Distributed Systems Principles and Paradigms. Chapter 12: Distributed Web-Based Systems. Distributed Web-Based Systems. Multi-tiered architectures

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1 Distributed Systems Principles and Paradigms Maarten van Steen VU Amsterdam, Dept. Computer Science Chapter 12: Version: December 10, / 19 Distributed -based systems Essence The WWW is a huge client- system with millions of s; each hosting thousands of hyperlinked documents. Documents are often represented in text (plain text, HTML, XML) Alternative types: images, audio, video, applications (PDF, PS) Documents may contain scripts, executed by client-side software machine Browser Server machine 2. Server fetches document from local file OS 3. Response 1. Get document request (HTTP) 2 / 19 2 / 19 Multi-tiered architectures Already very soon, sites were organized into three tiers. 3. Start process to fetch document 1. Get request 6. Return result HTTP request handler CGI program 4. interaction 5. HTML document created CGI process 3 / 19 3 / 19

2 services At a certain point, people started recognizing that it is was more than just user site interaction: sites could offer services to other sites standardization is then badly needed. Look up a service machine application Server machine Server application Publish service Stub Stub Communication subsystem Generate stub from WSDL SOAP Communication subsystem Generate stub from WSDL Service Service Service (WSDL) (WSDL) (WSDL) Directory service (UDDI) 4 / 19 4 / 19 Apache : More than 52% of all 185 million sites are Apache. The is internally organized more or less according to the steps needed to process an HTTP request. Module Module Function Module Hook Hook Hook Hook Link between function and hook Functions called per hook Apache core Request Response 5 / 19 5 / 19 Server clusters Essence To improve performance and availability, WWW s are often clustered in a way that is transparent to clients. LAN Front end Front end handles all incoming requests and outgoing s Request Response 6 / 19 6 / 19

3 Server clusters Problem The front end may easily get overloaded, so that special measures need to be taken. Transport-layer switching: Front end simply passes the TCP request to one of the s, taking some performance metric into account. distribution: Front end reads the content of the HTTP request and then selects the best. 7 / 19 7 / 19 Server Clusters Question Why can content-aware distribution be so much better? 6. Server s 5. Forward other messages Distributor 3. Hand of TCP connection f Other messages Setup request Switch 1. Pass setup request to a distributor 4. Inform switch Distributor Dispatcher 2. Dispatcher selects 8 / 19 8 / 19 proxy caching Basic idea Sites install a separate proxy that handles all outgoing requests. Proxies subsequently incoming documents. -consistency protocols: Always verify validity by contacting Age-based consistency: T expire = α (T d T last modified ) + T d 9 / 19 9 / 19

4 proxy caching Basic idea (cnt d) Cooperative caching, by which you first check your neighbors on a miss 3. Forward request to 1. Look in local proxy proxy 2. Ask neighboring proxy s proxy HTTP Get request 10 / / 19 Replication in hosting systems By-and-large, hosting systems are adopting replication to increase performance. Much research is done to improve their organization. Follows the lines of self-managing systems. Uncontrollable parameters (disturbance / noise) Initial configuration Corrections +/Replica placement +/Consistency enforcement hosting system Observed output +/Request routing Reference input Metric estimation Analysis Measured output Adjustment triggers 11 / / 19 Handling flash crowds We need dynamic adjustment to balance resource usage. Flash crowds introduce a serious problem. 2 days (a) 2 days (b) 6 days (c) 2.5 days (d) 12 / / 19

5 Server replication Content Delivery Network CDNs act as hosting services to replicate documents across the Internet providing their customers guarantees on high availability and performance (example: Akamai). CDN 6. Get embedded documents (if not already d) 5. Get embedded documents Return IP address client-best CDN DNS 4 DNS lookups 3 7. Embedded documents 1. Get base document 2. Document with refs to embedded documents Origin Regular DNS system 13 / / 19 Replication of applications Replication becomes more difficult when dealing with databses and such. No single best solution. Assumption Updates are carried out at origin, and propagated to edge s. 14 / / 19 Replication of applications: normal Edge- side Origin- side templates 15 / / 19

6 Replication of applications Alternative solutions Full replication: high read/write ratio, often in combination with complex queries. Partial replication: high read/write ratio, but in combination with simple queries caching: Check for queries at local, and subscribe for invalidations at the. Works good with range queries and complex queries. caching: Simply the result of previous queries. Works great with simple queries that address unique results (e.g., no range queries). Question What can be said about replication vs. performance? 16 / / 19 Replication apps.: full/partial replication Edge- side Origin- side templates 17 / / 19 Replication apps.: content-aware caching Edge- side Origin- side templates 18 / / 19

7 Replication apps.: content-blind caching Edge- side Origin- side templates 19 / / 19

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