# Module 5 : Design of Deep Foundations. Lecture 25 : Pile Groups [ Section 25.1 : Different types of pile groups ]

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1 Lecture 25 : Pile Groups [ Section 25.1 : Different types of pile groups ] Objectives In this section you will learn the following Different types of pile groups

2 Lecture 25 : Pile Groups [ Section 25.1 : Different types of pile groups ] Different types of pile groups The different types of pile groups are shown below: Fig.5.41 Different Pile groups

3 Lecture 25 : Pile Groups [ Section 25.1 : Different types of pile groups ] Fig Pile Groups Usually the GL and the base of the piled foundation are made flush with one another. As a result the Pile foundation has a higher load bearing capacity and lesser settlement. This is because the pile in piled raft foundation are in contact with more soil than the free standing pile group.

4 Lecture 25 : Pile Groups [ Section 25.1 : Different types of pile groups ] Recap In this section you have learnt the following. Different types of pile groups

5 Lecture 25 : Pile Groups [ Section 25.2 : Group Deficiency Factor ( ) ; Block Failure Criteria ] Objectives In this section you will learn the following Group Deficiency Factor Block Failure Criteria

6 Lecture 25 : Pile Groups [ Section 25.2 : Group Deficiency Factor ( ) ; Block Failure Criteria ] GROUP DEFICIENCY FACTOR ( ) For bearing capacity, = (Ultimate load capacity of group) / Sum of ultimate load capacity of individual piles) The aim of the designer is to make =100% or 1.0 However for sandy soils, > 1.0 This is because, the soils gets densified due to driving of piles in sandy soil and hence soil strength properties increase. Therefore while starting a design we start with. Since remains same, therefore calculate based on the no. of piles to be used. Compare with In design take whichever value is minimum. Alternatively, is expressed as function of spacing of piles (s) and equated with. Calculate s' for =1.0. Usually, s' is taken as 3d to 8d depending on the soil and pile parameters. Lower the value of s, higher is the lower is the efficiency. Fig Variation of efficiency of pile group with spacing of piles

7 Lecture 25 : Pile Groups [ Section 25.2 : Group Deficiency Factor ( ) ; Block Failure Criteria ] Block Failure Criteria In this case it is assumed that the pile group fails as a block. Where, c is the average cohesion at base. is the average cohesion along pile length (45) The first term denotes the (base capacity) and the 2 nd term denotes (shaft resistance). =0.5 = 9, depends on.

8 Lecture 25 : Pile Groups [ Section 25.2 : Group Deficiency Factor ( ) ; Block Failure Criteria ] Recap In this section you have learnt the following. Group Deficiency Factor Block Failure Criteria

9 Lecture 25 : Pile Groups [ Section 25.3 : Design value of ultimate load ; Settlement of a pile ] Objectives In this section you will learn the following Design value of ultimate load Settlement of a pile

10 Lecture 25 : Pile Groups [ Section 25.3 : Design value of ultimate load ; Settlement of a pile ] Design value of ultimate load For piled raft foundation : The minimum of block failure value and the sum of individual pile capacities. For free standing pile : The minimum of block failure value and 2/3 rd the sum of individual pile capacities. Minimum of block failure value & 2/3 of sum of individual pile capacity Bearing capacity of block plus bearing capacity of 1. Extra width of pile group and times bearing capacity of each pile + bearing capacity of ( area of cap area of pile, n) (46) where is the value at cap base, is the cohesion, and, are width and length of cap Settlement of a pile At centre of pile, (47) where p is the perimeter of the pile and a is the radius from centre of the pile In reality, settlement of a single pile is, where w is the total settlement, is the settlement due to axial deformation of pile shaft because of pile material, is the settlement of a pile tip or point due to load transmitted along pile shaft, and is the settlement pile tip due to load transmitted at pile tip.

11 Lecture 25 : Pile Groups [ Section 25.3 : Design value of ultimate load ; Settlement of a pile ] (48) (49) =ultimate at base (50) d is the diameter of the pile and is the influence factor for tip of the pile, p is the perimeter Generally =0.5 and it is a function of skin friction ( ) Fig 5.44 Variation of

12 Lecture 25 : Pile Groups [ Section 25.3 : Design value of ultimate load ; Settlement of a pile ] Compression pile Z is at any depth, w is the settlement Strain= Fig 5.45 Free body diagram of a compression pile Stress= Force= Where s is the perimeter

13 Lecture 25 : Pile Groups [ Section 25.3 : Design value of ultimate load ; Settlement of a pile ] Elemental force= or Now, where where is the sub grade modules, E is elasticity modules of pile material and A is the cross sectional area. General solution is the values of & are obtained by applying boundary conditions.

14 Lecture 25 : Pile Groups [ Section 25.2 : Group Deficiency Factor ( ) ; Block Failure Criteria ] Recap In this section you have learnt the following. Design value of ultimate load Settlement of a pile

15 Lecture 25 : Pile Groups [ Section 25.4 : Problem ] Objectives In this section you will learn the following Problem

16 Lecture 25 : Pile Groups [ Section 25.4 : Problem ] Problem Determine the total settlement for the pile group shown in the fig Ans : The load is assumed to be distributed in a ratio of 1H:4V on the equivalent mat at a distance of (2/3)rd of the pile length ie (2/3*9 =) 6m. Ref. fig Width of equivalent map = * (6/4) = 6m Length of equivalent map = * (6/4) = 5.1m Udl acting on the equivalent map = 150/(6 * 5.1) = Below the equivalent map it is analyzed as shallow foundation, by dividing it into no. of layers as shown in fig The Effective overburden pressure at center of each layer: = (16.4 x 2) + (2 x 19.1) + (5.5 x ( )) = KN / = (3 x ( )) = KN / = (1.5 x ( )) + (1.25 x ( )) = KN / = (1.25 x ( )) = KN /

17 Lecture 25 : Pile Groups [ Section 25.4 : Problem ] The settlement at center of each layer (s) = Where, = compression index of that layer, = initial void ratio, = height of the layer, = effective overburden pressure at center of the layer, = increase in the effective pressure due to load. Total settlement will be the summation of the settlement at center of each layer. The calculations are given in tabular form in table 7. Table: 5.7 Final settlements Layer no. Depth of the center of the layer (Z ) Effective overburden pressure (s') Increase in effective pressure = (m) Settlement at center of each layer (m) (KN/ ) (mm) (KN / ) Total settlement = mm

18 Lecture 25 : Pile Groups [ Section 25.4 : Problem ] Ans Total settlement is mm. Fig Pile group

19 Lecture 25 : Pile Groups [ Section 25.4 : Problem ] Fig. 547 Pile group settlement analysis

20 Lecture 25 : Pile Groups [ Section 25.2 : Group Deficiency Factor ( ) ; Block Failure Criteria ] Recap In this section you have learnt the following. Problem

21 Lecture 25 : Pile Groups [ Section 25.5 : Negative Skin Friction ] Objectives In this section you will learn the following Negative Skin Friction

22 Lecture 25 : Pile Groups [ Section 25.5 : Negative Skin Friction ] Negative Skin Friction In the weak soil zone pile moves up with respect to surrounding soil. It is same as tension uplift,i.e. surrounding soil moves down with respect to pile. This is known as negative skin friction as shown in figure. It is also known as downdrag phenomenon and occurs when the soil layer surrounding the pile settles more than the pile. Negative skin friction develops when the soft or loose soil strata are located anywhere in between and the pile shaft is subjected to compressive load. Also negative skin friction develops due to increase to effective stresses. F.S.= (Ultimate Pile capacity Negative Skin Friction force )/ Working Load. The net effect is to reduce the F.S. F.S.= ( )/ (45) =, for cohesive soils. where P is the perimeter, is the depth of compressible layer, C is cohesion. = 0.5 P, for cohesionless soil. Fig Development of negative skin friction on piles

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