Verification by Equipment or End-Use Metering Protocol

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1 Verfcaton by Equpment or End-Use Meterng Protocol May 2012

2 Verfcaton by Equpment or End-Use Meterng Protocol Verson 1.0 May 2012 Prepared for Bonnevlle Power Admnstraton Prepared by Research Into Acton, Inc. Quantum Energy Servces & Technologes, Inc. (QuEST) Stetz Consultng, LLC Kolderup Consultng Warren Energy Engneerng, LLC Left Fork Energy, Inc. Schller Consultng, Inc. Contract Number

3 Table of Contents 1. Introducton Purpose Background Overvew of Method Descrpton Applcablty Constant Load, Tmed Schedule (CLTS) Constant Load, Varable Schedule (CLVS) Varable Load, Tmed Schedule (VLTS) Varable Load, Varable Schedule (VLVS) Advantages of Ths Protocol Dsadvantages of Ths Protocol Algorthms Basc Procedure Equatons Measurement and Montorng Constant Loads Varable Loads Tmed Schedule Varable Schedule Uncertanty Constant Loads Varable Loads Tmed Schedule Varable Schedule Mnmum Reportng Requrements Measurement and Verfcaton Plan Essental Elements of the Measurement and Verfcaton Plan M&V Plan Addtonal Elements Documentaton for BPA Data Verfcaton by Equpment or End-Use Meterng Protocol

4 6.2. Savngs Verfcaton Report General Verfcaton Report Requrements Based on IPMVP Addtonal Savngs Verfcaton Report Requrements Examples Example 1: Smple Pump Motor Replacement (Opton B: ECM Reduces Load) Overvew M&V Approach Algorthm Annual Savngs Example 2: Automoble Factory Pant Shop Exhaust Fans (Opton A: ECM Reduces Schedule) Overvew M&V Approach Algorthm Annual Savngs Example 3: Supply Fan IGV to VSD Converson (Improved Fan Effcency) Overvew M&V Approach Algorthm Annual Savngs Example 4: Constant Volume Blower to Varable Volume Overvew M&V Approach Algorthm Annual Savngs References and Resources Verfcaton by Equpment or End-Use Meterng Protocol

5 1. Introducton 1.1. Purpose Ths document presents a Verfcaton by Equpment or End-Use Meterng Protocol 1 as a complement to the Measurement and Verfcaton (M&V) protocols used by the Bonnevlle Power Admnstraton (BPA). The Verfcaton by Equpment or End-Use Meterng Protocol asssts the engneer n solatng the equpment or end use to be targeted and selectng how many of what types of ponts to montor or meter when t would not be cost-effectve to montor or meter all ponts, leadng to specfc M&V algorthms to verfy the project s savngs. It s ntended for measures that change load or operatng hours, or both load and hours. Savngs can be large or small. The protocol can handle non-nteractve measures and nteractve measures n some crcumstances. It s adherent wth IPMVP Optons A and B. Ths document s one of many produced by BPA to drect M&V actvtes. The Measurement and Verfcaton (M&V) Protocol Selecton Gude and Example M&V Plan provdes the regon wth an overvew of all of BPA s M&V protocols, applcaton gudes, and reference gudes, and gves drecton as to the approprate document for a gven energy effcency project. The document Glossary for M&V: Reference Gude defnes terms used n the collecton of BPA M&V protocols and gudes. Chapter 8 of ths protocol provdes full ctatons (and web locatons, where applcable) of documents referenced Background In 2009, BPA contracted wth a team led by Research Into Acton, Inc. to assst the organzaton n revsng the M&V protocols t uses to assure energy savngs for the custom projects t accepts from ts customer utltes. The team has conducted two phases of research and protocol development under the contract, Number In the frst phase, Research Into Acton drected a team comprsed of: Quantum Energy Servces & Technologes, Inc. (QuEST), led by Davd Jump, Ph.D., PE and asssted by Wllam E. Koran, PE; Left Fork Energy, Inc., the frm of Dakers Gowans, PE; Warren Energy Engneerng, LLC, the frm of Kevn Warren, PE; Schller Consultng, Inc., the frm of Steven Schller, PE; and Stetz Consultng, LLC, the frm of Mark Stetz, PE. 1 Herenafter, End-Use Meterng Protocol. Verfcaton by Equpment or End-Use Meterng Protocol 1

6 In the second phase, Research Into Acton drected a team comprsed of: Davd Jump, Ph.D., PE, Wllam E. Koran, PE, and Davd Zankowsky of QuEST; Mark Stetz, PE, CMVP, of Stetz Consultng; Erk Kolderup, PE, LEED AP, of Kolderup Consultng; and Kevn Warren, PE, of Warren Energy Engneerng. The Research Into Acton team was led by Jane S. Peters, Ph.D., and Marjore McRae, Ph.D. Assstng Drs. Peters and McRae were Robert Scholl, Joe Van Clock, Mersha Spahc, Anna Km, Alexandra Dunn, Ph.D., and Kathleen Gyg, Ph.D. For BPA, Todd Amundson, PE, drected the M&V protocol research and development actvtes. Mr. Amundson was workng under the drecton of Ryan Fede, PE, and was asssted by BPA engneers. Mr. Amundson coordnated ths work wth protocol development work undertaken by the Regonal Techncal Forum. In addton, Mr. Amundson obtaned feedback from regonal stakeholders. Dr. Davd Jump s the prmary author of ths Verfcaton by Equpment or End-Use Meterng Protocol; team members revewed and provded gudance. Verfcaton by Equpment or End-Use Meterng Protocol 2

7 2. Overvew of Method 2.1. Descrpton Ths protocol provdes gudance to verfy energy savngs for energy conservaton measures (ECMs) performed on equpment or end uses. The methods outlned are useful when the savngs for an ECM are too small to be resolved wth whole-buldng or faclty energy meters, or for stand-alone equpment as may be found n the commercal, ndustral, and agrcultural sectors. It may also be appled to some new constructon ECMs affectng equpment or end uses, as demonstrated n the BPA End-Use Meterng Absent Baselne Measurement: An M&V Protocol Applcaton Gude. 2 Verfyng savngs from ECMs that nvolve multple peces of equpment wth nteractons among multple or complex energy flow paths are not good applcatons for ths protocol. The methods n ths End-Use Meterng Protocol are d on and extend the descrptons of retroft solaton approaches found n ASHRAE Gudelne and ts Annex E for Retroft Isolaton, as well as work from Texas A&M s Energy Systems Laboratory. 3 These documents focus on equpment or end uses drectly affected by the ECM, such as fans, pumps, motors, lghtng, chllers, and bolers typcally found n facltes, whether as stand-alone equpment or as a component of a system. In ths protocol, the lne energy use characterstcs of the equpment or end use are broken down nto load and hours-of-use components, and whether these components may be consdered constant or varable. The mpact of the ECM s used to determne the expected -nstallaton energy-use characterstcs. When both lne and -nstallaton energy-use characterstcs are known, measurement and montorng actvtes can be planned, mplemented, and analyzed to determne savngs. Dependng on avalable resources and M&V budget constrants, ths method may be used n an IPMVP 4 Opton A or an Opton B approach. Opton A s a key parameter measurement approach, n whch only the most unknown or uncertan quanttes are measured whle other parameters may be relably estmated. Under Opton B, all parameters are measured. To allevate stran on budgets and resources, ths protocol s flexble to allow use of readly avalable nformaton, such as nameplate data, equpment specfcatons, and manufacturer s performance curves. Ths nformaton may be valdated wth one-tme spot measurements or more rgorously wth multple measurements over the equpment s performance range, dependng on project requrements Herenafter, Absent Baselne Applcaton Gude. For example: Revew of Methods for Measurng and Verfyng Savngs from Energy Conservaton Retrofts to Exstng Buldngs, Haberl, J.S. and C. H. Culp, Energy Systems Laboratory. Internatonal Performance Measurement and Verfcaton Protocol (IPMVP). Verfcaton by Equpment or End-Use Meterng Protocol 3

8 The Opton A approach provdes a means to apply ths protocol to new constructon ECMs. In new constructon, there s no lne equpment to measure load or hours-of-use. However, these parameters may be estmated usng the manufacturer s specfcatons, well-founded and documented engneerng assumptons, or relevant codes and standards that descrbe mnmum performance levels for new buldngs and systems. The BPA Absent Baselne Applcaton Gude demonstrates the approprate method. Implementng ths protocol requres collectng data for mportant parameters, such as operatng hours, fuel use, energy, demand, flud flow, or temperatures. Sometmes these data are avalable on a faclty energy management system, but frequently stand-alone data loggers must be deployed for some perod. Collecton of feld data s a tme and cost consderaton that must be addressed when mplementng ths protocol Applcablty Ths protocol s applcable for equpment or end uses that meet the followng crtera: Loads such as ar or water flow, Btu/h, coolng tons, conveyance delvery rates, and so on that may be solated and measured (or estmated f usng an Opton A approach, see below) and ther relatonshps to the energy use rates (.e., kw) are known or may be developed through engneerng and statstcal relatonshps. Varable equpment operatng schedules may be represented accurately by bnned load frequency dstrbutons (see below). Energy flows n and out of measurement boundares are few and/or straghtforward to account for through estmatons or measurements, and there are neglgble nteractve effects or nteractve effects are ntentonally left out of the M&V scope of work. End uses that nclude multple peces of equpment but have energy characterstcs smlar to a sngle pece of equpment whch s applcable under ths protocol for example, a constant volume ar handlng system where both supply and return fans are wthn the measurement boundary. As descrbed above, the energy-use characterstcs of equpment or end uses are defned accordng to ther load and hours-of-use components, and whether they are constant or varable. Ths provdes the bass for whch measurements and estmatons may be made. Ths protocol s applcable to equpment or end uses that can be classfed accordng these defntons. For brevty, the term equpment wll be used, although the phrase equpment and end uses may be used nterchangeably. Followng are descrptons of the four load and hours-of-use categores: constant load, tmed schedule (CLTS); constant load, varable schedule (CLVS); varable load, tmed schedule (VLTS); and varable load, varable schedule (VLVS). 5 5 We use slghtly dfferent terms than the namng conventon n ASHRAE Gudelne Secton The Gudelne s terms for these same condtons are: Constant Load, Constant Use; Constant Load, Varable Use; Varable Load, Constant Use; and Varable Load, Varable Use. Verfcaton by Equpment or End-Use Meterng Protocol 4

9 Constant Load, Tmed Schedule (CLTS) CLTS ncludes equpment wth constant load and constant hours-of-use, as depcted n Fgure 2-1. The degree to whch a load or hours-of-use s constant may be defned by the user; ASHRAE s Gudelne ndcates a 5% lmt n the varance 6 of load or hours-of-use to be consdered constant. In ths category, the measured energy use rate (kw) s often used drectly n calculatons, after verfyng that the load s constant. Fgure 2-1: Load and Hours-of-Use Characterstcs of CLTS Equpment hours = constant kw Hours Load 0% 100% Load Examples of equpment wth CLTS operatng characterstcs nclude: 1. Lghtng under tme-clock control 2. Constant volume ar handlng unts under tme-clock control (fan energy savngs only) 3. Water treatment plant pump operaton (24/7) 4. Constant-speed computer room ar-handlng unt fan operaton (24/7) 5. Water fountan pumps Constant Load, Varable Schedule (CLVS) CLVS ncludes equpment wth constant load and varyng hours-of-use, as depcted n Fgure 2-2. There are two bns n the load frequency dstrbuton; however, the total number of hours n each bn s unknown. 6 For the purposes of ths protocol, ths varance s defned as the coeffcent of varaton of the standard devaton: CV(STD). It s calculated by CV(STD) = σ/, where σ = standard devaton about the mean value, and = mean of measured values. Verfcaton by Equpment or End-Use Meterng Protocol 5

10 Fgure 2-2: Load and Hours-of-Use Characterstcs for CLVS Equpment hours =? kw Hours Load 0% 100% Load Examples of equpment wth CLVS operatng characterstcs nclude: 1. Elevators 2. Lghtng under occupancy-sensor control 3. Constant-speed coolng tower fan operaton (schedule vares wth temperature) 4. Hot water or chlled water pumpng, no VFD (schedule vares wth boler/chller operaton) 5. Auto factory pant-shop exhaust fans Varable Load, Tmed Schedule (VLTS) VLTS ncludes equpment wth varyng load and constant hours-of-use, as depcted n Fgure 2-3. Whle the total number of operaton hours s constant, the equpment may spend a fxed number of hours at dfferent loads; ths s the bass of the multple percentage load bns n the load frequency dstrbuton (chart on rght-hand sde). The load curve (chart on left hand sde) may be obtaned from engneerng models, manufacturer s performance curves or data, or emprcal relatonshps (regressons) developed from montored data. The energy use rate (kw) s a functon of the load and the load tself may be a functon of other parameters. Fgure 2-3: Load and Hours-of-Use Characterstcs for VLTS Equpment hours = constant kw Hours Load 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Load Verfcaton by Equpment or End-Use Meterng Protocol 6

11 Examples of equpment wth VLTS operatng characterstcs nclude: 1. B-level lghtng under tme-clock control at each level 2. Varable volume ar-handlng unt fans under tme-clock control for specfc flow levels 3. Wastewater treatment plant ar blowers mantanng constant dssolved oxygen level (24/7) 4. Industral 2-speed coolng tower fan operaton (speeds controlled by process) 5. Computer room ar-condtonng unt operaton (condenser unt on roof) Varable Load, Varable Schedule (VLVS) VLVS ncludes equpment wth varyng load and varyng hours-of-use, as depcted n Fgure 2-4. In ths case, the total number of hours of operaton and the number n each percentage load bn are unknown. Load curves may be developed as descrbed above for VLTS. Fgure 2-4: Load and Hours-of-Use Characterstcs for VLVS Equpment hours =? kw Hours Load 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Load Examples of equpment wth VLVS operatng characterstcs nclude: 1. Varable ar volume ar handlng unt (AHU) under thermostat control 2. Hot-water boler servng reheat cols n zones 3. Chlled water system mantanng a chlled water supply set pont reset schedule 4. Industral compressed-ar system varable frequency drve (VFD) compressor 5. VFD controls on an rrgaton pump 2.3. Advantages of ths Protocol Use of ths End-Use Meterng Protocol has several advantages: The protocol enables verfcaton of ECMs on specfc equpment through the use of data and nformaton that was used to develop the savngs estmates. Verfcaton by Equpment or End-Use Meterng Protocol 7

12 When the resoluton of the project s savngs aganst the whole-buldng or meter lne must be sgnfcant, ths protocol s more advantageous over whole-buldng methods. Under Opton A, ths protocol allows use of the abundant techncal nformaton from manufacturers, such as equpment performance curves, desgn and nameplate nformaton, and so on. Many of the measurements requred by ths protocol can be acheved n a relatvely short tme perod. The methods descrbed here may be appled to more complcated systems, as long as ther operatonal characterstcs fall nto the categores dentfed above. The methods allow uncertanty n the savngs estmates to be quantfed, should that be a project requrement Dsadvantages of ths Protocol Ths protocol s not approprate for multple ECMs nstalled throughout a buldng, where a whole-buldng approach s more approprate. The methods descrbed here do not account for energy nteractons, such as heatng savngs from a lghtng retroft project. Projects wth hghly randomzed load and schedule characterstcs may not be approprate for ths methodology. Verfcaton by Equpment or End-Use Meterng Protocol 8

13 3. Algorthms 3.1. Basc Procedure Characterzng the equpment s energy-use propertes nto constant or varable load and hoursof-use facltates development of the M&V Plan for each project. The fundamental procedure s: 1. Identfy whch of the four categores CLTS, VLTS, CLVS, or VLVS best represents the lne equpment s load and hours-of-use characterstcs. 2. Determne the mpact the ECM wll have on the equpment s load or hours-of-use. Determne f t wll change the load or hours-of use, or change them from constant to varable. 3. Identfy whch of the four categores best represents the antcpated -nstallaton equpment s load and hours-of-use characterstcs. 4. Identfy the most approprate equatons to be used to determne energy savngs 5. Determne the relatonshps between load and hours-of-use terms n the energy savngs equaton and other parameters, such as temperature, ar or water flow, pressure, and so on. 6. Identfy and collect the requred data n the respectve lne and -mplementaton perods. 7. Calculate energy savngs usng equatons and tps as provded below. Dependng on varous factors, such as avalable montorng resources, savngs magntude, requred accuracy, and so on, an IPMVP Opton A Retroft Isolaton: Key Parameter Measurement or Opton B Retroft Isolaton: All Parameter Measurement methodology may be used. Under Opton A, key parameters for measurement are dentfed and the other parameters to the savngs calculaton may be estmated d on relable sources. The key parameters to be measured are normally the most uncertan or unknown parameters. Relable sources nclude past measurements, manufacturer specfcatons and performance curves, lghtng wattage tables, and so on. Note that n the categores defned above, load and hours-of-use may depend on many other parameters, both constant and tme-varyng, and Opton A allows judcous selecton among these parameters for measurement. As a smple example, an ECM conssts of a lghtng occupancy sensor controllng lghtng n a general offce area. The fxture wattage (load) may be estmated d on a lghtng wattage table, but the actual hours of operaton of the fxture are measured wth lghtng status loggers. Note that Opton A does not allow both load and hours-of-use parameters (ncludng all ther sub-parameters) to be estmated; key parameters must be dentfed and measured. (See below for recommended measurement strateges.) Verfcaton by Equpment or End-Use Meterng Protocol 9

14 Under Opton B, both load and hours-of-use parameters must be measured. The amount and duraton of meterng depends on the equpment s load and hours-of-use characterstcs. For varable load or hours-of-use systems, t s mportant to capture data over as much of the operaton range as possble. Energy consumpton s usually expressed on an annual bass. However, varable load or varable hours-of-use equpment often range through ther normal operatng cycles over much shorter tme perods. Unless the requred data s collected for other reasons, t s costly and mpractcal to montor data for a full year. Results from shorter montorng perods must be extrapolated to determne annual use. Ths ntroduces uncertanty nto the calculatons, especally f there are seasonal effects on energy use. A general rule to mnmze uncertanty s to collect as much data as possble to lessen the amount of extrapolaton requred. Table 3-1 lsts the suggested sources of data for each of the four categores, showng how some parameters may be estmated under Opton A and measured under Opton B. As stated above, only one parameter may be estmated under Opton A; the other parameter must be measured. The measurement strateges under Opton B n the table may be used for these purposes. Table 3-1: Opton A and Opton B Data Sources and Measurement Strateges by Category Opton Parameter Data Source / Measurement Strategy Constant Load, Tmed Schedule (CLTS) Opton A Load Nameplate nformaton Hours-of-Use Equpment specfcatons Faclty/equpment operaton logs Intervews wth faclty operators Opton B Load Spot measurement Hours-of-Use Average of multple measurements Data logger to record equpment operaton status EMS trend on equpment status Varable Load, Tmed Schedule (VLTS) Opton A Load Manufacturer s equpment performance curve Hours-of-Use Valdaton of manufacturer s curve wth spot measurement of one pont to valdate curve Use of ambent temperatures as a substtute for load Faclty/equpment operaton logs Intervews wth faclty operators Hours n ambent temperature bns Opton B Load Measurements of load and energy varables over the entre range of operaton, development of n-stu performance curve Hours-of-Use Use of logged or trended load data to populate bns n the load frequency dstrbuton Contnued Verfcaton by Equpment or End-Use Meterng Protocol 10

15 Opton Parameter Data Source / Measurement Strategy Constant Load, Varable Schedule (CLVS) Opton A Load Nameplate nformaton Hours-of-Use Equpment specfcatons Faclty/equpment operaton logs Intervews wth faclty operators Opton B Load Spot measurement Hours-of-Use Average of multple measurements Use of loggers or EMS trends to montor hours-of-operaton over representatve perods Varable Load, Varable Schedule (VLVS) Opton A Load Manufacturer s equpment performance curve Hours-of-Use Valdaton of manufacturer s curve wth spot measurement of one pont to valdate curve Use of ambent temperatures as proxy for load Faclty/equpment operaton logs Intervews wth faclty operators If load drven by ambent temperature, use bnned weather data Opton B Load Measurements of load and energy varables over the entre range of operaton, development of n-stu performance curve Hours-of-Use Use of logged or trended load data to populate bns n the load frequency dstrbuton 3.2. Equatons It s often not necessary to repeat lne data collecton actvtes n the -mplementaton perod. In many crcumstances, only one parameter must be measured n the lne perod. For example, n a CLTS system where the equpment s power wll be reduced, such as n a lghtng fxture replacement, t s only necessary to measure the equpment s power n the lne perod and the (reduced) power and hours of operaton n the -nstallaton perod, snce the hours of operaton do not change. Conversely, the hours of operaton may be measured n the lne perod. Savngs are calculated d on: Equaton 1: where: kw kwh HRS = electrc power demand = electrc energy use = hours of operaton = ndcates parameter measured (or estmated) n lne perod kwh = ( kw kw ) HRS = ndcates parameter measured (or estmated) n -nstallaton = ndcates quantty Verfcaton by Equpment or End-Use Meterng Protocol 11

16 The mpact of the ECM on the characterstcs of the equpment s load or hours-of-use must be understood pror to plannng the data collecton and analyss actvtes of the M&V plan. Ths can save tme and reduce requrements for data collecton devces n ether the lne or the -nstallaton perods. Table 3-2 through Table 3-5 contan energy savngs equatons that may be used for each combnaton of load and schedule category. Wthn each table, the mpact of the ECM on the load, hours-of-use, or both, determnes the potental energy savngs equatons that may be used. These equatons show mportant parameters to measure n the respectve lne and nstallaton perods. Please note that these are not an exhaustve set of equatons; dependng on the equpment and ts energy-use characterstcs, the equatons may take on other forms than those lsted. Addtonal parameters shown n Table 3-2 through Table 3-5 nclude: Q Eff = equpment load such as ar or water flow, coolng tons, conveyance delvery rate, and so on = equpment normalzed power, expressed as kw/ton, kw/cfm, and so on Note that the energy rate kw, load Q, and effcency Eff are often functons of other parameters. For example, coolng tons are a functon of the supply and return water temperatures, and flow rates, each of whch may be measured. These relatonshps may be obtaned from engneerng defntons and prncples, or may be obtaned from emprcal relatonshps, such as from statstcal regresson technques. (See the companon BPA Regresson for M&V: Reference Gude 7 for more nformaton.) IPMVP-adherent M&V requres that lne and -nstallaton energy use be brought to the same set of condtons, n order to make a far determnaton of savngs. When the energy rate, load, and effcency are expressed n terms of measureable ndependent parameters, the functonal forms of the relatonshps allow savngs to be calculated from the same set of condtons (Table 3-2). Table 3-2: Constant Load, Tmed Schedule (CLTS) Equatons ECM Impact Changes Load kwh kwh kwh kwh kwh = = Basc Savngs Equaton ( kw kw ) ( Eff Eff ) Q ( Eff Eff ) kw = 1 = ( Eff Eff ) Q ( Eff Eff ) kw = 1 Contnued 7 Herenafter, Regresson Reference Gude. Verfcaton by Equpment or End-Use Meterng Protocol 12

17 ECM Impact Changes Hours-of-Use kwh kwh kwh = kw = Eff = Eff Basc Savngs Equaton ( HRS HRS ) Q ( HRS HRS ) Q ( HRS HRS ) Changes Load and Hours-of- Use Changes Load from Constant to Varable HRS = HRS Changes Hours-of-Use from Constant to Varable HRS HRS HRS = HRS, Changes both Load and Hours-of-Use from Constant to Varable kwh kwh = kw = kw ( Eff Eff ) Q kwh = kw [ kw, ] [ Eff, Q, ] kwh = Eff Q, kwh = kw kw HRS, kwh = Eff Q HRS Eff Q HRS, [ kw HRS ] kwh = kw HRS,, [ Eff, Q, ] kwh = Eff Q, Table 3-3: Varable Load, Tmed Schedule (VLTS) Equatons ECM Impact Changes Load =, HRS HRS, Changes Hours-of-Use Changes Load and Hours-of- Use Basc Savngs Equaton [ kw,, kw, ] kwh =, [( Eff,, Eff,, ) Q ] kwh =, [ kw, ( HRS, HRS )] kwh =, [ Eff, Q, ( HRS, HRS )] kwh =, [ kw,, kw, ] kwh =, [( Eff,, Eff,, ) Q ] kwh =, Contnued Verfcaton by Equpment or End-Use Meterng Protocol 13

18 ECM Impact Changes Hours-of-Use from Constant to Varable Basc Savngs Equaton [ kw, ( HRS, HRS )] kwh =, [ Eff, Q, ( HRS, HRS )] kwh =, Table 3-4: Constant Load, Varable Schedule (CLVS) Equatons ECM Impact Changes Load kwh kwh = = Basc Savngs Equaton ( kw kw ) ( Eff Eff ) Q kwh kwh ( Eff Eff ) kw = 1 = ( Eff Eff ) Q Changes Hours-of-Use Changes Load and Hours-of- Use Changes Load to from Constant to Varable HRS = HRS, kwh kwh kwh kwh kwh kwh ( Eff Eff ) kw = 1 = kw = Eff = Eff = kw = ( HRS HRS ) Q ( HRS HRS ) Q ( HRS HRS ) kw ( Eff Eff ) Q kw [ kw ] kwh =,, [ Eff, Q, ] kwh = Eff Q, Table 3-5: Varable Load, Varable Schedule (VLVS) Equatons ECM Impact Changes Load Basc Savngs Equaton [( kw, kw, ) ] kwh =, [( Eff, Eff, ) Q, ] kwh =, Contnued Verfcaton by Equpment or End-Use Meterng Protocol 14

19 ECM Impact Changes Hours-of-Use Changes Load and Hours-of-Use Basc Savngs Equaton [ kw, ( HRS, HRS, ] kwh = ) [ Eff, Q, ( HRS, HRS, ] kwh = ) [ kw ] [ kw ],,, kwh =, kwh = [ Eff, Q,, ] [ Eff, Q,, ] Verfcaton by Equpment or End-Use Meterng Protocol 15

20 Verfcaton by Equpment or End-Use Meterng Protocol 16

21 4. Measurement and Montorng Applcaton of these methods, ether under an Opton A or Opton B approach, requres some measurements or montorng of load or schedule characterstcs. Ths chapter provdes background nformaton to help users develop measurement strateges for ther projects. By conventon, savngs are reported on an annual bass. Adherence wth IPMVP requres that savngs be reported only for perods n whch measurements are made. It s rarely cost-effectve to measure load and hours-of-use parameters for an entre year. Instead, results from shorter tme perods are extrapolated. As descrbed prevously, the more data that s collected over longer tme perods, the less extrapolaton that s requred. However, any savngs result d on such extrapolatons s not IPMVP-adherent. As the energy savngs equatons show, separatng out the load and schedule parameters allows them to be separately determned. Once t s determned that an Opton A or an Opton B method wll be used, the parameters to be montored are dentfed. Generally, measurements that characterze the loads do not need to be measured or montored over an entre year; however, they do need to be measured over a majorty of ther range of operatons. Hours-of-use should be measured over the entre year to be adherent wth IPMVP requrements for buldngs; however, developng the bn-hours of the load frequency dstrbuton over a representatve perod and extrapolatng to annual totals s a generally accepted practce. The followng sectons provde examples of how constant and varable loads may be developed, and how hourly bns may be populated n the load frequency dstrbutons Constant Loads As descrbed above, the energy-use rate (kw) for constant-loaded systems may be drectly measured wth spot measurements or quantfed by an average of multple measurements over a short tme perod. If the varaton n the data (CV) s less than 5%, then the average value can be consdered the constant rate of energy use. Examples of constant-loaded systems, where the rate of energy use s drectly measured, nclude lghtng fxture or crcut wattages, and constantloaded pumps and fans Varable Loads Several terms n the equatons above requre relatonshps between energy-use rate and load, and between load and other parameters. There are several technques that may be used to develop these relatonshps: Obtan the manufacturer s curve for equpment and use measurements to valdate multple ponts on the curve. Verfcaton by Equpment or End-Use Meterng Protocol 17

22 Install montorng devces to measure power and load, and montor each as equpment s forced though ts range of loads by adjustng control settngs. Install montorng devces to measure power and load, or use control-system trendng, and montor the equpment over tme as the equpment s operated through ts range. Each of the above technques provdes a set of data that can be used to develop or valdate a relatonshp between the load and energy-use rate (power). These relatonshps may be developed from engneerng prncples or emprcally by regresson. (Please see Regresson Reference Gude for further nformaton.) As an example of developng a drect relatonshp between a load and energy-use rate, Fgure 4-1 shows the relatonshp derved between fan speed (percent) and fan kw for a varable speed supply fan n a unversty computer scence buldng. The data were collected over a two-week perod from temporarly nstalled kw loggers and correspondng trends of fan speed from the buldng s energy management system. The data were plotted n a scatter plot and a cubc polynomal relatonshp was ftted to the data usng the least squares technque whch s common n most spreadsheet applcatons. AHU1 Fan kw Fgure 4-1: Curve Ft of Fan kw as a Functon of Fan Speed Fan Speed % Data Cubc Polynomal, Intercept=0 Verfcaton by Equpment or End-Use Meterng Protocol 18

23 4.3. Tmed Schedule Quantfyng constant hours-of-use for ether constant- or varable-load equpment s generally a straghtforward process. For constant loads, the number of hours that the equpment s operatng must be verfed. For varable loads, the number of hours wthn predefned load bns must be verfed. A representatve tme perod s selected over whch the operatng hours are measured. The montorng perod can be consdered representatve of the entre year f the relatve dstrbuton of hours among the bns s the same n the montorng perod as for the entre year. As a descrptve example for a constant-load project, f an offce buldng has regular occupancy hours that are the same all year, then a measurement perod of one month may be representatve of the entre year s operatons. For a lghtng retroft project (assumng lghtng on the nteror of a buldng n spaces away from daylght), status loggers may be nstalled to determne the lghtng operaton hours for each day of the week. After a month of status data s collected, the average hours of operaton of each day whether t s a weekday, weekend, or holday s determned, and the total annual hours of operaton are calculated by multplyng each day s average by the number of occurrences of those daytypes n the year (a number close to 52 n most cases), and then by addng them together. The prevous example s framework may also be used for varable-load projects wth tmed schedules. Consder a computer room ar condtonng (CRAC) unt that operates to mantan the data center s space temperature at 70 F throughout the year. It s a splt system wth a condenser unt on the roof; hence, t s varable load, as the AC unt must push heat to the ambent ar throughout the seasons. Snce the CRAC unt duty cycles more or less frequently to meet load requrements, and the power of each on-cycle can be measured, the average hourly power can be a used to develop a regresson wth the ambent temperature. Ambent temperatures and CRAC unt status sgnals are trended n an energy-management system. Ambent temperature bns of 5 F are defned and the number of hours wthn each bn s determned for a defned montorng perod. The perod selected should be representatve of the entre year. Ths means that the collected data must span as much of the operatng range as possble, preferably over 90% of the range. Wth such representatve data, then the annual operaton hours of the CRAC unt n each load bn may be quantfed by multplyng the bn s measurement perod operaton hours by the rato of annual operaton hours dvded by the measurement-perod operaton hours. The above two examples demonstrate that the characterstcs of each project s equpment has unque characterstcs and nsghts that help determne approprate measurement scenaros. These nsghts can be used to develop cost-effectve montorng plans Varable Schedule Quantfyng varable hours-of-use for ether constant- or varable-load equpment s more dependent on the characterstcs of each project s equpment. The hours-of-use may be dependent on some drvng varable. For example, a chlled-water pump may have more hoursof-use n the warmer summer months than n wnter months, or a buldng s lghtng schedule may vary wth the addton of daylght controls, havng shorter hours of operaton n summer than n wnter. It s also possble that a representatve perod may not exst. Verfcaton by Equpment or End-Use Meterng Protocol 19

24 Regresson technques to determne the dependency of hours-of-use on an ndependent parameter may be used. For example, the daly hours-of-use of the chlled water pump may show a good relatonshp wth average daly temperature. If a regresson technque s used, the montorng perod should capture data over the entre range of daly pump operatons and daly temperatures. Ths perod may be less than one year. Annual energy use and savngs may then be determned by extrapolaton usng ambent temperature data from a typcal mean year weather fle. The standard error of the regresson may be used n savngs uncertanty calculatons. Verfcaton by Equpment or End-Use Meterng Protocol 20

25 5. Uncertanty The methods descrbed n ths protocol provde a framework to determne uncertantes n the load and schedule parameters, as well as the estmated savngs uncertanty. Because BPA generally does not requre rgorous estmates of savngs uncertanty, ths chapter wll only present general concepts and demonstrate how savngs uncertantes may be calculated usng ths protocol s load and schedule framework. The term uncertanty s used when the actual value of somethng that s measured, or estmated from an equaton, s unknown. It s a probablstc statement about how often a specfed range around the predcted value contans the actual value. The confdence lmts defne that specfed range that has a certan probablty of contanng the true value. For example, a savngs uncertanty statement may say that the savngs are 500 kwh, ± 5% at the 95% confdence level. Ths means that wth a probablty of 95%, the range of 475 to 525 kwh ncludes the true value. A statement of 500 kwh, ± 5% at the 68% confdence level means that wth a probablty of 68%, the range of 475 to 525 kwh ncludes the true value. Contrast the term uncertanty wth the term error. Error s the dfference between a measured or predcted value and the true value. A statement of the accuracy of a predcton (such as ± 5%) s meanngless wthout an accompanyng statement of ts confdence level (such as 90%). (Refer to the Glossary for M&V: Reference Gude a companon document to ths protocol and to statstcal and expermental methods handbooks to fnd more nformaton on the defntons of uncertanty, error, and confdence lmts. 8 ) Snce M&V s d on measurements, physcal and statstcal modelng, and predctons, rgorous uncertanty analyss begns from the physcal measurements of the data, through equatons, to a fnal savngs estmate. The rules of error propagaton may be appled, provded that the sample errors have been generated at the same confdence levels. Standard error propagaton equatons are shown below. In these equatons, a and b are two values beng combned, x s the result, k s a constant, and the symbol Δ represents the error n the value. Also, Δa s the absolute error of the value a, and Δa/a s ts relatve error. Addton and subtracton: x = a + b ; Δ x 2 = Δa 2 + Δb 2 Multplcaton and dvson: x = a b ; ( Δ x x) 2 = ( Δa a) 2 + ( Δb b ) 2 Exponental: x k = k a ; Δx = k Δa a k 1 and x 1/ k 1/ k = a ; Δ x = Δa a ka The followng sectons provde general nsght on how uncertantes n the load and hours-of-use parameters may be determned. A more thorough descrpton of uncertanty estmaton s beyond the scope of ths protocol. Refer to ASHRAE Gudelne 14 Annex B, Determnaton of Savngs Uncertanty for a more detaled dscusson of savngs uncertanty. 8 Several good sources exst. On the Internet, please consult the Engneerng Statstcs Handbook (NIST/SEMATECH e-handbook of Statstcal Methods). Verfcaton by Equpment or End-Use Meterng Protocol 21

26 5.1. Constant Loads Constant loads may be characterzed by a one-tme measurement, or an average of several measurements. If a one-tme measurement s used, the measurement nstrument s rated or calbrated accuracy s the only avalable nformaton upon whch to obtan an uncertanty estmate. ASHRAE Gudelne recommends usng a 95% confdence lmt wth nstrument accuraces. For calbrated nstruments, ther accuracy s generally an ndcaton of ts random error, bas error bas n the measurement process havng been elmnated by calbraton. An average of multple measurements of the same parameter wth a calbrated nstrument reduces the overall uncertanty of the parameter s estmated value. For multple measurements, the standard devaton may be used as the uncertanty estmate. Ths quantty must be calculated to determne whether the load may be characterzed as constant. It s part of the coeffcent of varaton (CV) and must be less than 5%. Please refer to the suggested statstcal references to determne confdence lmts about the average value Varable Loads Varable loads are represented by an equaton, whch may be derved from physcal prncples or from statstcal modelng. Fgure 5-1 shows upper and lower confdence lmts about the regresson lne. Fgure 5-1: Regresson Lne showng Upper and Lower Confdence Lmts 9 ASHRAE Gudelne : Engneerng Analyss of Expermental Data. Verfcaton by Equpment or End-Use Meterng Protocol 22

27 5.3. Tmed Schedule For tmed schedules, the total operaton hours for the year are constant, whether the load s constant or varable. For varable loads, the number of hours n each load bn s constant. If operatng hours are montored throughout the year, there s very lttle uncertanty n the result. However, rarely s t cost-effectve to montor hours for the entre year, unless such data s already avalable. For these cases, a representatve perod of operaton s selected, operaton hours are measured, and annual operaton hours are determned by extrapolaton. Usually an average daly or average weekly number of operaton hours over a representatve tme perod are determned for each load bn (whether constant or varable load) of the load frequency dstrbuton. These averages have assocated confdence ntervals, as shown n Fgure 5-2, for one load bn, and are assumed to be representatve of the annual daly or weekly load bn operaton hours. The uncertanty of the estmated annual operaton hours of each load bn s assumed to be the same as that for the representatve perod. Please refer to the BPA Samplng for M&V: Reference Gude for more nformaton on usng samples. Fgure 5-2: Representatons of Uncertanty n Load Frequency Dstrbutons 1,800 1,600 1,400 1,200 Hours 1, Hours Load 5.4. Varable Schedule For many cases, the strategy outlned above may be used to determne the uncertanty n annual operaton hours. For other cases, the hours-of-use may be dependent on an external parameter, such as when the hours-of-use ncrease or decrease dependng on the season. In such cases, a regresson relatonshp between hours-of-use and ambent temperature may be developed. The uncertanty n the predcted hours-of-use would then be developed n the same way as n the case of varable load above. Verfcaton by Equpment or End-Use Meterng Protocol 23

28 Verfcaton by Equpment or End-Use Meterng Protocol 24

29 6. Mnmum Reportng Requrements 6.1. Measurement and Verfcaton Plan Essental Elements of the Measurement and Verfcaton Plan Proper savngs verfcaton requres plannng and preparaton. The IPMVP lsts several requrements for a fully-adherent M&V plan. 10 The End-Use Meterng Protocol descrbes methods for verfyng savngs n equpment and end uses. Ths protocol descrbes plannng requrements, as well as specfc measurement and analyss actvtes n the lne and n the -nstallaton perods. Documentng n an M&V Plan how these requrements wll be met s mportant so that others who subsequently become nvolved n the project can obtan a full understandng of the project s hstory and progress. The followng are the essental tems n documentng a savngs verfcaton plan. Measurement Boundary: Defne the boundary around the equpment or end use wthn whch the savngs wll be verfed. Ths boundary can be around a specfc pece of equpment, such as a pump and ts motor, or a combnaton of equpment comprsng a buldng subsystem, such as an ar-handlng system or chlled-water system. Baselne Equpment and Condtons: Document the end-use lne systems, equpment confguratons, and operatonal characterstcs (operatng practces or operaton schedules that characterze load or hours-of-use). Ths ncludes equpment nventores, szes, types, and condton. Descrbe any sgnfcant problems wth the equpment. Energy and Independent Varable Data: Descrbe how equpment load s characterzed and what addtonal parameters are requred to characterze t. Descrbe ts operatng practces or operaton schedules that characterze ts hours-of-use. Include all energy data from spot measurements and short- or long-term montorng from each source where data was collected. Defne the lne tme perod for the end use. Reportng Perod: Descrbe the length of the reportng perod and the actvtes that wll be conducted, ncludng data collecton and sources. Analyss Procedure: Descrbe how the lne and -nstallaton energy use or demand wll be adjusted to a common set of condtons. Descrbe the procedures used to prepare the data. Descrbe the procedures used for analyzng the data and determnng savngs. Descrbe any extrapolatons of energy use or savngs beyond the reportng perod. Descrbe how savngs uncertanty (f requred) wll be estmated. Document all assumptons. 10 Chapter 5, IPMVP Volume I Verfcaton by Equpment or End-Use Meterng Protocol 25

30 Opton A Requrements: For each non-key parameter, specfy the bass for the estmated values used. Descrbe ther source or sources. Descrbe the mpact of any sgnfcant varaton n the values used and what otherwse would be measured on the calculated savngs. Savngs Verfcaton Reports: Descrbe what results wll be ncluded n the savngs reports. Descrbe what data and calculatons wll be provded. Descrbe when savngs wll be reported for the project. Indcate the reportng format to be used. See the secton below regardng the Savngs Verfcaton Report for the mnmum requrements M&V Plan Addtonal Elements The IPMVP descrbes several other elements of a good M&V plan. These tems are good practce n general, but not necessary for every project. Many of them are provded here for reference and consderaton for ncluson n M&V Plans wrtten under ths protocol. Energy Prces: Document the relevant energy prces to be used to value the savngs. Ths can be a blended electrc rate or a schedule of rates d on tme-of-use. Note that the latter wll add sgnfcant complexty to the calculatons. Measurement Instrument Specfcatons: Document the nstruments used to obtan the data used n the calculatons, ncludng ther rated accuracy and range. Identfy the last nstrument calbraton date. Budget: Estmate the budget requred for the savngs verfcaton actvty. Estmate labor and materal (e.g., meters and nstruments, assocated safety equpment, etc.) costs and provde an approxmate schedule for when actvtes wll occur. Qualty Assurance: Descrbe any qualty assurance actvtes that wll be conducted as part of ths M&V project. Ths may nclude how data s valdated, how IPMVP Opton A estmates are checked, dentfyng other partes who wll revew the work, and so on Documentaton for BPA Data The documentaton should also nclude the followng nformaton to support revew and ncluson of the project and measure n the BPA Energy Effcency Central data (EE Central): Utlty name Utlty program Sector (commercal/ndustral/resdental) Exstng buldng or new constructon Ste address (ths wll be used to establsh the clmate zone) Buldng type (examples: offce, school, hosptal) Buldng sze, square feet Verfcaton by Equpment or End-Use Meterng Protocol 26

31 Affected end uses (examples: HVAC, nteror lghts, exteror lghts, receptacle plugs, DHW) Affected system (examples under HVAC: coolng plant, heatng plant, HVAC fans, termnal unts, controls) Affected equpment type (examples under coolng plant: chller, packaged unt, coolng tower, pumps) Measure type (broad category) Measure name (specfc category) 6.2. Savngs Verfcaton Report General Verfcaton Report Requrements Based on IPMVP After the M&V calculatons have been completed, the savngs and actual M&V process used need to be documented. Per the IPMVP, the Savngs Verfcaton Report should follow the savngs verfcaton report requrements descrbed n the project s M&V Plan. Any devatons from the M&V Plan must be clearly descrbed. If the M&V method followed the M&V Plan, then the nformaton n the M&V Plan does not need to be repeated, but can just reference the Plan. However, devatons from the planned method, measurement boundary, lne characterstcs, etc. necesstate new descrptons. IPMVP Chapter 6, M&V Reportng, generally requres the followng: Report both energy and cost savngs. Report the data relevant to the reportng perod, ncludng the measurement perod and the assocated energy data and ndependent varables. Any changes to the observed data must be descrbed and justfed. Descrbe any non-routne lne adjustments, ncludng the detals of how the adjustments were calculated. Report the energy prces or rates used n the cost-savngs calculatons. In addton, actual data for lne and -perod energy use should both be reported Addtonal Savngs Verfcaton Report Requrements Load and Schedule Relatonshps In the basc procedure for the Verfcaton by Equpment or End-Use Meterng Protocol, one of the numbered tems states, Determne the relatonshps between load and hours-of-use terms n the energy savngs equaton and other parameters, such as temperature, ar or water flow, Verfcaton by Equpment or End-Use Meterng Protocol 27

32 pressure, and so on. Ths ncludes the relatonshps of daytypes and seasons to load and hoursof-use. These relatonshps are mportant for all protocols, not just the End-Use Meterng Protocol. In general, f the power or energy vares wth respect to ambent temperature or another ndependent varable, then a relatonshp (e.g., regresson) must be developed. Schedule varatons requre smlar consderatons. The energy modelng protocol s obvously bult on these relatonshps, and energy ndexng uses the rato between energy and some ndependent drvng varable another relatonshp. Smlarly, spreadsheet-d engneerng calculatons should use relatonshps (also descrbed as correlatons) to descrbe the load. The savngs verfcaton report should clearly defne loads and schedules, and ther relatonshp to other varables: For a constant load, the load value and unts should be provded, as well as how the load value was obtaned. If any proxes are used to defne the load, the proxes should be justfed and ther development descrbed. For varable load, the load frequency dstrbuton should be provded, along wth a descrpton of how t was obtaned. For loads that can be any value, they should generally be grouped nto 5 to 10 bns, but ths s dependent upon how much the load vares. For example, f the load vares from 0% to 100%, 10 bns mght be approprate, but f the load only vares from 80% to 100%, then 2 to 4 bns mght be approprate. For a tmed schedule, report the source for the schedule and the total annual hours. For a varable schedule, report the source for the estmate of the hours durng the measurement perod and the total annual hours. Varable load nformaton, energy models, and load correlatons for engneerng calculatons are all smlar and should be shown graphcally n an x-y (scatter chart), as well as an equaton or table. Load frequency dstrbutons should be shown n both a bar chart and a table. Savngs Verfcaton Report Informaton The report should nclude the followng nformaton. It may be organzed n ths order wth a separate secton for each of these tems, or n another order or organzaton that makes sense for a partcular program or project. However t s reported, all of ths nformaton should be ncluded n most cases: 1. The data for the lne perod, ncludng the tme perod, montorng ntervals, and data ponts should be descrbed. 2. The load and schedule for the lne perod, and any relatonshps assocated wth varable loads or schedules, should be clearly defned. 3. The mpact of the ECM on the load or hours-of-use n the reportng perod should be descrbed. Verfcaton by Equpment or End-Use Meterng Protocol 28

33 4. The data for the reportng perod, ncludng the tme perod, montorng ntervals, and data ponts should be descrbed. 5. The load and schedule, and any relatonshps assocated wth varable loads or schedules, should be clearly defned for the reportng perod. 6. The equatons used to estmate lne consumpton, reportng perod consumpton, and savngs should be lsted and explaned. 7. Report consumpton (and where relevant, demand), as well as savngs, snce ths facltates revew and reasonableness checks. 8. As requred by IPMVP, report the energy prces or rates used n the cost savngs calculatons. 9. Also, as requred by IPMVP, report both energy and cost savngs. 10. Provde verfcaton of potental to generate savngs. Post Installaton Verfcaton of Potental to Generate Savngs IPMVP Secton 4.3 requres that, After the ECM s nstalled, nspect the nstalled equpment and revsed operatng procedures to ensure that they conform to the desgn ntent of the ECM. Therefore, an IPMVP-adherent process requres evdence that the effcency measures have the potental to generate savngs. BPA may requre short-term montorng, spot measurements, producton data, or other forms of verfcaton to confrm potental. Verfcaton ncludes notaton of any changes to the project subsequent to the M&V plan. If the project changed, the energy and demand savngs should be recalculated d on as-nstalled condtons. Data and analyss from meterng performed before or after nstallaton should be ncluded wth the calculatons. In general, verfcaton of potental to generate savngs can take ether of two forms: Installaton verfcaton Operatonal verfcaton Installaton Verfcaton Installaton verfcaton s the less rgorous of the two verfcaton methods. It demonstrates the measures were nstalled as planned. Ths demonstraton may vary by measure. Project developers are requred to descrbe the evdence and documentaton they plan to provde to demonstrate that the measures were nstalled, and ths evdence and documentaton belongs n the savngs verfcaton report. Examples of nstallaton verfcaton nclude: Photographs of new equpment Photographs of new control set-ponts Verfcaton by Equpment or End-Use Meterng Protocol 29

34 Screen captures from EMCS Invoces from servce contractors (nvoces should not be the sole form of evdence, but may supplement other verfcaton documentaton). Operatonal Verfcaton Operatonal verfcaton demonstrates that n the -nstallaton perod, the system s operatng (or not operatng) as modeled n the calculatons. It s d on vsualzaton of operatonal data (as opposed to energy data) collected durng one or more ste vsts after the measures have been nstalled. Operatonal verfcaton s n addton to nstallaton verfcaton and documentaton should nclude the same types of evdence as for nstallaton verfcaton. In addton, the data loggng, control system trendng, or functonal tests used to establsh lne shall be repeated to demonstrate that operatons have been mproved. Documentaton of the commssonng of the new systems or equpment can be used for operatonal verfcaton. If the collected -nstallaton data, test results, and/or commssonng ndcate less than predcted performance, or that the measures were not nstalled as assumed n the savngs calculatons (for example, due to ncorrect or partal nstallaton, or other crcumstance), ether: Take acton to help the customer fully nstall the measure properly and then re-verfy t usng these procedures; or Use the same calculaton methodology wth the -nstallaton data to calculate a revsed measure savngs estmate. Choce of Verfcaton Method Common, well-known measures, measures wth low expected savngs, and measures whose savngs estmates have consderable certanty, may need only nstallaton verfcaton. Measures wth large savngs and measures wth less certan savngs (whose savngs can vary greatly dependent upon applcaton) typcally requre operatonal verfcaton. Thus, there s no hard-and-fast rule for ths choce. The analyst should recommend a verfcaton method and the evdence expected to be presented for verfcaton when submttng calculatons or smulatons. The fnal choce of verfcaton method and evdence wll be made by the revewer. Verfcaton by Equpment or End-Use Meterng Protocol 30

35 7. Examples The followng are representatve examples of how the End-Use Meterng Protocol may be mplemented for some common project types Example 1: Smple Pump Motor Replacement (Opton B: ECM Reduces Load) Overvew Condenser water from a coolng tower n an automoble factory cools the pantng process equpment and operates over two 8-hour shfts per day for 5 days per week. It does not operate on holdays. The tower has a 5-hp condenser water pump operatng at constant load over these hours. Although t has several years of useful lfe remanng, the pump motor s eght years old and has a lower rated motor effcency than newer models avalable. Ths motor wll be replaced wth a more effcent model. No changes to ts operaton are planned M&V Approach The end-use meterng protocol wll be used to calculate and verfy the savngs from ths pump motor replacement project. M&V Opton The Opton B: All Parameter Measurement M&V Opton wll be used. Note, ths method may not fully adhere to IPMVP requrements. Measurement Boundary The measurement boundary s drawn around the pump as shown n Fgure 7-1. Snce the water flow wll not be changed, the only mpact of ths measure on energy use wll be on the electrc energy use. Electrc energy use of the pump motor s the only savngs to be verfed durng ths M&V analyss (no gas savngs, etc.). Fgure 7-1: System Sketch Baselne Perod Ths pump and motor operate at constant load for a known amount of tme. To verfy constant load operaton, a handheld wattmeter s used to read the power demand of the pump. Several one-mnute nterval readngs are made wth the wattmeter whle the nstrument s attached to the pump s motor control center crcuts. Verfcaton by Equpment or End-Use Meterng Protocol 31

36 Post-Installaton Perod After the motor has been replaced, both the new wattage and operaton schedule are measured. A power logger s placed on the motor s power crcuts n the motor control center and set to record ts power at 15-mnute ntervals for two weeks, spannng two weekends of non-operaton. Both the tme and power readngs are uploaded to a spreadsheet. Fgure 7-2 shows a porton of the spreadsheet wth the measured lne and -nstallaton data. A tme seres chart n Fgure 7-3 shows a snapshot of operaton over one of the montored weekends, confrmng 16 hours per day of weekday operaton, and no operaton durng the weekend. Fgure 7-2: Energy Data Baselne Post-Installaton Readng no. kw Date & Tme kw /16/09 10: Weeks per year /16/09 11: Holdays per year /16/09 11: Shutdown days per year /16/09 11: Weekdays per year /16/09 11: Weekend days per year /16/09 12: Operatng days per year (check) /16/09 12: Operatng hours per day /16/09 12: Total annual operatng hours /16/09 12: /16/09 13: Average /16/09 13: Average kw when operatng 5.78 Standard Devaton /16/09 13: Standard Devaton 0.15 CV /16/09 13: CV Fgure 7-3: Chart Representaton kw /16/2009 7/17/2009 7/18/2009 7/19/2009 Verfcaton by Equpment or End-Use Meterng Protocol 32

37 Algorthm The lne category s CLTS. Both load and operatng schedule are constant. The number of operatng hours each year s constant. The pump motor power wll be measured n the lne perod. Replacng the pump motor wth a more effcent motor only reduces the motor power. The operatng schedule does not change. The -nstallaton category s also CLTS. The pump motor kw and operatng schedule were measured over a two-week perod. Annual energy use s calculated by Equaton 1, from Table 3-2: Equaton 1: kwh = ( kw kw ) HRS Annual Savngs The total operatng hours are shown n the spreadsheet: 5,840 hours The energy savngs are calculated to be ( ) * 5,840 = 2,511 kwh Example 2: Automoble Factory Pant Shop Exhaust Fans (Opton A: ECM Reduces Schedule) Overvew Exhaust fans n the pant shop at an automoble factory operated contnuously throughout two 8-hour work shfts (6:00 am to mdnght) durng each work week. There were a total of 4 days of mantenance downtme n the prevous year. There were four pant booths wthn the shop, each wth 60-hp constant speed fans. The factory s engneerng staff mplemented controls n each pant shop to montor ar qualty, and shut the fans off when the pant shop was not used and ar qualty was at acceptable levels. Ths resulted n the exhaust fans beng operated only when needed as cars were cycled through the pant shop and sgnfcantly reduced the number of operaton hours per year M&V Approach The end-use meterng protocol was used to calculate and verfy the savngs from ths pant shop controls project. M&V Opton The Opton A: Key Parameter Measurement M&V Opton was used. The key parameter was the number of operaton hours of the exhaust fans. Exhaust fan power wll be estmated d on motor nameplate data and a spot measurement on each fan. Verfcaton by Equpment or End-Use Meterng Protocol 33

38 Measurement Boundary A measurement boundary was drawn around each exhaust fan, as shown n Fgure 7-4. Exhaust fan motors were operated at constant speed durng each shft of factory operaton. The exhaust fan motors wll not be affected by the planned changes. The only effect of the ECM was to reduce the hours of operaton. Fgure 7-4: System Sketch Baselne Perod The lne equpment was operated under a constant load tmed schedule system (CLTS). The motor and fan were operated at a constant load for a known amount of tme. The nameplate horsepower ratng from each fan motor was collected; the brake horsepower was calculated and compared aganst a spot measurement of each fan s power use when operatng. Ths verfed the engneerng assumpton of each fan s power draw. The fan operaton schedule was verfed usng a motor status logger on each of the four fans; loggng was conducted over a 2-week perod to verfy that the fans operated contnuously over both work shfts each workng day. Results of the lne motor status loggng are shown n Fgure Fgure 7-5: Baselne Operaton Fan EXH 23 Motor Status Verfcaton by Equpment or End-Use Meterng Protocol 34

39 Post-Installaton Perod After the controls are nstalled, the equpment wll stll operate as a constant load; however, the operaton schedule wll change to a varable schedule system (CLVS) whle the exhaust fans cycle on and off as the cars cycle through the pant shop. Each fan motor s power use when operatng wll be verfed that t s unchanged, usng a spot measurement of fan motor power. The exhaust fan schedule wll be montored by nstallng motor status loggers on each fan motor for one month duraton. In addton, the pant shop logs of cars enterng and leavng the shop durng the montorng perod wll be obtaned. Results of the montorng and pant shop log revew are shown n Fgure Fgure 7-6: Post-Installaton Operaton Fan EXH23 Motor Status Algorthm The lne category s CLTS. The controls upgrade only affects hours of operaton enablng and operatng the exhaust fans only as cars are cycled through the pant shop. The nstallaton category s CLVS. The 60-hp fan motors were measured wth a one-tme spot measurement n the lne perod, whle the fan operaton hours were measured over a twoweek perod usng motor status loggers on each exhaust fan. It was found that n the nstallaton perod, the fans operated 0.83 hours per car. The annual -nstallaton operaton hours were found by consultng the pant shop log books and countng the number of cars panted per year. Annual energy use s calculated from Equaton 2, from Table 3-2: Equaton 2: kwh = kw kw HRS, Verfcaton by Equpment or End-Use Meterng Protocol 35

40 Annual Savngs The lne motor power data and annual savngs calculaton are shown n Fgure 7-7. Annual operaton hours were reduced from 2,916 to 1,822.5 hours per year. Ths resulted n an annual electrc energy savngs of 167,623 kwh and cost savngs of over $18,000 per year. Fgure 7-7: Savngs Calculatons Spot Measurements Baselne Data Post-Installaton Fan Motor EXH23 Total on-tme (hrs): 2,916 Average on-tme per car: 0.83 Motor Nameplate HP: 60 Motor Power (kw): 39.4 # cars per year: 2,187 Power measurement* 39.4 Annual energy use (kwh): 114,890 Total annual on-tme: 1,822.5 Motor Power (kw): 39.4 Annual energy use (kwh): 71,807 Fan Motor EXH24 Motor Nameplate HP: 60 Annual savngs EXH23 (kwh): 43,084 Power measurement* 38.5 Annual savngs EXH24 (kwh): 42,100 Fan Motor EXH24 Annual savngs EXH25 (kwh): 40,131 Motor Nameplate HP: 60 Power measurement* 36.7 Annual savngs EXH26 (kwh): 42,318 Total Annual Savngs (kwh): 167,634 Fan Motor EXH24 Cost Savngs: $ 18,440 Motor Nameplate HP: 60 Power measurement* 38.7 *Powersght meter 7.3. Example 3: Supply Fan IGV to VSD Converson (Improved Fan Effcency) Overvew Supply ar to an offce buldng s provded by a varable volume reheat system wth mechancal coolng that operates Monday to Frday from 6:00 am to 10:00 pm. The volume of ar s vared by dampers n the VAV boxes. As the dampers close down, the nlet gude vanes (IGV) also close down to mantan duct statc pressure, reducng the flow of ar though the fan, and the fan motor uses less energy. The supply fan uses a 30-hp motor and flows 35,100 CFM wth the IGV wde open. The IGV wll be replaced by a varable speed drve (VSD) whch wll reduce the fan motor s consumpton at a gven flow M&V Approach The end-use meterng protocol wll be used to calculate and verfy the savngs from ths IGV to VSD converson project. Verfcaton by Equpment or End-Use Meterng Protocol 36

41 M&V Opton The Opton B: All Parameter Measurement M&V Opton wll be used. Measurement Boundary The measurement boundary s drawn around the fan and motor as shown n Fgure 7-8. Snce the ar flow wll not be changed, the only mpact of ths measure wll be on the electrc energy use. Electrc energy use of the fan motor s the only savngs to be verfed durng ths M&V analyss (no gas savngs, etc.). Fgure 7-8: System Sketch Baselne Perod The fan operates to mantan ts requred flow to mantan space condtons, so the ar-flow rate wll be used as the load varable. The fan and motor operate at varable flow, spendng unknown amounts of tme at each flow rate, but wth a known total operaton hours for the year. Total known operaton hours are d on the daly HVAC operaton schedule and the number of operatng days per year. Ths system s a varable load, tmed schedule (VLTS) system. The effect of the VFD wll be to lower the kw requred to produce the requred ar flow. In the lne perod, only the power/flow-rate relatonshp wll be determned. To verfy varable load operaton n ths nstance, a handheld flow meter s used to read the flow, and the IGV on at each flow s recorded, as the flow s modulated by the zone termnal box dampers. Fgure 7-9 shows the relatonshp between flow and power and Fgure 7-10 shows a porton of the spreadsheet wth the measured lne data. Verfcaton by Equpment or End-Use Meterng Protocol 37

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