1 LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CLASSIFICATION OUTLINE CLASS P - LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE (Click each subclass for details) Subclass P Subclass PA Subclass PB Subclass PC Subclass PD Subclass PE Subclass PF Subclass PG Subclass PH Subclass PJ Subclass PK Subclass PL Subclass PM Subclass PN Subclass PQ Subclass PR Subclass PS Philology. Linguistics Greek language and literature. Latin language and literature Modern languages. Celtic languages Romance languages Germanic languages. Scandinavian languages English language West Germanic languages Slavic languages. Baltic languages. Albanian language Uralic languages. Basque language Oriental languages and literatures Indo-Iranian languages and literatures Languages and literatures of Eastern Asia, Africa, Oceania Hyperborean, Indian, and artificial languages Literature () French literature - Italian literature - Spanish literature - Portuguese literature English literature American literature Subclass PT German literature - Dutch literature - Flemish literature since Afrikaans literature - Scandinavian literature - Old Norse literature: Old Icelandic and Old Norwegian - Modern Icelandic literature - Faroese literature - Danish literature - Norwegian literature - Swedish literature Subclass PZ Fiction and juvenile belles lettres
2 Subclass P P Philology. Linguistics P1-85 P87-96 Communication. Mass media P94.7 Interpersonal communication P Oral communication. Speech P Computational linguistics. Natural language processing P Semiotics. Signs and symbols P Nonverbal communication P Language. Linguistic theory. Comparative grammar P Language acquisition P Science of language (Linguistics) P Comparative grammar P Style. Composition. Rhetoric P Discourse analysis P Translating and interpreting P Etymology P Semantics P Lexicology P Lexicography P Linguistic geography P Indo-European (Indo-Germanic) philology P Extinct ancient or medieval languages
3 Subclass PA PA1-199 PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA Classical philology Greek philology and language Medieval and modern Greek language Latin philology and language Classical literature Greek literature Literary history Criticism, interpretation, etc. Translations Individual authors Including: Aeschylus Aesop Aristotle Demosthenes Euripedes Homer Plato Plutarch Sophocles Thucydides Xenophon Byzantine and modern Greek literature Individual authors Roman literature Literary history Criticism, interpretation, etc. Translations Individual authors Including: Caesar, Julius Cicero, Marcus Tullius Horace Lucretius Carus, Titus Martial Ovid Plautus, Titus Maccius Pliny, the Elder Seneca, Lucius Annaeus Tacitus, Cornelius Terentius Apher, Publius (Terence) Vergilius Maro, Publius (Virgil) Medieval and modern Latin literature Individual authors
4 Subclass PB PB PB1-431 PB PB PB PB PB PB1950 PB PB PB PB PB Modern languages. Celtic languages Modern languages Celtic languages and literature Goidelic. Gaelic Irish Gaelic (Scottish Gaelic, Erse) Manx Pict Brittanic group Welsh. Cymric Cornish Breton. Armorican Gaulish
5 Subclass PC PC PC1-400 PC PC PC PC PC PC2700-(3708) PC2813-(2898) PC PC PC PC PC PC PC Romance Romanian Raeto-Romance Including Romansh Italian Sardinian French Dialects. Provincialisms Old French Provencal (Old) Modern patois of South France Langue d'oc dialects Slang. Argot Catalan Spanish Portuguese
6 Subclass PD PD1-(7159) PD1-780 PD PD PD1501-(7159) PD PD PD(2501)-2999 PD PD PD(6000)-(7159) Germanic Old Germanic dialects Gothic North Germanic. Scandinavian Old Norse. Old Icelandic and Old Norwegian Modern Icelandic Norwegian Danish Swedish Scandinavian dialects, Modern
7 Subclass PE PE PE101-(458) PE501-(693) PE(814)-896 PE PE PE English Anglo-Saxon. Old English Middle English Early Modern English Modern English Dialects. Provincialisms, etc. Slang. Argot, etc.
8 Subclass PF PF PF1-979 PF PF PF PF PF PF4043-(4350) PF(4501)-(4596) PF PF West Germanic Dutch Flemish Friesian German Old High German Old Saxon Middle High German Early Modern German Dialects. Provincialism, etc. Slang. Argot, etc.
9 Subclass PG PG Slavic. Baltic. Albanian PG Slavic PG1-499 Slavic philology and languages () PG Slavic literature () PG Church Slavic PG(771)-(799) Bulgarian Church Slavic PG Bulgarian PG Macedonian PG Serbo-Croatian PG Slovenian PG Russian language PG Belarusian PG2900-(3698) Russian literature PG History and criticism PG PG Special periods PG PG PG PG(3100)-(3155) Including texts PG PG PG(3211)-3219 Translations PG Special periods PG PG PG PG Individual authors and works PG Early to 1700 PG th century PG3312 Derzhavin PG3314 Karamzin PG3316 Lomonosov PG3318 Sumarokov PG PG Dostoyevsky PG Gogol' PG Pushkin PG Tolstoi PG Turgenev PG PG3452 Andreev PG Chekhov PG Gorky PG PG PG PG Provincial, local, etc.
10 PG PG(3651)-(3698) PG PG3990 PG PG PG PG PG PG PG PG PG PG Outside the Russian Federation Special subjects Ukrainian Carpatho-Rusyn Czech Slovak Sorbian (Wendic) Polish Lechitic dialects Baltic Old Prussian Lithuanian Latvian Albanian
11 Subclass PH PH PH1-87 PH PH PH PH PH PH PH PH PH PH PH PH PH PH PH PH PH PH PH PH Uralic. Basque Finnic. Baltic-Finnic Finnish Other Finnic languages and dialects Karelian Olonets Ludic Veps Ingrian Votic Livonian Estonian Sami Mordvin Mari Permic Udmurt Ugric languages Hungarian Samoyedic languages Basque
12 Subclass PJ PJ1-(9500) PJ1-489 PJ1-(195) PJ PJ PJ PJ PJ PJ PJ PJ PJ PJ PJ PJ PJ PJ PJ PJ3101-(3971) PJ PJ3601-(3971) PJ4001-(4091) PJ PJ PJ PJ PJ PJ PJ PJ PJ PJ PJ PJ PJ5229 PJ5239 PJ PJ PJ PJ PJ PJ PJ PJ PJ PJ PJ PJ PJ Oriental philology and literature Languages Literature Special groups Christian Oriental Islamic Afroasiatic languages Egyptology Egyptian writing and its decipherment Language Literature. Inscriptions Coptic Libyco-Berber languages. Berber languages Libyan group Berber languages Cushitic languages Semitic philology and literature Assyriology. Akkadian Language Literature. Inscriptions Sumerian West and North Semitic languages Phoenician-Punic Hebrew Language (Biblical and modern) Medieval Hebrew Literature Individual authors and works Other languages used by Jews Yiddish Aramaic West Aramaic Biblical (Chaldaic) Palmyrene inscriptions Nabataean inscriptions Christian Palestinian Jewish Palestinian Samaritan Neo-Aramaic East Aramaic Mandaean Syriac Language Literature East Syriac (Nestorian) West Syriac (Jacobite) Neo-Syriac dialects (Modern Syriac) South Semitic languages
13 PJ PJ PJ PJ PJ PJ PJ PJ PJ PJ PJ PJ Arabic Language Ancient Arabic Modern Arabic dialects South Arabian Ancient Modern Arabic literature Individual authors or works Ethiopian languages Ethiopic (Geez) Amharic
14 Subclass PK PK1-(9601) PK1-85 PK PK PK(201)-379 PK PK PK PK PK PK PK PK PK1651-(1799) PK PK PK PK PK PK PK PK PK PK PK PK PK PK PK PK PK PK PK PK(2901)-5471 PK(2901)-2979 PK PK PK(3801)-(4251) PK PK(4501)-4681 PK PK PK PK PK6101-(6119) PK PK PK Indo-Iranian philology and literature Indo-Aryan languages Vedic Sanskrit Pali Prakrit Apabhraṃs'a Middle Indo-Aryan dialects Modern Indo-Aryan languages Particular languages and dialects Assamese Bengali Bihari Gujarati Hindi, Urdu, Hindustani languages and literatures Hindi language Urdu language Hindustani language Hindi, Hindustani literatures Urdu literature Lahnda2 Marathi Marwari Oriya Pahari Panjabi Rajasthani Sindhi Sinhalese (Singhalese) Siraiki Romani Indo-Aryan literature Sanskrit Individual authors and works Special subjects Translations Pali literature Prakrit literature Modern Indo-Aryan literature Iranian philology and literature Avestan Old Persian Middle Iranian languages Pahlavi
15 PK6201-(6599.7) PK PK6400-(6599.7) PK PK PK6465 PK6475 PK PK6490 PK6501 PK PK PK PK PK PK PK PK PK PK PK PK New Persian Language Literature Individual authors or works Firdawsi2 Ha2fiz.. Ibn Yami2n, Fakhr al-di2n Maḥ mu2d Jala2l al-di2n Ru2mi2 Maulana Ja2mi2 Niza2mi2. Ganjavi2 Omar Khayyam Sa#di2 Afghan (Pashto, Pushto, Pushtu, etc.) Dardic (Pisacha) Kashmiri Kohistani Nuristani (Kafiri) group Armenian Language Literature Caucasian languages Georgian
16 Subclass PL PL PL1-481 PL PL PL PL(490)-495 PL PL PL PL PL PL PL PL PL PL PL PL PL PL PL PL PL PL PL PL PL PL PL PL3512 PL3515 PL3518 PL PL PL PL PL PL PL PL PL PL PL PL PL PL PL PL4601-(4890) Languages of Eastern Asia, Africa, Oceania Ural-Altaic languages Turkic languages Mongolian languages Tungus Manchu languages Far Eastern languages and literature Japanese language and literature Japanese language Japanese literature History and criticism Individual authors and works Local literature Korean language and literature Korean language Korean literature History and criticism Individual authors and works Local literature Chinese language and literature Chinese language Chinese literature History and criticism Individual authors and works Provincial, local, colonial, etc. Non-Chinese languages of China Non-Aryan languages of India and Southeastern Asia in general Malaysian literature Singapore literature Languages of the Montagnards Sino-Tibetan languages Tibeto-Burman languages Tibeto-Himalayan languages Tibetan Himalayan languages Assam and Burma Karen languages Miao-Yao languages Austroasiatic languages Mon-Khmer (Mon-Anam) languages Vietnamese. Annamese Bru, Chrau, Khasi, Muong, etc. Nicobarese Chamic languages Munda languages (Kolarian languages) Dravidian languages
17 PL PL PL PL PL PL PL PL PL PL PL PL PL PL PL Languages of Oceania Austronesian, Papuan, and Australian languages Malayan (Indonesian) languages Philippine languages Taiwan languages Micronesian and Melanesian languages Polynesian languages Papuan languages Australian languages African languages and literature Languages Literature Languages. By region or country Special families of languages Special languages (alphabetically)
18 Subclass PM PM PM1-94 PM PM PM(401)-501 PM PM PM PM PM PM PM PM8999 PM Hyperborean, Indian, and artificial languages Hperborean languages of Arctic Asia and America American languages (Aboriginal) American languages of British North America American languages of the United States (and Mexico) Special languages of the United States and Canada (alphabetically) Languages of Mexico and Central America Languages of South America and the West Indies Mixed languages Creole languages Artificial languages--universal languages Esperanto Picture languages Secret languages
19 Subclass PN PN Literature () PN1-9 Periodicals PN20-30 Societies PN45-57 Theory. Philosophy. Esthetics PN59-72 Study and teaching PN80-99 Criticism PN Authorship PN Technique. Literary composition, etc. PN Translating as a literary pursuit PN Literary history PN Biography PN PN Special relations, movements, and currents of literature PN By period PN Ancient PN Medieval (to 1500) PN Legends PN PN fiction PN Modern PN Renaissance ( ) PN Romance literature PN Germanic literature PN841 Black literature () PN842 Jewish literature in various languages PN851-(884) Comparative literature PN(905)-1008 PN Fables PN Juvenile literature PN PN Theory, philosophy, relations, etc. PN Relations to, and treatment of, special subjects PN History and criticism PN Epic poetry PN Folk poetry PN Lyric poetry PN1530 The monologue PN1551 The dialogue PN The performing arts. Show business PN Centers for the performing arts PN PN Relation to, and treatment of, special subjects PN Technique of dramatic composition PN History PN Special types PN Broadcasting PN Radio broadcasts PN Television broadcasts PN Nonbroadcast video recordings
20 PN PN PN PN PN PN PN PN PN PN PN PN3035 PN PN PN PN PN PN PN PN PN PN PN PN PN PN4390 PN4400 PN4500 PN PN PN PN PN PN PN5650 PN PN PN PN PN PN PN PN PN PN PN PN PN PN PN Motion pictures Plays, scenarios, etc. tic representation. The theater Art of acting The stage and accessories By period Ancient Medieval Renaissance Modern Special regions or countries The Jewish theater Amateur theater College and school theatricals Tableaux, pageants, "Happenings," etc.. fiction Philosophy, theory, etc. Technique. Authorship Special kinds of fiction. Fiction genres History Oratory. Elocution, etc. Study and teaching Debating Recitations (in English) Recitations in foreign languages Diaries Letters (Literary history) Essays (Literary history) Journalism. The periodical press, etc. Relation to the state. Government and the press. Liberty of the press Technique. Practical journalism Amateur journalism Magazines and other periodicals By region or country The Jewish press of general literature Special classes of authors Quotations English French German Fiction Orations Letters Essays Wit and humor By region or country Anacreontic literature
21 PN PN PN PN PN PN PN PN PN PN PN PN PN6361 PN PN PN Literary extracts. Commonplace books Ana Anecdotes. Table talk Aphorisms. Apothegms Epigrams Epitaphs Maxims Mottoes Sayings, bon mots, etc. Thoughts Toasts Emblems, devices Paradoxes Riddles, acrostics, charades, conundrums, etc. Proverbs Comic books, strips, etc.
22 Subclass PQ PQ French literature PQ1-771 History and criticism PQ1-150 PQ Medieval. Old French PQ Modern PQ PQ PQ and prose fiction PQ(781)-841) PQ845 Juvenile literature PQ PQ PQ PQ PQ PQ Old French literature Class here Old French literature to ca. 1500/1550 PQ Individual authors and works PQ To 1350/1400 PQ (14th-) 15th century (to ca. 1525) PQ Modern literature Individual authors PQ th century PQ th century PQ th century PQ th century PQ PQ PQ PQ Provincial, local, colonial, etc. PQ Italian literature PQ History and criticism PQ PQ Early to 1500 PQ Modern PQ4091-(4131) PQ PQ PQ(4186)-(4199) PQ Juvenile literature () PQ PQ PQ Translations PQ PQ PQ PQ Individual authors and works to 1400
23 PQ Individual authors, PQ Individual authors, PQ Individual authors, PQ Individual authors, PQ Individual authors, PQ Regional, provincial, local, etc. PQ Spanish literature PQ History and criticism PQ PQ6056 Moorish-Spanish literature PQ Early to 1500 PQ(6061)-6073 Modern PQ PQ PQ PQ(6155)-(6167) PQ6168 Juvenile literature () PQ PQ PQ PQ6217-(6241) PQ PQ(6265)-6269 Translations PQ Individual authors and works to 1700 PQ Individual authors, 1700-ca PQ Individual authors, PQ Individual authors, PQ Individual authors, PQ Provincial, local, colonial, etc. PQ Spanish America PQ Portuguese literature PQ History and criticism PQ PQ Special periods PQ PQ PQ PQ(9121)-(9128) PQ9129 Juvenile literature () PQ PQ PQ9137 Translations PQ PQ PQ PQ9189 Individual authors and works to 1500 PQ Individual authors and works, PQ9261 Individual authors, PQ Individual authors, PQ Individual authors, PQ Provincial, local, colonial, etc.
24 PQ Brazil
25 Subclass PR PR English literature PR1-56 Literary history and criticism PR57-78 Criticism PR Women authors PR125-(138.5) Relations to other literatures and countries PR By period PR Anglo-Saxon (Beginnings through 1066) PR Medieval. Middle English ( ) PR Modern PR421-(429) Elizabethan era ( ) PR431-(439) 17th century PR441-(449) 18th century PR451-(469) 19th century PR471-(479) 20th century PR st century PR PR By period PR PR By period PR PR By period PR fiction. The novel PR Oratory PR908 Diaries PR Letters PR Essays PR Wit and humor PR(951)-981 PR of English literature PR1110 Special classes of authors PR By period PR PR PR () PR Oratory PR1330 Diaries PR Letters PR Essays PR Anglo-Saxon literature PR Anglo-Norman period. Early English. Middle PR English PR English renaissance ( ) PR th and 18th centuries ( ) PR th century, 1770/ /1900 PR PR PR PR English literature: Provincial, local, etc.
26 Subclass PS PS American literature PS Biography, memoirs, letters, etc. PS Women authors PS Treatment of special subjects, classes PS By period PS th-18th centuries PS th century PS th century PS st century PS Special regions, states, etc. PS North PS South PS West and Central PS PS PS PS fiction PS Oratory PS409 Diaries PS Letters PS Essays PS Wit and humor. Satire PS(451)-478 PS490 Juvenile literature () PS of American literature PS By period PS By region PS North PS South PS West and Central PS PS593 By form PS By period PS623-(635) PS () PS By period PS Oratory PS By period PS669 Diaries PS Letters PS Essays PS Individual authors PS Colonial period (17th and 18th centuries) PS991-(3390) 19th century PS PS PS PS( ) Canadian literature
27 Subclass PT PT German literature PT1-80 Literary history and criticism PT83-(873) History of German literature PT Medieval PT Modern PT PT PT PT(881)-(951) PT Faust legend PT PT PT PT PT PT1371-(1374) Early to Old and Middle High German PT Middle High German PT Individual authors or works PT Middle High German, ca /1500 PT ca PT ca. 1860/70 PT Goethe PT Works PT2026-(2039) Translations PT(2044)-2239 Biography and criticism PT / PT PT PT Provincial, local, colonial, etc. PT East Germany PT Low German literature PT Dutch literature PT Literary history and criticism PT PT Special periods PT PT PT PT(5351)-5395 PT5398 Juvenile literature () PT PT PT Translations PT Special periods PT PT PT PT Individual authors or works PT Medieval
28 PT th-18th centuries PT Cats, Jacob PT Vondel, Joost van den PT PT PT PT Provincial, local, foreign PT Flemish literature since 1830 PT Literary history and criticism PT(6200)-(6230) PT6250 Juvenile literature () PT PT Individual authors or works PT Afrikaans literature PT Literary history and criticism PT(6540)-6545 PT PT6580 Local PT Individual authors or works PT Scandinavian literature PT PT Literary history and criticism PT(7088)-(7089) PT PT Old Norse literature: Old Icelandic and Old Norwegian PT Literary history and criticism PT PT PT Sagas PT Scientific and learned literature PT PT PT PT Sagas PT Individual sagas and historical works PT Religious works PT Scientific and learned literature PT Individual authors or works before 1540 PT Modern Icelandic literature PT Literary history and criticism PT(7420)-(7438) PT7442 Juvenile literature () PT PT Individual authors or works PT th-18th centuries PT th-20th centuries PT st century PT Provincial, local, foreign PT Faroese literature PT Literary history and criticism PT
29 PT7597 Local PT Individual authors or works PT Danish literature PT Literary history and criticism PT Special periods PT PT PT PT(7900)-7930 PT7935 Juvenile literature () PT PT PT PT PT Individual authors or works PT8050 Medieval PT th-18th centuries PT Holberg, Ludvig PT th century PT Andersen, Hans Christian PT Oehlenschläger, Adam Gottlob PT PT PT PT Provincial, local, foreign PT Norwegian literature PT Literary history and criticism PT(8420)-8456 Special periods PT PT PT PT(8600)-(8637) PT8640 Juvenile literature () PT PT PT PT PT Individual authors or works PT th-18th centuries PT th century PT Ibsen, Henrik PT PT PT PT Landsmaal or New Norwegian PT Literary history and criticism PT PT Individual authors PT Provincial, local, foreign PT Swedish literature PT Literary history and criticism
30 PT Special periods PT PT PT PT(9509)-(9542) PT9544 Juvenile literature () PT PT Translations PT PT PT PT Individual authors or works PT Medieval PT th-18th centuries PT th century PT Lagerlöf, Selma PT Strindberg, Johan August PT Tegnér, Esaias PT PT PT PT Provincial, local, foreign
31 Subclass PZ PZ(1)-90 PZ(1)-(4) PZ5-90 Fiction and juvenile belles lettres Fiction in English Juvenile belles lettres