and Policy Implications A joint Initiative of Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität and Ifo Institute for Economic Research Growth and Inequality: Issues and Policy Implications Schloß Elmau 18-20 January 2002 The Growth Elasticity

More information

University of Wisconsin Oshkosh

University of Wisconsin Oshkosh University of Wisconsin Oshkosh Oshkosh Scholar Submission Volume IV Fall 2009 The Correlation Between Happiness and Inequality Kiley Williams, author Dr. Marianne Johnson, Economics, faculty adviser Kiley

More information

The International Crisis and Latin America: Growth Effects and Development Strategies. Vittorio Corbo Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel

The International Crisis and Latin America: Growth Effects and Development Strategies. Vittorio Corbo Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel ::: The International Crisis and Latin America: Growth Effects and Development Strategies Vittorio Corbo Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel World Bank Seminar on Managing Openness: Outward-oriented Growth Strategies

More information

Double Master Degrees in International Economics and Development

Double Master Degrees in International Economics and Development Double Master Degrees in International Economics and Development Detailed Course Content 1. «Development theories and contemporary issues for development» (20h) Lectures will explore the related themes

More information

Chapter 6. Inequality Measures

Chapter 6. Inequality Measures Chapter 6. Inequality Measures Summary Inequality is a broader concept than poverty in that it is defined over the entire population, and does not only focus on the poor. The simplest measurement of inequality

More information

The Poverty-Growth-Inequality Triangle

The Poverty-Growth-Inequality Triangle The Poverty-Growth-Inequality Triangle François Bourguignon Senior Vice President and Chief Economist The World Bank * This paper was presented at the Indian Council for Research on International Economic

More information

The Ghana Poverty and Inequality Report 2016

The Ghana Poverty and Inequality Report 2016 I The Ghana Poverty and Inequality Report: Using the 6th Ghana Living Standards Survey 2016 By Edgar Cooke (Ashesi University College, Ghana); Sarah Hague (Chief of Policy, UNICEF Ghana); Andy McKay (Professor

More information

THE PARADOX OF RELATIVE POVERTY, VULNERABILITY AND HIGH HOUSEHOLD INCOME

THE PARADOX OF RELATIVE POVERTY, VULNERABILITY AND HIGH HOUSEHOLD INCOME THE PARADOX OF RELATIVE POVERTY, VULNERABILITY AND HIGH HOUSEHOLD INCOME Chamhuri Siwar & Mohamad Ibrahim Institute for Environment & Development (LESTARI), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Paper presented

More information

Colloquium for Systematic Reviews in International Development Dhaka

Colloquium for Systematic Reviews in International Development Dhaka Community-Based Health Insurance Schemes: A Systematic Review Anagaw Derseh Pro. Arjun S. Bed Dr. Robert Sparrow Colloquium for Systematic Reviews in International Development Dhaka 13 December 2012 Introduction

More information

In recent years political scientists and economists have

In recent years political scientists and economists have SYMPOSIUM The Conditional Relationship between Inequality and Development Carles Boix, Princeton University In recent years political scientists and economists have spent considerable efforts investigating

More information

Poverty and Inequality in Indonesia. From Suharto to SBY

Poverty and Inequality in Indonesia. From Suharto to SBY Poverty and Inequality in Indonesia From Suharto to SBY The Asian Debate on Poverty In Asia the debate on the benefits of economic growth began in the 1970. In Indonesia there were heated debates from

More information

OUTLINE OF PRINCIPLES OF IMPACT EVALUATION

OUTLINE OF PRINCIPLES OF IMPACT EVALUATION OUTLINE OF PRINCIPLES OF IMPACT EVALUATION PART I KEY CONCEPTS Definition Impact evaluation is an assessment of how the intervention being evaluated affects outcomes, whether these effects are intended

More information

Food Price Heterogeneity and Income Inequality in Malawi: Is Inequality Underestimated?

Food Price Heterogeneity and Income Inequality in Malawi: Is Inequality Underestimated? Food Price Heterogeneity and Income Inequality in Malawi: Is Inequality Underestimated? Richard Mussa UN-WIDER Development Conference Helsinki, Finland 6 September 2014 Richard Mussa (University of Malawi)

More information

Dynamic medium term Granger causality between growth and poverty

Dynamic medium term Granger causality between growth and poverty Dynamic medium term Granger causality between growth and poverty Salvador Pérez-Moreno Universidad de Málaga and Diana Weinhold LSE Draft, October 2012 Abstract This paper examines the causal relationship

More information

Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations 2 United Nations Plaza DC New York

Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations 2 United Nations Plaza DC New York 11-33011 -1- Translated from Spanish ECR-449-2011 The Permanent Mission of Costa Rica to the United Nations presents its compliments to the Department of Economic and Social Affairs and has the honour

More information

Impact of Economic Growth on Income Inequality: A Regional Perspective

Impact of Economic Growth on Income Inequality: A Regional Perspective Impact of Economic Growth on Income Inequality: A Regional Perspective Shibalee Majumdar Dr. Mark D. Partridge 314 Agricultural Administration Building, 336 Agricultural Administration Building, 2120 Fyffe

More information

Commentary: What Do Budget Deficits Do?

Commentary: What Do Budget Deficits Do? Commentary: What Do Budget Deficits Do? Allan H. Meltzer The title of Ball and Mankiw s paper asks: What Do Budget Deficits Do? One answer to that question is a restatement on the pure theory of debt-financed

More information

SOCIAL PROTECTION BRIEFING NOTE SERIES NUMBER 4. Social protection and economic growth in poor countries

SOCIAL PROTECTION BRIEFING NOTE SERIES NUMBER 4. Social protection and economic growth in poor countries A DFID practice paper Briefing SOCIAL PROTECTION BRIEFING NOTE SERIES NUMBER 4 Social protection and economic growth in poor countries Summary Introduction DFID s framework for pro-poor growth sets out

More information

Trends and Patterns of Poverty in Bangladesh in Recent Years

Trends and Patterns of Poverty in Bangladesh in Recent Years DRAFT Trends and Patterns of Poverty in Bangladesh in Recent Years Ambar Narayan, Nobuo Yoshida, Hassan Zaman * A background paper for Bangladesh Poverty Assessment (2007) South Asia Region World Bank

More information

Economic Growth and Poverty Alleviation: A reconsideration of Dollar and Kraay.

Economic Growth and Poverty Alleviation: A reconsideration of Dollar and Kraay. Economic Growth and Poverty Alleviation: A reconsideration of Dollar and Kraay. by Edmund Amann, Nektarios Aslanidis, Frederick Nixson and Bernard Walters School of Economic Studies University of Manchester

More information

Inequality Briefing Briefing Paper No 1 (1 of 3). March 2002

Inequality Briefing Briefing Paper No 1 (1 of 3). March 2002 Inequality Briefing Briefing Paper No 1 (1 of 3). March 2002 Defining and Measuring Inequality Andrew McKay (Overseas Development Institute and University of Nottingham) Introduction: The Importance of

More information

TREND ANALYSIS OF MONETARY POVERTY MEASURES IN THE SLOVAK AND CZECH REPUBLIC

TREND ANALYSIS OF MONETARY POVERTY MEASURES IN THE SLOVAK AND CZECH REPUBLIC TREND ANALYSIS OF MONETARY POVERTY MEASURES IN THE SLOVAK AND CZECH REPUBLIC Iveta Stankovičová Róbert Vlačuha Ľudmila Ivančíková Abstract The EU statistics on income and living conditions (EU SILC) is

More information

Growth Is Good for the Poor

Growth Is Good for the Poor Forthcoming: Journal of Economic Growth Growth Is Good for the Poor David Dollar Aart Kraay Development Research Group The World Bank First Draft: March 2000 This Draft: March 2002 Abstract: Average incomes

More information

Springfield Center for Business in Development Durham, UK

Springfield Center for Business in Development Durham, UK Employment, Income and the MDGs - Critical Linkages and Guiding Actions Briefing Paper Author: David Elliott Springfield Center for Business in Development Durham, UK December 2005 Employment and Income

More information

India. Country coverage and the methodology of the Statistical Annex of the 2015 HDR

India. Country coverage and the methodology of the Statistical Annex of the 2015 HDR Human Development Report 2015 Work for human development Briefing note for countries on the 2015 Human Development Report India Introduction The 2015 Human Development Report (HDR) Work for Human Development

More information

The Elasticity of Taxable Income: A Non-Technical Summary

The Elasticity of Taxable Income: A Non-Technical Summary The Elasticity of Taxable Income: A Non-Technical Summary John Creedy The University of Melbourne Abstract This paper provides a non-technical summary of the concept of the elasticity of taxable income,

More information

an eye on east asia and pacific

an eye on east asia and pacific East Asia and Pacific Economic Management and Poverty Reduction an eye on east asia and pacific 9 Rising Inequality with High Growth and Falling Poverty by Manohar Sharma, Gabriela Inchauste, and Juan

More information

Reforming the Malawi Agricultural Development and Marketing Corporation (ADMARC): Poverty and Social Impact Analysis (PSIA)

Reforming the Malawi Agricultural Development and Marketing Corporation (ADMARC): Poverty and Social Impact Analysis (PSIA) Reforming the Malawi Agricultural Development and Marketing Corporation (ADMARC): Poverty and Social Impact Analysis (PSIA) Antonio Nucifora (AFTP1) PRSP Training Course, April 25, 2005 ADMARC (Agricultural

More information

Inequality is Bad for the Poor

Inequality is Bad for the Poor Chapter 2 in Inequality and Poverty Re-examined, edited by Steven Jenkins and John Micklewright, Oxford University Press, 2007 Inequality is Bad for the Poor Martin Ravallion * Development Research Group,

More information

Human Development Index (HDI)

Human Development Index (HDI) Human Development Report 2015 Work for human development Briefing note for countries on the 2015 Human Development Report Iraq Introduction The 2015 Human Development Report (HDR) Work for Human Development

More information

Income Distribution Database (http://oe.cd/idd)

Income Distribution Database (http://oe.cd/idd) Income Distribution Database (http://oe.cd/idd) TERMS OF REFERENCE OECD PROJECT ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF HOUSEHOLD INCOMES 2014/15 COLLECTION October 2014 The OECD income distribution questionnaire aims

More information

Problem Set #4 Answers Date Due: October 25, 2012

Problem Set #4 Answers Date Due: October 25, 2012 Problem Set #4 Answers Date Due: October 5, 01 1. The World Bank data library www.worldbank.org reports the following information on the distribution of income for Mexico in 008. Table 1: Mexico Distribution

More information

Poverty and Growth: Lessons from Uninspiring or negative economic growth contexts

Poverty and Growth: Lessons from Uninspiring or negative economic growth contexts Poverty and Growth: Lessons from Uninspiring or negative economic growth contexts Murray Leibbrandt (SALDRU, UCT) Mapping the Future of Development Economics UNU-WIDER 3o th Anniversary Conference 17-19

More information

Thailand. Country coverage and the methodology of the Statistical Annex of the 2015 HDR

Thailand. Country coverage and the methodology of the Statistical Annex of the 2015 HDR Human Development Report 2015 Work for human development Briefing note for countries on the 2015 Human Development Report Thailand Introduction The 2015 Human Development Report (HDR) Work for Human Development

More information

The Political Economy of Poverty Reduction Policies in Ethiopia

The Political Economy of Poverty Reduction Policies in Ethiopia The Political Economy of Poverty Reduction Policies in Ethiopia Abu Girma Moges A&A Optimum Solutions, Japan abugirma@gmail.com Abstract: Poverty reduction strategies and policies have gained considerable

More information

The 2001 and 2003 Tax Relief: The Benefit of Lower Tax Rates

The 2001 and 2003 Tax Relief: The Benefit of Lower Tax Rates FISCAL Au 2008 No. 141 FACT The 2001 and 2003 Tax Relief: The Benefit of Lower Tax Rates By Robert Carroll Summary Recent research on President Bush's tax relief in 2001 and 2003 has found that the lower

More information

The Life-Cycle Motive and Money Demand: Further Evidence. Abstract

The Life-Cycle Motive and Money Demand: Further Evidence. Abstract The Life-Cycle Motive and Money Demand: Further Evidence Jan Tin Commerce Department Abstract This study takes a closer look at the relationship between money demand and the life-cycle motive using panel

More information

Courses taught in English

Courses taught in English Georg-August-Universität Göttingen Faculty of Economic Sciences Courses taught in English Winter term 2009/2010 Contact: Jan Christian Schinke Georg-August-Universität Göttingen Faculty of Economic Sciences

More information

POVERTY AND GROWTH IN PERU

POVERTY AND GROWTH IN PERU Background Report for Peru s Poverty Assessment Norman Loayza and Rossana Polastri * POVERTY AND GROWTH IN PERU The poverty reduction achieved in Peru during the first years of the 1990s was lost in the

More information

The work by Campbell and others on validity and threats to validity within

The work by Campbell and others on validity and threats to validity within Chapter 5 Use a mixed-methods approach: The logic of the comparative advantages of methods The work by Campbell and others on validity and threats to validity within experiments and other types of evaluations

More information

Social Security in India Lessons from Transfer Mechanisms

Social Security in India Lessons from Transfer Mechanisms Social Security in India Lessons from Transfer Mechanisms Presentation by C. Upendranadh Senior Fellow Institute for Human Development New Delhi, India International Seminar on Evolution and Challenges

More information

Methodological Challenges Resulting From Implementation Weaknesses: The Case of Social Pensions in India

Methodological Challenges Resulting From Implementation Weaknesses: The Case of Social Pensions in India Methodological Challenges Resulting From Implementation Weaknesses: The Case of Social Pensions in India Viola Werner Chair of Political Economy and Development 15 th 17 th April 2015 International Social

More information

Economic Growth, Poverty and Inequality in South Africa: The First Decade of Democracy Haroon Bhorat & Carlene van der Westhuizen 1

Economic Growth, Poverty and Inequality in South Africa: The First Decade of Democracy Haroon Bhorat & Carlene van der Westhuizen 1 Economic Growth, Poverty and Inequality in South Africa: The First Decade of Democracy Haroon Bhorat & Carlene van der Westhuizen 1 1 Professor, Development Policy Research Unit, School of Economics, University

More information

Summary. Developing with Jobs

Summary. Developing with Jobs Do not publish or DiStribute before 00:01 Gmt on tuesday 27 may 2014 Summary Developing with Jobs World of Work Report 2014 Developing with jobs Executive Summary INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION RESEARCH

More information

I M F S T A F F D I S C U S S I O N N O T E

I M F S T A F F D I S C U S S I O N N O T E I M F S T A F F D I S C U S S I O N N O T E April 8, 2011 SDN/11/08 Inequality and Unsustainable Growth: Two Sides of the Same Coin? Andrew G. Berg and Jonathan D. Ostry I N T E R N A T I O N A L M O N

More information

Inequality, Economic Growth and Economic Performance. A Background Note for the World Development Report 2000. Francisco Rodríguez C.

Inequality, Economic Growth and Economic Performance. A Background Note for the World Development Report 2000. Francisco Rodríguez C. Inequality, Economic Growth and Economic Performance A Background Note for the World Development Report 2000 Francisco Rodríguez C. Department of Economics University of Maryland College Park, MD 20742

More information

Some Data on Economic Growth, Poverty and Employment in Ethiopia and Uganda. Presented by Rizwanul Islam International Labour Office, Geneva

Some Data on Economic Growth, Poverty and Employment in Ethiopia and Uganda. Presented by Rizwanul Islam International Labour Office, Geneva Some Data on Economic Growth, Poverty and Employment in Ethiopia and Uganda Presented by Rizwanul Islam International Labour Office, Geneva International Conference on Strengthening the Employment Nexus

More information

The role of development finance institutions in promoting jobs and structural transformation

The role of development finance institutions in promoting jobs and structural transformation The role of development finance institutions in promoting jobs and structural transformation Project Summary Marie-Agnes Jouanjean, Isabella Massa and Dirk Willem te Velde March 2013 1. Job creation, productivity

More information

India: Defining and Explaining Inclusive Growth and Poverty Reduction

India: Defining and Explaining Inclusive Growth and Poverty Reduction WP/14/63 India: Defining and Explaining Inclusive Growth and Poverty Reduction Rahul Anand, Volodymyr Tulin, and Naresh Kumar 2014 International Monetary Fund WP/14/63 IMF Working Paper Asia and Pacific

More information

External Debt and Growth

External Debt and Growth External Debt and Growth Catherine Pattillo, Hélène Poirson and Luca Ricci Reasonable levels of external debt that help finance productive investment may be expected to enhance growth, but beyond certain

More information

The Microsimulation Approach to Policy Evaluation

The Microsimulation Approach to Policy Evaluation The Microsimulation Approach to Policy Evaluation B. Essama-Nssah World Bank Poverty Reduction Group Module 7 DEC Course on Poverty and Inequality April 14-15, 2008 Introduction Basic issues: nature, relevance

More information

Effectiveness of Brief Alcohol Intervention strategies. Eileen Kaner

Effectiveness of Brief Alcohol Intervention strategies. Eileen Kaner Effectiveness of Brief Alcohol Intervention strategies Eileen Kaner Professor of Public Health and Primary Care Research eileen.kaner@newcastle.ac.uk Introduction Scope of alcohol harm Preventive paradox

More information

What Is Poverty and Why Measure It?

What Is Poverty and Why Measure It? Chapter What Is Poverty and Why Measure It? Summary Poverty is pronounced deprivation in well-being. The conventional view links wellbeing primarily to command over commodities, so the poor are those who

More information

An update to the World Bank s estimates of consumption poverty in the developing world *

An update to the World Bank s estimates of consumption poverty in the developing world * An update to the World Bank s estimates of consumption poverty in the developing world * The World Bank has been regularly monitoring the progress of developing countries against absolute poverty. Drawing

More information

Distributional Incidence of Social, Infrastructure, and Telecommunication Services in Latin America. Mariana Marchionni y Pablo Glüzmann

Distributional Incidence of Social, Infrastructure, and Telecommunication Services in Latin America. Mariana Marchionni y Pablo Glüzmann C E D L A S Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales Maestría en Economía Universidad Nacional de La Plata Distributional Incidence of Social, Infrastructure, and Telecommunication Services

More information

Briefing note for countries on the 2015 Human Development Report. Palestine, State of

Briefing note for countries on the 2015 Human Development Report. Palestine, State of Human Development Report 2015 Work for human development Briefing note for countries on the 2015 Human Development Report Palestine, State of Introduction The 2015 Human Development Report (HDR) Work for

More information

Simulating Income Distribution Changes in Bolivia: a Microeconometric Approach

Simulating Income Distribution Changes in Bolivia: a Microeconometric Approach C E D L A S Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales Maestría en Economía Universidad Nacional de La Plata Simulating Income Distribution Changes in Bolivia: a Microeconometric Approach Leonardo

More information

Is Economic Growth Good for the Poor?

Is Economic Growth Good for the Poor? Is Economic Growth Good for the Poor? Tracking Low Incomes Using General Means by James E. Foster and Miguel Székely Department of Economics Vanderbilt University Research Department Inter-American Development

More information

Finance, Inequality and the Poor

Finance, Inequality and the Poor Finance, Inequality and the Poor Thorsten Beck The World Bank Asli Demirgüç-Kunt The World Bank Ross Levine* Brown University and the National Bureau of Economic Research January 26, 2007 Abstract: Financial

More information

Briefing note for countries on the 2015 Human Development Report. Pakistan

Briefing note for countries on the 2015 Human Development Report. Pakistan Human Development Report 2015 Work for human development Briefing note for countries on the 2015 Human Development Report Pakistan Introduction The 2015 Human Development Report (HDR) Work for Human Development

More information

Inequality, Economic Growth, and Poverty in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA)

Inequality, Economic Growth, and Poverty in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) No 195 December 2013 Inequality, Economic Growth, and Poverty in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Mthuli Ncube, John Anyanwu and Kjell Hausken Editorial Committee Steve Kayizzi-Mugerwa (Chair) Anyanwu,

More information

DR. NANCY NELIMA NAFULA MWANGE

DR. NANCY NELIMA NAFULA MWANGE P.O Box 20107-00100, Nairobi ; Mobile:+254 722 331768/ 722594540; Fax-office: 254-20-2719951; Email: nancy.nafula@yahoo.com or nancy.nafula@gmail.com or nnafula@kippra.or.ke; Date & place of birth: 15-2-1973

More information

Briefing note for countries on the 2015 Human Development Report. Philippines

Briefing note for countries on the 2015 Human Development Report. Philippines Human Development Report 2015 Work for human development Briefing note for countries on the 2015 Human Development Report Philippines Introduction The 2015 Human Development Report (HDR) Work for Human

More information

Briefing note for countries on the 2015 Human Development Report. Timor-Leste

Briefing note for countries on the 2015 Human Development Report. Timor-Leste Human Development Report 2015 Work for human development Briefing note for countries on the 2015 Human Development Report Timor-Leste Introduction The 2015 Human Development Report (HDR) Work for Human

More information

Growth Theory Since Solow and the Poverty of Nations: World Bank, April 26, 2006. Daron Acemoglu

Growth Theory Since Solow and the Poverty of Nations: World Bank, April 26, 2006. Daron Acemoglu Growth Theory Since Solow and the Poverty of Nations: World Bank, April 26, 2006 Daron Acemoglu Wealth of Nations Enormous variation in the wealth of nations and living standards across the globe. What

More information

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION FIFTY-SIXTH WORLD HEALTH ASSEMBLY A56/27 Provisional agenda item 14.18 24 April 2003 International Conference on Primary Health Care, Alma-Ata: twenty-fifth anniversary Report

More information

Madagascar. Country coverage and the methodology of the Statistical Annex of the 2015 HDR

Madagascar. Country coverage and the methodology of the Statistical Annex of the 2015 HDR Human Development Report 2015 Work for human development Briefing note for countries on the 2015 Human Development Report Madagascar Introduction The 2015 Human Development Report (HDR) Work for Human

More information

Portugal. Country coverage and the methodology of the Statistical Annex of the 2015 HDR

Portugal. Country coverage and the methodology of the Statistical Annex of the 2015 HDR Human Development Report 2015 Work for human development Briefing note for countries on the 2015 Human Development Report Portugal Introduction The 2015 Human Development Report (HDR) Work for Human Development

More information

100 Questions: identifying research priorities for poverty prevention and reduction

100 Questions: identifying research priorities for poverty prevention and reduction 100 Questions: identifying research priorities for poverty prevention and reduction These 100 research questions would, if answered, help to reduce or prevent poverty. The list includes questions across

More information

Briefing note for countries on the 2015 Human Development Report. Burkina Faso

Briefing note for countries on the 2015 Human Development Report. Burkina Faso Human Development Report 2015 Work for human development Briefing note for countries on the 2015 Human Development Report Burkina Faso Introduction The 2015 Human Development Report (HDR) Work for Human

More information

I am pleased to represent the World Bank Group on this important and critical occasion.

I am pleased to represent the World Bank Group on this important and critical occasion. Burundi Development Partners Conference October 29-30 Geneva, Switzerland Session: Interventions by the Sponsors of the Conference Remarks by Philippe Dongier Country Director: Burundi, Tanzania, Uganda

More information

School of Economics and Management

School of Economics and Management School of Economics and Management TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF LISBON Department of Economics Carlos Pestana Barros & Nicolas Peypoch António Afonso & João Tovar Jalles A Comparative The cyclicality Analysis

More information

Behavioral responses to inheritance tax: Evidence from notches in France

Behavioral responses to inheritance tax: Evidence from notches in France Behavioral responses to inheritance tax: Evidence from notches in France Jonathan Goupille and Arturo Infante 12 février 2015 1 / 70 Motivation Wealth is strongly concentrated Wealth can be transmitted

More information

Implications of Australian Economic Growth for Social Equity

Implications of Australian Economic Growth for Social Equity Implications of Australian Economic Growth for Social Equity Francisco Perez-Arce and Nishtha Mishra RAND Labor and Population WR-1110-ACOLA August 2015 Prepared for Australian Council of Learned Academies

More information

Inequality and Economic Growth: The Empirical Relationship Reconsidered in the Light of Comparable Data

Inequality and Economic Growth: The Empirical Relationship Reconsidered in the Light of Comparable Data CREDIT Research Paper No. 01/03 Inequality and Economic Growth: The Empirical Relationship Reconsidered in the Light of Comparable Data by Stephen Knowles Centre for Research in Economic Development and

More information

DEFAP Graduate School in Public Economics

DEFAP Graduate School in Public Economics 1 RESEARCH GROUP ON INTERNATIONAL & DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS 2 MEMBERS Coordinator: 1. Silvia Marchesi (University of Milano Bicocca) Group Mmbr: Members: 2. Emilio Colombo (University of Milano Bicocca)

More information

The Redistributive Effects of Healthcare Financing in Nigeria 1

The Redistributive Effects of Healthcare Financing in Nigeria 1 The Redistributive Effects of Healthcare Financing in Nigeria 1 H. Eme Ichoku Department of Economics University of Nigeria, Nsukka hichoku@yahoo.com Introduction The deregulation of healthcare financing

More information

Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction: Evidence from Kazakhstan

Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction: Evidence from Kazakhstan Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction: Evidence from Kazakhstan PRADEEP AGRAWAL This paper empirically examines the relation between economic growth and poverty alleviation in the case of Kazakhstan using

More information

The Macroeconomic Effects of Tax Changes: The Romer-Romer Method on the Austrian case

The Macroeconomic Effects of Tax Changes: The Romer-Romer Method on the Austrian case The Macroeconomic Effects of Tax Changes: The Romer-Romer Method on the Austrian case By Atila Kilic (2012) Abstract In 2010, C. Romer and D. Romer developed a cutting-edge method to measure tax multipliers

More information

Does Charity Begin at Home or Overseas?

Does Charity Begin at Home or Overseas? ISSN 1178-2293 (Online) University of Otago Economics Discussion Papers No. 1504 JUNE 2015 Does Charity Begin at Home or Overseas? Stephen Knowles 1 and Trudy Sullivan 2 Address for correspondence: Stephen

More information

Do risk sharing mechanisms improve access to health services in low and middle-income

Do risk sharing mechanisms improve access to health services in low and middle-income August 2008 SUPPORT Summary of a systematic review Do risk sharing mechanisms improve access to health services in low and middle-income countries? The introduction of user charges in many low and middle-income

More information

Tanzania (United Republic of)

Tanzania (United Republic of) Human Development Report 2015 Work for human development Briefing note for countries on the 2015 Human Development Report Tanzania (United Introduction The 2015 Human Development Report (HDR) Work for

More information

SECTOR ASSESMENT (SUMMARY): EDUCATION 1

SECTOR ASSESMENT (SUMMARY): EDUCATION 1 Country Partnership Strategy: Viet Nam, 2012 2015 SECTOR ASSESMENT (SUMMARY): EDUCATION 1 Sector Road Map 1. Sector Performance, Problems, and Opportunities 1. Country context. In Viet Nam, education is

More information

Briefing note for countries on the 2015 Human Development Report. South Africa

Briefing note for countries on the 2015 Human Development Report. South Africa Human Development Report 2015 Work for human development Briefing note for countries on the 2015 Human Development Report South Africa Introduction The 2015 Human Development Report (HDR) Work for Human

More information

Growth and Distributive Impacts of Public Infrastructure Investments in the Philippines

Growth and Distributive Impacts of Public Infrastructure Investments in the Philippines Growth and Distributive Impacts of Public Infrastructure Investments in the Philippines ADB, Manila, Philippines / June 19, 2013 / 14th Annual Global Development Conference / Erwin Corong, Lawrence Dacuycuy,

More information

Finance and Poverty Alleviation: Evidence and policies. Thorsten Beck

Finance and Poverty Alleviation: Evidence and policies. Thorsten Beck Finance and Poverty Alleviation: Evidence and policies Thorsten Beck Motivation Large variation in in income inequality and poverty levels across countries What are policies to reduce inequality and poverty?

More information

PUnited Nations Development Programme

PUnited Nations Development Programme overty INTERNATIONAL Centre PUnited Nations Development Programme Working Paper number 2 August, 2004 ECONOMIC GROWTH AND POVERTY REDUCTION: INITIAL CONDITIONS MATTER Hyun H. Son Department of Economics,

More information

Do International Migration and Remittances Reduce Poverty in Developing Countries?

Do International Migration and Remittances Reduce Poverty in Developing Countries? www.elsevier.com/locate/worlddev World Development Vol. 33, No. 10, pp. 1645 1669, 2005 Ó 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved Printed in Great Britain 0305-750X/$ - see front matter doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2005.05.004

More information