1 Traumatic Brain Injury in Young Athletes Andrea Halliday, M.D. Oregon Neurosurgery Specialists
2 Variability in defining concussion Lack of reliable biomarkers for concussions Reliance on subjective system based definition Variations in terminology (e.g. :concussion versus mild traumatic brain injury) Evolving descriptions of the severity of concussion (e.g., grading scales, simple vs. complex)
3 The Federal Interagency Traumatic Brain Injury Research informatics system, developed by the DOD and the NIH defined TBI in 2010 as an alteration in brain function, or other evidence of brain pathology, caused by an external force. Concussion is a subset of mtbi and may but usually does not involve a loss of consciousness.
4 Most of the reported epidemiologic data on sports-related concussions in youth derives from three surveillance systems National electronic Injury Surveillance system-all Injury Program (NEISS-AIP) NCAA Injury Surveillance System (NCAA ISS) High School RIO (Reporting Information Online)
5 A major limitation of using NEISS-AIP to estimate the incidence of sports-related concussion is that it captures data only on individuals treated in EDs. The NEISS-AIP data cannot be used to estimate injury rates per 1,000 AEs or relative risks for specific sports.
6 The NCAA ISS collects data on college age athletes, male and female, in 25 sports. In contrast to NEISS-AIP, the data can be used to compare injury rates among different sports. It does not take into account differences in playing times among athletes. Limited to college-age athletes and does not tack athletes in intramural, club or recreational sports. Does not include data on athletes who did not report injury.
7 The High School RIO is modeled on the on the NCAA ISS and therefore, has the same limitations. Coordinated efforts to collect sportsinjury data for middle-school and yonger-aged youth are limited.
8 Despite the limitations of the surveillance data some patterns have emerged. College athletes had higher overall rates of concussion that did high school athletes (4.3 vs. 2.3 per 10,000 AEs). This relationship held true for all sports, males and females, competition and practice. The incidence of concussion is higher in competition than in practice for both male and female athletes, across all sports and age groups.
9 Studies that compared the rates of concussion for male and female athletes in 3 high school and college sports played by both sexes (soccer, basketball, and softball/baseball) found that females had a higher rate of reported concussions than did their male counterparts.
10 The incidence of concussion varies substantially by sport. For male athletes in the US, football, ice hockey, lacrosse, wrestling, and soccer are associated with the highest rates of reported concussions in high school and college. For high school and college female athletes, the highest rates of concussion are reported in soccer, lacrosse, and basketball. Women s ice hockey at the college level has one of the highest rates of concussion.
11 Mechanism of Traumatic Brain Injury Most often the contact force is not directed through the center of the mass of the brain (i.e., non-centroidal). Non-centroidal contact produces a rotational motion which causes distortion of the brain s neural and vascular structures. Internal structures of the head, such as the falx cerebri and tentorium, influence how the brain moves within the skull causing local brain regions with high deformations in certain directions of head rotation.
12 Risk Factors for Concussion Immaturity of the developing CNS, a larger headto-ratio, thinner cranial bones, reduced development of neck and shoulder musculature, a larger subarachnoid space in which the brain can move, and differences in cerebral blood volume have been proposed as possible sources of increased susceptibility to concussions for youth relative to adults. Relative to adults children demonstrate more widespread and prolonged cerebral swelling than adults.
13 Risk Factors for Concussion Studies of high school and college athletes suggest that individuals with a history of prior concussion are 2 to 5.8 times more likely to sustain a subsequent concussion.
14 Concussion Recognition, Diagnosis and Acute Management The sideline evaluation of a player s condition is complicated by the tendency of athletes to underreport their symptoms. In a 2012 survey of high school football players, a majority indicated it was okay to play with a concussion and said that they would play through any injury to win a game, despite being knowledgeable about the symptoms and dangers of concussions.
15 Concussion Recognition, Diagnosis and Acute Management Concussion signs and symptoms may develop over time. The mantra for laypersons evaluating an athlete for a potential concussion is when in doubt, sit them out.
16 The signs and symptoms of concussion fall into four categories: Somatic: headache, fuzzy or blurry vision, dizziness, fatigue, drowsiness, light sensitivity, noise sensitivity, imbalance, nausea or vomiting (early) Cognitive: difficulty thinking clearly, feeling slowed down, difficulty concentrating, difficulty remembering new information Emotional: irritability, sadness, feeling more emotional, nervousness or anxiety Sleep: Sleeping more than usual, sleeping less, trouble falling asleep
17 A comprehensive concussion assessment includes symptoms scores, objective measures of postural stability and cognitive testing (SAC,. The 2013 position statement of the American Medical Society for Sports Medicine states that most concussions can be managed appropriately without neuropsychological testing and also notes the lack of evidence that use of baseline testing in the clinical management of concussions improves shortor-long term outcomes.
19 The Balance Error Scoring System (B.E.S.S.)
21 Acute Concussion Management The effects of a concussive blow takes place over minutes, hours and days. During the recovery period the brain is vulnerable to further injury. Thus, although the initial injury may be mild, acute management is still necessary to protect the athlete from further injury.
22 Acute Concussion Management Concussion symptoms resolve within two weeks in 80-90% of high-school and college-age patients. Athletes who have sustained a concussion should refrain from aerobic exercise, sports-specific training, and competition until symptoms resolve.
23 Acute Concussion Management Cognitive rest, i.e. abstaining from activities that require concentration, is also recommended. In a prospective, nonrandomized study of 635 high school and college athletes with concussion, McCrea and colleagues (2009) found that the more time that elapsed between an athlete s injury and return to play, the less likely the athlete was to have a repeat concussion during the season. In another study, high school and college athletes who completed a week period of physical and cognitive rest after a concussion demonstrated improvement on concussion symptom scale ratings and neurocognitive scores.
24 Acute Concussion Management Return to Physical Activity Avoid physical activity until symptom-free at rest and without medication Follow a graded return-to-play protocol governed by recurrence of symptoms Return to Cognitive Activity Gradual return to academic activity with shortened school day or extra time for assignments and tests
25 Prevention of Concussions Helmets and Other Headgear Helmets can reduce rotational acceleration. However, until appropriate injury threshold for concussion can be developed that is age-and-sex specific, it will not be clear what levels of rotational acceleration are acceptable. There is lack of data on helmet design preventing concussions but a recent article in the JNeurosurg 120: , 2014 demonstrated a 53.9% reduction in concussion risk associated with the Riddell Revolution Helmet vs. the VSR4 helmet. Current testing standards and rating systems for helmets do not incorporate measures of rotational head acceleration or velocity and therefore do not comprehensively evaluate a device s ability to mitigate concussion.
26 Prevention of Concussions Playing Surfaces One organized sport for which the impactattenuating properties of the playing-surface are particularly important is cheerleading. Concussions and other closed head injuries account for 4-6% of all cheerleading injuries. From , concussion rates in cheerleading have increased by 26% each year.
27 Prevention of Concussions Research from Canada found that body checking was associated with an increased risk of concussions in youth ages In a study comparing rates of concussion in male ice hockey players before and after a Canada rule change that lowered the legal age of body checking from 11 to 9, the odds of an ED visit due to a body checking-related concussion increased significantly. USA hockey delayed the legal age for body checking from 12 to 14 starting with the season.
28 Prevention of Concussion Education The CDC created the Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports toolkit in The toolkit is designed to provide coaches, school administrators, athletes and parents with practical information on concussions from a reliable source. Survey assessments of the Heads Up campaign among coaches indicated that the coaches who read the materials viewed concussions more seriously and were better able to identify athletes who may have had a concussion.
29 Prevention of Concussion Education Heads up: Brain Injury in Your Practice is a CDC initiative that provides materials on concussion for physicians. An analysis of the effect of the toolkit in a random sample of physicians showed no difference in general knowledge between a group who read the materials and a control group that did not. However, physicians who received the toolkit were significantly less likely to recommend next-day return to play suggesting that continuing medical education may improve the management of patients with concussion.
30 Oregon State Concussion Legislation Max s law is named for Max Conradt a high school quarterback who sustained a severe head injury from second impact syndrome when he returned to play within a week s time of suffering a previous concussion.
31 RECOGNIZE: All coaches of a school athletic team must receive annual training in recognizing the symptoms of concussion. REMOVE: Students suspected of having a concussion must be removed from play. REFER: Students suspected of sustaining a concussion must be evaluated by a properly trained medical professional. RETURN: A student may return to play when all symptoms have resolved, at least one day has elapsed since the injury, and a medical release has been obtained.
32 Jenna s law is named after Sister s Oregon athlete Jenna Senevaw who s olympic skiing dreams ended with the diagnosis of post concussion syndrome. The law extends the requirements of Max s law to referees and to all youth sports, including community-and-church based programs.
33 Resources Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports (CDC) NFHS Online Concussion Education Course Oregon Concussion Awareness and Management Program
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