1 Prof. Johan Rockström and Stockholm Resilience Centre comments OWG SDG Summary 1. Overall, we are positive to the improvements of targets and we are generally positive towards the 17 suggested SDGs, which as a whole reflect fairly well the necessary integration of the interlinked social and ecological systems. 2. The targets referring to biodiversity and ecosystems must harmonize with the other Multilateral Environmental Agreements such as Convention of Biological Diversity (and its Aichi Targets), UNFCCC and UNCCD (except from when the OWG s suggested targets are more ambitious). The document could be strengthened by referring to Ecosystem services or if you prefer calling Ecosystem goods and functions. Most services now referred to in the document relate to the provisioning services (food, water etc.), rather than looking at the kind of services that are the basis of ensuring the delivery of the provisioning services such as the regulating (control of diseases and climate), supporting services (nutrient cycles and pollination) and the cultural (recreational and spiritual benefits). It is crucial to realise. See figure 1 below on the bundles of services that ecosystems provide. 3. Goal 8 on economic growth, should preferably add: within a safe operating space [or within the planetary boundaries] and social foundation Some positive remarks: - Biodiversity is now much better mainstreamed into several important goals, such as poverty and hunger - There is more focus on the required changes of the richer segment of the world population which is good - The enhanced focus on the responsibility of rich communities and countries to take action for a sustainable development - The inclusion of waste - Great to see chemicals highlighted - The reference to circular economy - Some kind of regulation of the global financial markets will be crucial - The resilience perspective is stronger in the document now referring to the sustainable management of water resources are KEY - Education for sustainable development - To observe the inclusion of indigenous peoples and their knowledge
2 - Great to see 6.6: ensure sustainable extraction and supply of fresh water, and by 2020 protect and restore ecosystems and aquifers that provide water-related services which several of the Aichi Targets contribute to Some important factors still missing: - Some kind of regulation of public listed and large companies is needed - We strongly lack the word Ecosystem services or if you prefer calling Ecosystem goods and functions. Most services now referred to in the document relate to the provisioning services (food, water etc.), rather than looking at the kind of services that are the basis of ensuring the delivery of the provisioning services such as the regulating (control of diseases and climate), supporting services (nutrient cycles and pollination) and the cultural (recreational and spiritual benefits). It is crucial to realise the variety of services that the ecosystems provide so that we the mental model of the nature itself becomes pluralistic. Figure 1. An illustration of variations in the provision of ecosystem services in ecosystem service bundles with different land uses (adapted from Foley et al. 2005). The picture to the right may very well illustrate a sustainably intensified landscape that includes patches of native vegetation, agro-forests, and buffers such as riparian forests. - The interaction between the ecosystems and its services in providing solutions to sustainable fresh water use, with targets on safeguarding environmental water flows (water for ecosystems) and a target ensuring sustainable use of water for food production (the world s largest water using sector) - Suggested goal 13 on climate change is weak, and not as strong in achieving a specific output as many of the other goals. This goal must ensure global transformation to a low carbon future. Suggestions to improve the document: 1. The targets 2.6 and 2.7 on food waste and production and post harvest losses could be more ambitious talking of at least 50 % 2. Targets 1.8 on biodiversity, add sustainable use after biodiversity conservation is crucial for poverty eradication and should be lifted to position least 1.5 (if you consider the ranking to be in order of significance)
3 3. Target 2.3 should preferably not only talk about productivity, since focusing too narrowly on yield increase may lead us in the wrong direction. It should rather reflect the amount of sustainably produced healthy food. The same applies to 16.9, which also focus too narrowly on productivity. 4. On the URBAN goal, we suggest the following changes, marked in blue below (which has also been anchored within the global network URBES (researchers in Europa and North America), URBIS (global stakeholders and practitioners) and the growing platform within Future Earth (tentatively Urban Earth) Proposed goal 11. Build inclusive, healthy, safe and sustainable cities and human settlements 11.1 by 2030, ensure universal access to safe, healthy, affordable, and sustainable housing and basic services (fresh water, sanitation and modern energy) for all 11.2 by 2030, ensure universal access to safe, healthy, affordable, and sustainable transport for all, expand public transport and improve road safety 11.3 enhance local capacities for integrated, healthy and sustainable human settlement planning and management, particularly developing countries 11.4 strengthen positive economic, environmental and social links between cities and peri-urban and rural areas 11.5 by 2030, reduce the environmental impacts of cities on climate and natural resources and improve the quality of environment in cities 11.6 by 2020, increase by x% the number of human settlements adopting and implementing policies and plans towards resilience and adaptation to climate change and natural disasters 11.7 enhance health, social cohesion and personal security, through ensuring universal access to inclusive and safe public spaces, including well functioning green spaces 11.8 by 2030 ensure that all cities provide disability accessible infrastructure and offer opportunities to enhance the quality of life of persons with disabilities 11.9 protect and safeguard the world s urban cultural and natural heritage 5. Target 12.9 on business reporting should preferably include regulation too. Business must move from Corporate social responsibility to integrating sustainability principles into the core business
4 6. Target 13.3 on climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies should, in order to be in line with UNFCCC include loss and damage as well, where adaptation is no longer possible. (In 2013 the Warsaw UNFCCC COP established an International Mechanism on Loss and Damage.) 7. For goals 14 and 15 we recommend to look at the wordings of other Multilateral Environmental Agreements such as the CBD and its Aichi targets, UNFCCC and UNCCD for synergy and later cost effectiveness in implementation (where other conventions are weaker and/or in line with present wordings and content it is better to use same wording and make a reference). We have made a comparison with the Aichi Targets below to enable such comparison without suggesting any actual change in wording.
5 Comparing OWG targets with the Aichi Targets OWG target 14.3 Address and prevent further ocean acidification 14.5 Support sustainable small-scale fisheries and aquaculture, including by providing equitable access of smallscale and artisanal fishers to fisheries and markets By 2020, eliminate illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing and destructive fishing practices 14.8 By 2020, conserve at least 10% of coastal and marine areas, including through establishing effectively managed marine protected areas, consistent with international law and based on best available scientific information Aichi Target Aichi Target 10: By 2015, the multiple anthropogenic pressures on coral reefs, and other vulnerable ecosystems impacted by climate change or ocean acidification are minimized, so as to maintain their integrity and functioning Aichi target 7: By 2020 areas under agriculture, aquaculture and forestry are managed sustainably, ensuring conservation of biodiversity. Aichi target 6: By 2020 all fish and invertebrate stocks and aquatic plants are managed and harvested sustainably, legally and applying ecosystem based approaches, so that overfishing is avoided, recovery plans and measures are in place for all depleted species, fisheries have no significant adverse impacts on threatened species and vulnerable ecosystems and the impacts of fisheries on stocks, species and ecosystems are within safe ecological limits Aichi target 11: By 2020, at least 17 per cent of terrestrial and in land water areas and 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, especially areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services, are conserved through effectively and equitably managed, ecologically representative and well-connected systems of protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures, and integrated into the wider landscape and seascape.
6 14.9 By 2020, eliminate subsidies which contribute to overcapacity and overfishing, and refrain from introducing new such subsidies, taking into account the need of developing countries, notably least developed countries and SIDS Implement integrated and participatory coastal management to increase resilience of coastal ecosystems 15.1 By 2020 halt the loss of all biodiversity, and protect and prevent the extinction of threatened species Aichi Target 3. By 2020, at the latest, incentives, including subsidies, harmful to biodiversity are eliminated, phased out or reformed in order to minimize or avoid negative impacts, and positive incentives for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity are developed and applied, consistent and in harmony with the Convention and other relevant international obligations, taking into account national socio economic conditions. Aichi Target 6: By 2020 all fish and invertebrate stocks and aquatic plants are managed and harvested sustainably, legally and applying ecosystem based approaches, so that overfishing is avoided, recovery plans and measures are in place for all depleted species, fisheries have no significant adverse impacts on threatened species and vulnerable ecosystems and the impacts of fisheries on stocks, species and ecosystems are within safe ecological limits. The Mission of the Strategic Plan of CBD which includes the 20 Aichi Biodiveristy Targets is: Take effective and urgent action to halt the loss of biodiversity in order to ensure that by 2020 ecosystems are resilient and continue to provide essential services, thereby securing the planet s variety of life, and contributing to human well-being, and poverty eradication. To ensure this, pressures on biodiversity are reduced, ecosystems are restored, biological resources are sustainably used and benefits arising out of utilization of genetic resources are shared in a fair and equitable manner; adequate financial resources are provided, capacities are enhanced, biodiversity issues and values mainstreamed, appropriate policies are effectively implemented, and decision-making is based on sound science and the precautionary approach.
7 15.2 By 2020 ensure conservation and sustainable use of ecosystems, with particular attention to wetlands, including through restoration of at least 15 per cent of degraded ecosystems Aichi Target 8: By 2020, ecosystem resilience and the contribution of biodiversity to carbon stocks have been enhanced, through conservation and restoration, including restoration of at least 15 per cent of degraded ecosystems, thereby contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation and to combating desertification Aichi target 5: By 2020, the rate of loss of all natural habitats, including forests, is at least halved and where feasible brought close to zero, and degradation and fragmentation is significantly reduced. Aichi Target 15: By 2020, ecosystem resilience and the contribution of biodiversity to carbon stocks have been enhanced, through conservation and restoration, including restoration of at least 15 per cent of degraded ecosystems, thereby contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation and to combating desertification And: Ensure also that this is in line with the wording of the Ramsar convention 15.3 maintain genetic diversity of both cultivated plants, farmed and domesticated animals and their wild Aichi Biodiversity Target 13: By 2020, the genetic diversity of cultivated plants and farmed and domesticated animals and of wild relatives, including other socio-
8 relatives including through effective cooperation of national institutions 15.4 By 2030, ensure the implementation of sustainable management of all types of forests and of mountain ecosystems 15.5 Reverse the loss of and enhance forest cover worldwide, increase reforestation by x%, including by providing adequate incentives for developing countries economically, as well as culturally valuable species, is maintained, and strategies have been developed and implemented for minimizing genetic erosion and safeguarding their genetic diversity Aichi Target 7: By 2020 areas under agriculture, aquaculture and forestry are managed sustainably, ensuring conservation of biodiversity. Aichi Target 5: By 2020, the rate of loss of all natural habitats, including forests, is at least halved and where feasible brought close to zero, and degradation and fragmentation is significantly reduced. Aichi Target 7: By 2020 areas under agriculture, aquaculture and forestry are managed sustainably, ensuring conservation of biodiversity. Aichi Target 11: By 2020, at least 17 per cent of terrestrial and in land water areas and 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, especially areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services, are conserved through effectively and equitably managed, ecologically representative and well-connected systems of protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures, and integrated into the wider landscape and seascape. Aichi target 15: By 2020, ecosystem resilience and the contribution of biodiversity to carbon stocks have been enhanced, through conservation and restoration, including restoration of at least 15 per cent of degraded ecosystems, thereby
9 contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation and to combating desertification 15.6 By 2030, halt and prevent land degradation, reclaim land affected by desertification and drought, and improve land productivity and soil quality 15.7 Ensure fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources 15.9 Introduce measures to prevent the introduction and significantly reduce the impact of invasive alien species on land and water ecosystems, and by 2020 control or eliminate the priority invasive species Integrate natural resources and biodiversity values into national and local planning, development processes, and accounts See also UN Forum on forest See UN convention to Combat Desertification Aichi Target 15: By 2020, ecosystem resilience and the contribution of biodiversity to carbon stocks have been enhanced, through conservation and restoration, including restoration of at least 15 per cent of degraded ecosystems, thereby contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation and to combating desertification CBDs: Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization to the Convention on Biological Diversity Aichi target 9: By 2020, invasive alien species and pathways are identified and prioritized, priority species are controlled or eradicated, and measures are in place to manage pathways to prevent their introduction and establishment. Aichi Target 2: By 2020, at the latest, biodiversity values have been integrated into national and local development and poverty reduction strategies and planning processes and are being incorporated into national accounting, as appropriate, and reporting systems.
10 15. Goal 15 should instead be: Halt all biodiversity loss [by conservation and sustainable use], and protect and restore terrestrial ecosystems since halt of biodiversity is at the core 15. An important general point captured in Target 2 and 3 of CBD Aichi targets is related to valuing, accounting and integrating values of biodiversity in development plans etc, and also to phase out harmful subsidies and the redirection of harmful subsidies to positive subsidies for biodiversity. Incentives like this need further attention in the document. 16. Target promote transfer and dissemination of clean and environmentally sound technologies to developing countries, including through the possible implementation of a UN global technology facilitation mechanism, and encourage the full use of TRIPs flexibilities : take away the word possible and change the word encourage to recognize. 17. A comment to target 16.38: We need a deep transformation of societies and the life style of people. The contribution of technology is limited since resources are limited. 18. There is a lack of targets under the Proposed goal 13. Promote actions at all levels to address climate change / Build a climate change goal based on the outcome of COP21 of the UNFCCC. Here: Operationalize of the Green Climate Fund as soon as possible could be one possible valid target. 19. Target 16.9 should also refer to indigenous peoples and local knowledge in addition to research, or refer to the co-production of knowledge from various knowledge bearers such as research, indigenous peoples and local knowledge. 20. Under Fostering peaceful and inclusive societies would gain from including something like an analysis of drivers of conflicts and refugees, such as conflicts regarding natural resources environment refugees. 21. Under Rule of law, effective and capable institutions, add something on adaptive governance 22. Under Proposed goal 15. Protect and restore terrestrial ecosystems and halt all biodiversity loss, it is now empty. A starting point may be: a. In implementation of the sustainable development goals and plans, countries should explore how biodiversity can directly contribute to all sustainable development goals, to ensure an integrated, cross-sectoral approach, of biodiversity actions, in line with the NBSAPs of CBD and in synergy with PRSPS, and action plans the UNCCC and UNCCD. b. Countries should include robust and verifiable baselines and indicators on the status and trend of biodiversity, ecosystems and ecosystem services within their local and national sustainable development plans, in line with the work undertaken under CBDs Aichi Biodiversity Targets and other biodiversity related conventions and international fora such as IPBES and CITES.
11 c. In weighing the trade-offs between investing in biodiversity versus other sectors, countries should consider co-benefits of investments in biodiversity, the long-term costs of inaction and delayed investment in biodiversity and potential lost opportunities, and should consider the effects of these investments on the poor. d. Policy and practices should be better guided by knowledge of links between biodiversity and ecosystem functions and insurance values, and guided by risk assessments with scenario analysis and the precautionary principle. Investments should also be made in better knowledge generation regarding insurance value of biodiversity and better learning processes for adaptive governance of ecosystems to avoid harmful tipping points and regime shifts to increase potential for sustainable development and wellbeing. e. The contributions of indigenous peoples and local communities collective action, efforts and knowledge to the sustainable use and conservation of biodiversity and provisioning of ecosystem services and functions, should be respected and taken into account, including clarifying and respecting resource rights and enhancing their participation in choice and operationalization of biodiversity-related policies and plans. f. Biodiversity action should take account of distributional impacts, to ensure that benefits for poor and vulnerable people are secured. This can also increase the cost effectiveness of actions for conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. 23. A sub goal of goal 8 on growth, could be in a safe operating space [within the planetary boundaries] and social foundation 24. Goal 10 on reduced inequality should more clearly acknowledge the rights to access to and control of natural resources and rights of the poor to the ecosystems services and functions and biodiversity, according to national legislations
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