Elements % of living things

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1 1 Name: Date: The Chemistry of Life Living things are made up of matter. Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. Matter is made of tiny particles called atoms. Atoms make up elements. An element is a substance that is made up of only one kind of atom. Oxygen and hydrogen are examples of elements. Matter is often made up of two or more different elements joined together to form a compound. Scientist use a certain symbol for each different element to save themselves (and you, too) time writing out really long names. When written together, the symbols make up a chemical formula. A chemical formula is a way to write the name of the compound using symbols. The symbol for oxygen is O. The symbol for hydrogen is H. In the chemical formula for water (H2O) the small two means there are 2 hydrogen atoms in the molecule. Sometimes the symbols are more than one letter. If this happens, the first letter is always capitalized and the second letter is always lower case. Six elements make up over 97% of matter in living things. Those six elements are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur. The percentage of these 6 elements in living things is shown in the pie graph below. Elements % of living things 3% 0.30% 1.40% 3% 18% 10% 65% oxygen carbon hydrogen nitrogen phosphorus sulfur trace elements These six elements make up the important substances needed for all living things. The substances that are important to life are sometimes called macromolecules. They can be very, very big molecules. They fall into four groups: carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. A carbohydrate is made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. No other types of atoms can be found in a carbohydrate. Carbohydrates are made of little molecules called monosaccharides. Monosaccharide is a fancy word meaning one (mono) sugar (saccharides). Examples of monosaccharides are

2 2 glucose (blood sugar) and fructose (fruit sugar). If you hook two monosaccharides together you get a disaccharide (di- means two, duh). An examples of a disaccharide is sucrose (table sugar) made up of glucose and fructose. If you hook lots of monosaccharides together you get a polysaccharide. Examples of polysaccharides are starch and cellulose found in plants as well as glycogen found in animals. Okay, enough with the fancy names, what do they do for you? They are great for quick energy. What do long distance runners do the night before the big race? They eat a big plate of spaghetti. That s called carb loading and will supply them with the energy they will need to run the next day. So carbohydrates are quick energy. Proteins are also important substances for life. Proteins are made out of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and usually sulfur. These huge molecules are made up of smaller molecules called amino acids. Proteins are used for two different things in you body. They can be used as structural things like muscle and bone. They can also be used for functional things called enzymes and hormones. Enzymes have a very important job in living things. They help a chemical reaction to happen but are not changed by the reaction. Enzymes help the reaction to occur at lower, safer temperature so you will not die. Hormones are chemicals made by your body to regulate the processes in your body. An example of a protein hormone is insulin. It acts like a gatekeeper for glucose to enter your cells. Lipids are commonly known as fats and oils. Lipids are made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Some examples of lipids are butter, corn oil, candle wax, and animal fat. All lipids do not like water. Lipids are huge molecules made of fatty acids. Lipids are really good at storing energy for long-term use. Some hormones are also lipids as well. Examples of a lipid hormones are testosterone and estrogen. Both of these hormones are important for the health of your reproductive organs. The last group of macromolecules is called nucleic acids. They are made out of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus. These atoms are arranged into molecules called nucleotides. Nucleic acids have a very

3 3 important job in the cell. They are responsible for keeping all the information needed to run the cell. The type of nucleic acid that does this is called deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA for short. DNA is usually found in the nucleus of a cell. Another type of nucleic acid is ribonucleic acid or RNA for short. It s a messenger from the nucleus of a cell to the protein factories outside the nucleus.

4 Name: Date: The Chemistry of Life Review 1. What is an example of a lipid? 4 2. What are carbohydrates used for in your body? 3. What elements make up proteins? 4. What is an example of a nucleic acid? 5. What give two examples of a disaccharide. a. b. 6. What is the function of a lipid? 7. What are two things proteins are used for in your body? a. b. Fill in the following table dealing with carbohydrate molecules Number of Name of Carbohydrate Saccharides Example type (sugars) in it Sucrose (table sugar) 12. many 13.

5 Compounds in Living Organisms The compounds your body needs for energy and building materials are carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, and other nutrients. These compounds are present in the plants and animals you use as food. Purpose: In this investigation, you will do tests for compounds and then use those tests to figure out which compounds are found in ordinary foods. Materials: test tubes, droppers, beaker of hot water, hot plate, benedict s solution, biuret solution, brown paper bag, gelatin solution, glucose (sugar) solution, Lugol s iodine, starch solution, salt (NaCl) solution, AgNO3 (silver nitrate) solution, butter, mayonnaise, orange juice, whole milk, egg white solution, Enfamil (baby formula), liver, apple sauce, potato, other food : See data table to make your hypotheses. Procedure: Caution: The chemicals you will use in this procedure may be corrosive, poisonous, and or irritants, and they may destroy clothing. Avoid skin and eye contact; do not taste anything. Should a splash or a spill occur, call you teacher immediately. If any gets in your eye, wash with water for 15 minutes. If chemicals get on your hands, wash them immediately. Note: The full lab ensemble (safety glasses and apron) will be worn while testing your substances. Your teacher will not remind you, if you remove your safety glasses without permission, you will not finish the lab and will get a zero. Part A : Reagent s for Known Substances Scientist use special chemical solutions (reagents) to find out if certain compounds are present. To be able to test for these substances in food you need to know what a positive test looks like. These tests are all made to show you a positive test. Describe the in the data table for known substances. How to do the tests Protein test Place 5 ml of the gelatin (protein) solution in a test tube. Record the color in the data table. Add 10 drops of Biuret solution. Write what happens in the data table for known substances. Glucose test Add 20 drops of Benedict s solution to 5 ml of the glucose test solution. Put your mark on the label. Place the test tube in the beaker of boiling water that is on the hot plate. Be careful not to burn yourself. Wait about 5 minutes. Remove the test tube and record the. Caution: Use test-tube clamps to hold hot test tubes. Boiling water will scald, causing second-degree burns. Do not touch the beaker or allow boiling water to contact your 5

6 6 skin. Avoid vigorous boiling. Should a burn occur, call your teacher immediately. Place burned area under cold running water. Starch test Add 5 drops of Lugol s iodine solution to 5 ml of the starch test solution in a test tube. Chlorine Put 5 ml of the NaCl solution in a test tube. Add 5 drops of silver nitrate. Describe the in the data table for known substances. Fat test Rub a small piece of butter on a piece of brown paper bag. Let it sit for a couple of minutes then hold the paper up to the light. When food contains only a small amount of fat, it may not be detected by this method. Food Substance Gelatin (protein) Glucose Starch Table 1 Positive Results Solution Biuret solution Benedict s Solution Lugol s iodine solution Before test Results After test solution is added NaCl Butter (lipid) Silver nitrate solution Brown Paper Part B ing Food Using your assigned food, complete all of the following tests. Record your as either a + for present or a for absent in the data table. Report the for your food on the overhead. Be sure to copy down the for the other foods. How to do the tests Protein test Place 5 ml of the food in a test tube. Add 10 drops of Biuret solution. Write a + if the test is positive in the data table. Write a if the test is negative in the data table. Glucose test Add 20 drops of Benedict s solution to 5 ml of the food. Place the test tube in the community beaker of boiling water that is on the hot plate. Be careful not to burn yourself. Wait about 5 minutes. Remove the test tube and record the. Caution: Use test-tube clamps to hold hot test tubes. Boiling water will scald, causing second-degree burns. Do not touch the beaker or allow boiling water to contact your skin. Avoid vigorous boiling. Should a burn occur, call your teacher immediately. Place burned area under cold running water.

7 Starch test Add 5 drops of Lugol s iodine solution to 5 ml of your food in a test tube. Write + or in the data table. Chlorine Put 5 ml of your food in a test tube. Add 5 drops of silver nitrate. Write + or in the data table. Fat test Rub the food on a piece of brown paper bag. Hold the paper up to the light. When food contains only a small amount of fat, it may not be detected by this method. Write + or in the data table. NOTE : Wash Hand thoroughly before leaving the lab. Table 2 Food s Substance Protein Glucose Starch Chlorine Lipid 7 Egg Potato Mayo Liver Whole Milk Enfamil Orange juice Apple Sauce

8 Discussion questions: 8 1. Based on your hypotheses, were you surprised by any of the? Explain. 2. Which, if any, of the foods contained all of the compounds you tested (If none contained them all, which food had the most compounds)? 3. Based on your tests, which foods could be used as a source of: 4. a. Protein? b. Glucose? c. Starch? d. Fat? 5a. Did the color of the test food make it hard to see positive? b. Which foods, if any, did the color of the test food make it hard to see positive result?

9 Analysis of Compounds in Common Foods 9 Substance Protein Glucose Starch Chlorine Lipid Egg Potato Mayo Liver Whole Milk Enfamil Orange juice Apple Sauce

10 10 Analysis of Compounds in Common Foods Substanc e Egg Protein Glucose Starch Vit. C Cl - Lipid Potato Mayo Liver Whole Milk Enfamil Orange juice Apple Sauce

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