8 th Earth Science Chapter 5 Earth s Energy and Mineral Resources Name Section 1 Nonrenewable Energy Resources:

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1 8 th Earth Science Chapter 5 Earth s Energy and Mineral Resources Name Section 1 Nonrenewable Energy Resources: is the ability to cause. Some energy resources on earth are being used faster than natural Earth processes can replace them. These resources are referred to as nonrenewable energy resources. Fossil Fuels: Coal: The most abundant fossil fuel in the world is Coal begins to form when die in a area. fuels are extracted from solid organic material. Synthetic fuels can be created from - a sedimentary rock containing The hydrocarbons are extracted from coal to form and synthetic fuels. Coal is formed in basic stages. 1. Dead plant material accumulates in and eventually forms a layer of peat. 2. Over time, and cause the peat to change into coal. Lignite is a soft, brown coal with much less moisture. 3) As the lignite coal becomes buried by more sediment, heat and pressure change it into coal. Bituminous coal is compact, black, and brittle. 4) When bituminous coal is heated and squeezed during metamorphosis, anthracite coal forms. coal contains the highest amount of carbon of all forms of coal. Anthracite coal is the burning of all coals. is a thick, black liquid formed from the buried remains of microscopic organisms. Natural forms under similar conditions and often with oil, but it forms in a gaseous state. Oil and natural gas are hydrocarbons. Marine organisms called die and fall to the seafloor and sediment is deposited over them.

2 Increased temperature eventually causes the dead plankton to change to and after they have been buried deeply by sediment. Oil and natural gas often are found in layers of rock that have become or Because they are less dense than water, oil and natural gas are forced upward. A folded layer can trap the oil and natural gas below it. The rock layer beneath the shale in which the petroleum and natural gas accumulate is called a rock. Coal is removed from the ground using one of several methods of The two most common methods are mining, also called -pit mining, and underground mining. Oil and natural gas are removed by them out of the ground. Two types of underground coal mines are mines and mines. Drift mining is the removal of coal that is close to Earth s surface through a opening in the side of a hill or mountain. In slope mining, an angle opening and are made in the side of a mountain to remove coal. Reserve: A resource is not classified as a reserve unless the fuel can be extracted Recent studies indicate that a new source of which is the main component of natural gas, might be located the like substances known as methane hydrates could provide tremendous reserves of methane. Scientists estimate that more carbon is contained in methane hydrates than in current fossil fuel deposits combined. Nuclear Energy: When the nucleus of a element is split, lighter elements form and energy is The splitting of heavy elements to produce energy is called nuclear fission. Nuclear energy from fission is considered to be a energy resource because it uses -235 as fuel.

3 Nuclear waste from power plants consists of highly elements formed by the fission process. Some of this waste will remain radioactive for of years. Someday also might provide energy for your home. During fusion, materials of low mass are fused together to form a substance of mass. If the end product is not radioactive, storing nuclear waste is not a problem. Fusion of hydrogen into helium would satisfy both of these conditions. However, technologies do not currently exist to enable humans to fuse into at reasonably low temperatures in a manner. Section 2 Renewable Energy Resources: Renewable energy is energy from the Global and ocean are examples of nature s use of solar energy. Thus, solar energy is used when the wind and some types of moving water are used to do work. South-facing windows on buildings act as collectors, warming exposed rooms. Solar cells collect energy from the Sun and transform it into Solar work less efficiently on cloudy days and cannot work at all at night. Some systems use to store solar energy for use at night or on cloudy days, but it is difficult to store amounts of in batteries. is a source of energy. Windmills can be used to generate When a large number of windmills are placed in one area for the purpose of generating electricity, the area is called a Wind is and It does little harm to the environment and produces no However, only a few regions of the world have winds enough to generate electricity. Sometimes wind blows hard and at other times it is too weak or stops entirely. For an area to use wind energy consistently, the area must have a wind that blows at an appropriate speed. Hydroelectricity: To generate electricity from water running in a river, a large concrete is built to retain water. A forms behind the dam. As water is released its force

4 turns turbines at the base of the dam. The then turn that make electricity. At first it might appear that hydroelectric energy doesn t create any environmental problems and that the water is used with little additional cost. When dams are built, upstream lakes fill with and downstream increases. Land above the dam is and wildlife habitats are Geothermal Energy: Geothermal power plants use from the reservoirs to produce electricity. In a developing method, water becomes steam when it is pumped through broken, hot, dry The steam then is used to turn that run generators to make Energy resources that can be replaced in or by within a relatively short period of time are referred to as renewable energy resources. For example, trees can be considered a renewable energy resource. Biomass Energy: Burning is releasing stored solar energy as heat energy. Much of the world still with wood. In fact, firewood is used more widely today than any other type of biomass fuel. Using wood as a fuel has its problems. Gases and small particles are released when wood is burned. These materials can the air. When trees are cut down for firewood natural habitats are destroyed. During biomass fuel, such as is changed to an alcohol such as ethanol. Ethanol then can be mixed with another fuel. When the other fuel is gasoline the mixture is called biomass fuels are more efficient and have more uses than solid biomass fuels do. The problem with this process is that presently, growing the corn and distilling the ethanol often uses more energy from burning fossil fuels than the amount of energy that is derived from burning ethanol. Burning municipal can produce toxic ash residue and air pollution. If more garbage were used for fuel, human dependence of fossil fuels would Burning garbage is a cheap source of energy and also helps reduce the amount of material that must be dumped into When the garbage is burned is produced, which turns water to steam The

5 turns that run to produce Substances such as metals could find their way into the from garbage and thus into the atmosphere. Section 3 Mineral Resources: Mineral Resource: Metals are obtained from Earth materials called mineral resources. Ores:. Generally, the term is used for metallic deposits, but this is not always the case. and are examples of metallic ores. When is a mineral deposit considered an? The mineral in question must be in, It also must be fairly to separate the mineral from the material in which it is found. The process of extracting a useful substance from an ore involves two operations and Refining produces a or nearly pure substance from ore. One method of refining is smelting. is a chemical process that removes elements from the that is being processed. Any mineral resources not used as fuels or as sources of metals are mineral resources. Generally, nonmetallic mineral resources can be divided into two different groups minerals and materials. Many useful are obtained from industrial minerals. Some industrial minerals are processed to make fertilizers for farms and gardens. Table salt is a product derived from, a nonmetallic mineral resource. are made from deposits of corundum and Both of these minerals are hard and able to most other materials they come into contact with. is composed of crushed stone or a mixture of gravel and sand and has many uses in the building industry. Aggregates can be mixed with and to form Limestone is used as stone and as part of concrete mixtures. Rock also is used as building stone. You might know of buildings in your region that are made from

6 , limestone, or sandstone. These rocks and others are and cut into and The pieces then can be used to construct buildings. Mineral resources are Recycling: Recycling reduces the for mineral resources. The recycling process often uses energy than it takes to obtain new material.

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