Foundation Design and Construction for our Structural Brethren Deep Foundation Design Basic Cookbook

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1 Foundation Design and Construction for our Structural Brethren Deep Foundation Design Basic Cookbook A Presentation on Special Foundation Topics to the Delaware Valley Association of Structural Engineers 4 February 2015

2 Today s Presenters Marc Gallagher, P.E., LEED AP Michael Fritzges, P.E. Senior Principal New York Office Project Engineer Philadelphia Office

3 Today s Topics Deep Foundations Driven Piles Types Benefits - Disadvantages Costs Equipment Drilled Piles Types Benefits - Disadvantages Costs Equipment

4 Deep Foundations Introduction When do we use deep foundations? However, we can save 700 lira by not doing borings..and I don t think we need piles anyway.

5 Deep Foundations Introduction When do we use deep foundations? Soft soils such as marsh/wetlands Poor fill in a loose condition Liquefiable soils High groundwater Contamination Very high foundation loads High loads in limited footprint Sensitive adjacent structures (subways) Reduce settlement

6 Types of Deep Foundations Driven Piles Driven into the ground with impact hammer Drilled Elements Drilled hole filled with concrete/grout/steel Other Helical piles Rammed piers

7 Driven Piles Basics Design theory Installation requirements Equipment Problems in Construction

8 Driven Piles - Basics Pile driving has been around for 1000 s of years Pile hammer imparts energy to the pile to drive into the ground Driving into harder material requires more energy More energy into the pile yields higher capacity

9

10 Driven Piles - Basics Advantages Relatively inexpensive $75-$100/ft for steel/concrete $25-$35/ft for timber Numerous contractors Material readily available Equipment fairly standard Equipment fairly low-tech

11 Driven Piles - Basics Disadvantages Practically limited to about 250 to 300 tons with the exception of very large marine applications Vibrations Noise Obstructions

12 Driven Piles - Basics Timber H-Pile Pipe Pile Taper Piles Precast Concrete

13 Driven Piles Design Theory End bearing Side friction Combination Factor of Safety

14 Driven Piles Design Theory Q ult R side R tip Q allow Q ult FS

15 Driven Piles Design Theory End bearing R q * tip tip A tip q 4* N * tip SPT (limited to 40N) L b B Bearing Capacity q tip 2 1 BN cn D c f N q

16 Driven Piles Design Theory q tip 2 1 BN cn c D f N q Sand C=0 Limited to Df = 10 to 20 * Diameter Clay Last term ~ 0 Nc = 9

17 Driven Piles Design Theory Side friction R f * s side A perimeter Sand Normal force & friction coefficient Clay Depends on the cohesion or Su (undrained shear strength) f side adhesion friction

18 Driven Piles Design Theory f s c A k ' * tan s vertical Ca = Adhesion factor relating cohesion to friction along shaft k s = coefficient of lateral earth pressure (generally 1 to 2) fs for cohesive reduces to first term fs for cohesionless reduces to second term

19 Driven Piles Design Theory Sand Q ult ( D N ) A ( *tan f q tip horizontal ) A perimeter Rule of Thumb #1 a 12 pile in dense sand will give about 1 ton allowable capacity per foot of embedment

20

21 Driven Piles Design Theory Clay Q 9* c* A c * ult tip A A perimeter Rule of Thumb #2 Call a geotech for piles in clay

22 Driven Piles Design Theory

23 Driven Piles Design Theory Load Transfer Load shed into soil along shaft and at tip Side friction starts with little displacement End bearing requires significant displacement but can be up to 50% or more of capacity, even for friction piles

24 Driven Piles Design Theory Group effects Acts more like a block than n individual piles Reduced capacity P group P single * n Both axial and lateral Increased settlement S group > S single

25 Driven Piles Design Theory Factor of Safety on a design is directly related to field verification program.

26 Driven Piles Installation Requirements Driven to a resistance Called the pile set Referenced as Blows per inch or foot

27 Driven Piles Installation ENR Formula Requirements Empirical based on 100 years of pile driving experience Input hammer energy (weight * drop) Output required resistance or set (s) Q allow 2* Weight Hammer * S 0.01 Height Drop

28 Driven Piles Installation Requirements Wave Equation Analysis WEAP Computer analysis based on elastic (spring) theories Input hammer type, pile type, soil properties Output a graph showing capacity v blow count Indicates estimated pile stresses CRITICAL FOR CONTRACTOR!

29

30 Driven Piles - Equipment Pile driving rig Base unit is usually a crane Leads hold the pile and hammer Fixed Hanging Hammer

31 Driven Piles - Equipment

32 Driven Piles - Equipment

33 Driven Piles - Equipment

34 Driven Piles - Equipment Hammer Types Gravity Steam Diesel Hydraulic Single Acting Double Acting

35 Driven Piles Installation Problems

36 Driven Piles Installation Problems Vibrations Obstructions (any) Sweep (pipe, tapered, H) Dog leg (pipe, tapered, H) Crumple (end bearing steel) Rupture (pipe, tapered) Breaks (timber, concrete) Yields (steel) Tension cracking (concrete)

37 Drilled Piles Basics Design theory Installation requirements Equipment Problems during construction

38 Drilled Piles - Basics Pile is drilled into the ground not driven Very large diameter and very high capacities possible essentially unlimited

39 Drilled Piles - Basics Advantages No vibrations Limited noise Can penetrate obstructions Small rigs, limited access/headroom Disadvantages Relatively expensive Micro-pile $200-$400/ft Auger Cast $100-$200/ft Drilled Shaft/Caissons $500-$2,500/ft Limited contractors Materials can be limited Equipment is highly specialized Equipment often high-tech Can be required to carry unskilled union contingent (operator, mechanic, etc) who are not familiar with drilling

40 Drilled Piles - Basics Micropiles Auger cast piles Drilled shafts Caissons

41 Drilled Piles - Basics Micro-piles (mini-caissons) 50 to 500 tons 5 to 14 inches Casing, grout and reinforcement Drill with fluid to flush cuttings Pressurized in soil Soil or rock socket

42 Drilled Piles - Basics

43 Drilled Piles - Basics Drilled shafts 500 to 5,000 tons+ Very large diameters, up to 12 feet have been drilled Very high capacity Can be belled at the bottom Drilled with slurry to support hole Installed with casing Temporary or Permanent Difficult in glacial and fill areas

44 Drilled Piles - Basics Drilled shafts

45

46 Drilled Piles - Basics Caissons Really a drilled shaft into rock Large diameters Extremely high capacity-10,000 tons highest to date? Casing and/or slurry for support Rock socket used for capacity

47 Drilled Piles - Basics Auger cast piles 50 tons to 300 tons Typically 12 to 30 inches Larger diameters more common now Fast installation in right environment Relatively cheap Auger is screwed into the ground, concrete injected as auger is withdrawn

48

49 Drilled Piles Design Theory Who designs drilled piles? There is no I in Team Geotechnical engineer = minimum length and diameter of the pile, axial reinforcement Structural engineer = Pile connection and verification of axial steel arrangement

50 Drilled Piles Design Theory Geotechnical - similar to driven piles End bearing Side friction Combination Structural Geotechnical capacity is typically much greater than driven piles, therefore the structural design is often a limiting factor Typical ASD design per building code factors Rebar throughout length extra in socket

51 Drilled Piles Design Theory Micropiles Ignore end bearing because small diameter Side friction only Gravity grouted Pressure grouted Typical friction values from published sources P fs * A

52 Drilled Piles Design Theory Friction Values

53 Drilled Piles Design Theory Rule of Thumb #3 The Mazzo Rule for dense sands f 0.8* N s ave

54 Drilled Piles Design Theory Drilled Shafts End bearing and Side friction Gravity grouted FHWA is the main design manual used Design is the same as for a driven pile, based on adhesion and friction Q ult R side R tip Sand Q ) A ult ( D f Nq ) Atip ( horizontal *tan perimeter Clay Q 9* c* A c * ult tip A A perimeter

55 Drilled Piles Design Theory Caissons A drilled shaft in rock End bearing and side friction Gravity grouted Unit side shear and tip resistance based on strength of intact rock samples Adjusted for quality of rock mass

56 Drilled Piles - Equipment Micropile rig External flush Duplex Reverse circulation Casing Tri-cone roller bit Down-the-hole hammer

57 Drilled Piles - Equipment Expanding bit Numa system

58 Drilled Shaft Rig Drilled Piles - Equipment Kelly Bar Rotary Table Augers Buckets Core Barrels

59 Drilled Piles - Equipment

60 Drilled Piles - Equipment

61 Caisson Rig Drilled Piles - Equipment Cluster drill Permanent or temporary casing

62

63

64

65 Drilled Piles - Equipment Standard Auger Cast Piles Continuous-flight hollow-stem auger Generates high volume of spoils

66 Drilled Piles - Equipment Drilled Displacement Specialized drill bit Compacts sidewall as tool advanced Higher capacities Fewer cuttings

67 Drilled Piles Installation Requirements Observations Drill pressure Speed of penetration Cuttings Rig reactions Grout take Grout/Concrete Properties Video Down hole inspection

68 Drilled Piles Construction Problems Collapse of hole Obstructions Filter cake on side wall Soft bottom Disturbance Seamy rock Unexpected depth increase

69 Other Miscellaneous Types Helical Piles Typically for light loads Foundation repairs for small structures Rammed Piers Drilled hole filled with aggregate that is then rammed Cheap Ground improvement

70 General Installation Requirements Controlled Inspection Record installation Count blows, estimate volumes, watch drill reactions Assess damage/problems Index Piles Confirm conditions across site Test assumptions Calibrate models Load Tests Confirm/Prove capacity

71 Pile Load Testing Load testing required if: Design compressive loads are greater than those specified by Code Design load in doubt Cast-in-place elements with enlarged base At least one load test in each area of uniform soil conditions

72 Load Tests Pile Load Testing ASTM standards (basically same as IBC) Apply a test load and hold for period of time Generally 2x the design load as a minimum (FS=2) Generally 24 to 48 hours (creep assessment) Quick test procedure acceptable in certain circumstances Static Osterberg Cell (O-cell) Statnamic

73 Pile Load Testing Static Load Test Set Up Anchor piles installed for reaction

74 Pile Load Testing Static Load Test Set Up Dead weight for reaction

75 Pile Load Testing

76 Settlement (inch) Pile Load Testing Applied Load vs. Settlement PILE No. K-10-A 0.0 Applied Load (tons) in Elastic Compression (full load transfer to pile tip) Ton Design Load Settlement Approx in in. 0.5 Measured Pile settlement due to applied load in Pile No. K-10-A Tested 2/24-2/25/00 Pile Type: 7-in OD, 0.453" wall Oil Well Casing Grout Filling: 4,000 psi Reinforcement: #20, #14 Design Load: 95 Tons Pile Length:?????? Pile Hammer: N/A - Drilled Final Driving Resistance: N/A - Drilled Avg. of Dial Gage Settlement Elastic Comp. (Full Pile Length)

77 Settlement (inch) in. Pile Load Testing Applied Load vs. Settlement PILE No. 294 Applied Load (tons) Ton Design Load Settlement Approx 0.13 in Measured Pile settlement due to first cycle of applied load in. Elastic Compression (load shed along length of pile embeded in bearing stratum) in Measured Pile settlement due to second cycle of applied load in Pile No. 294 Tested 7/12-7/19/00 Pile Type: 14" Butt Diameter, 8" Tip Diameter Monotube Concrete Filling: 4000 psi Reinforcement: None Design Load: 70 Tons Pile Length: 42' Elastic Compression (full load transfer to pile tip) Avg. of Dial Gage Settlement First Load Cycle Elastic Comp. (Full Pile Length) Ave of Dial Gage Reading for Second Load Cycle Elastic Comp (Load shed along pile within bearing stratum) in.

78 Settlement (in) Pile Load Testing Settlement vs. Time for 200% Design Load PILE No. 294 Time (min) hr 111 hr inches Pile No. 294 Tested 7/12-7/19/00 Pile Type: 14" Butt Diameter, 8" Tip Diameter Monotube Concrete Filling: 4000 psi Reinforcement: None Design Load: 70 Tons Pile Length: 42' Pile Hammer: Vulcan 08 Final Driving Resistance: 50 blows/12" inch/48 hours allowable settlement as per NYCBC Section C (e)(2) 48 hours Ave. Incremental Settlement, in 0.10

79 Pile Load Testing O-Cell Load Test Set Up For drilled piles only

80 General Installation Requirements O-cell O-cell

81 General Installation Requirements

82 General Installation Requirements

83 Pile Load Testing Statnamic Load Test Set Up

84 Pile Load Testing Lateral Load Test Set Up

85 Questions? Marc Gallagher, PE Mike Fritzges, PE Philadelphia New York Miami Washington, DC San Francisco - Houston Doylestown Bethlehem Pittsburgh Lawrenceville New Haven Oakland Irvine Bismarck Cleveland Abu Dhabi Dubai Athens Istanbul Civil Geotechnical Environmental Planning Traffic Natural Resources

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