Natural Selection and Evolution. Geology 230 Fossils and Evolution

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Natural Selection and Evolution. Geology 230 Fossils and Evolution"

Transcription

1 Natural Selection and Evolution Geology 230 Fossils and Evolution

2 The Study of Evolution Evidence from living and fossil organisms Biology study of living organisms Genetics: Genotype Comparative Anatomy: Phenotype Paleontology or Paleobiology study of fossilized organisms: Phenotype

3 Natural Selection The theory of natural selection was proposed by Charles Darwin in 1859, in his book: The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. Alfred Russell Wallace independently developed the same theory as Darwin in the 1850s.

4 One of the most famous and influential books of science.

5 Darwin drew an analogy between artificial selection and natural selection. Here we see dog breeds produced by artificial selection.

6 Natural Selection: Key Points 3 facts lead to a conclusion: Fact 1. Overproduction of offspring Fact 2. Variation within populations Fact 3. Competition for resources Conclusion: Survival of the fittest

7

8

9 Sources of Variation Random mutations of DNA in the sex cells (Zimmer, p. 105) >>99.9% are harmful or neutral adaptive mutations are rare Sexual recombination new variants created by mixing of genes (alleles) e.g., you have 4096 direct ancestors going back just 12 generations (2 12 ) Genetic Drift random allele changes that happen in small populations (Zimmer, p )

10 Variations within Natural Populations are the Raw Materials for Natural Selection, including Sexual Selection. Do you think I m sexy?

11 One species of tree snail. Why so many colors?

12 Chromosomes contain Genes composed of DNA

13 The Anatomy of a Gene. Helical strands of DNA contain the blueprints for all forms of life.

14 The DNA molecule contains nitrogenous bases (A,T,C,G) that code for different amino acids, which form proteins.

15 Selection Genotypes and phenotypes can be ranked by fitness. Negative Selection a given allele reduces reproductive success. Positive Selection a given allele increases reproductive success. Stabilizing Selection extremes are eliminated. Human baby size is an example.

16 Fitness The fitness of a population or species is the product of the heritability of traits times the strength of selection. If a trait s heritability is high, even weak selection can lead to evolutionary change. Species will climb peaks on adaptive landscapes. But adaptive landscapes change over time.

17 Adaptive Landscapes

18 Evidence of Evolution Homology, or homologous features: Evidence of common ancestry. Analogous organs/features, or Convergent Evolution: Independent evolution of adaptive features. Vestigial organs: Evidence for evolutionary change. Adaptive radiation: New adaptations lead to rapid speciation.

19 Homology The recognition of common ancestry of features. e.g. all primates have 5 fingers; apes and humans lack a tail; all tetrapods have similar limb bones. Studied by comparative anatomy of living and fossil organisms.

20 Homologous features are used to recognize common evolutionary ancestry.

21 Hominoids

22 Chimp Human

23 Chimp Gorilla

24 Homologous features are used to recognize common evolutionary ancestry.

25 Examples of homologous features in the forelimbs of tetrapods.

26 Homologous development between different species indicates common ancestry.

27 Universal Tree of Life mapped with homolgies

28 Analogous Organs or Convergent Evolution Produced by evolutionary convergence. Independent origin of similar features is called convergent evolution. Shows natural selection in operation. e.g., insects, birds, bats, and pterosaurs all evolved wings independently

29 Examples of analogous features indicating convergent evolution and not common ancestry. Pterosaur Bat Bird

30 Other examples of convergent evolution: armadillo and pangolin; monotreme and placental anteaters; thylacines and canines Tasmanian Wolf

31 Vestigial Organs Organs no longer used, but show clear evidence of evolutionary change. e.g., pelvic bones of modern whales, vestiges of former legs e.g., human body hair, a vestige of former fur

32 vestigial whale hips

33 Vestigial Organs in Humans. Mostly useless now. Goose Bumps

34 Adaptive Radiation Natural selection can fill a variety of niches starting with a single species. e.g., Darwin s finches in the Galapagos Islands, 13 species evolved from one ancestral species e.g., all birds evolved from Archaeopteryx

35 The beaks of Darwin s finches are adapted to the variety of food types available on the different islands in the Galapagos Islands.

36 Type specimens of finches collected by Darwin in the Galapagos Islands

37

38 Archaeopteryx, the first bird, Jurassic age.

39

40 Adaptive Radiation from Archaeopteryx 9700 species of living birds

41 The Origin of New Species: Speciation Natural selection by itself will not increase the number of species on the planet. How does this happen? Biological species definition: Interbreeding populations reproductively isolated from other such populations. New species must be reproductively isolated from their ancestral species to be distinct.

42 Lions and tigers (Panthera) share a close common ancestor (within last million years) as shown by ability to hybridize. But the hybrids are usually sterile, indicating distinct species.

43 Liger

44 Equus asinus Equus caballus 64 chromosomes 62 chromosomes 63 chromosomes = 63 Embryo Horses and donkeys (Equus) share a common ancestor. Their hybrid, the mule, is sterile.

45 Zonkey Zebra and donkey hybrid Messing around with species. Where are the boundaries? Zebroid or Zorse Zebra and horse hybrid

46 Speciation, cont d Allopatric speciation: produced by geographic isolation of populations. Natural selection causes an isolated population to adapt to its local environment. Given enough time, and no outside interbreeding, a new species will evolve.

47 Rates of Evolution Phyletic gradualism - continuous and gradual change over time Punctuated Equilibrium - long periods of stasis punctuated by rapid change, probably associated with a bottleneck in population size.

48

49

50 Geographic Separation and Isolation Stasis Stasis Punctuated Change

51 Example of Stasis Medium ground finch (Geospiza fortis) in the Galapagos Islands (Zimmer, p ). During drought, large beaks adaptive for opening hard, woody seeds. During wet times (El Niño), small beaks adaptive for abundant small seeds. Alternating wet-dry seasons produce no net change in beak size.

52 Rates of Evolution Large populations evolve very slowly or almost not at all. Advantageous mutations pass very slowly through a population. Small populations can evolve very rapidly. Advantageous mutations can be passed very quickly through the population.

53 Natural Selection in Action See the example of evolutionary change in lizards on islands in the Adriatic Sea, p in Zimmer. A new variety, if not a new species, evolved in just 33 years.

54 Evolution in Action Passing through a bottleneck: Pesticide resistant insects Antibiotic resistant bacteria New Drug-Resistant Superbugs Found in 3 States

55 An extreme selection event severely reduces population size and changes the composition of the gene pool of the species. Bottleneck Effect

56 Microevolution vs Macroevolution Small changes, such as seen in modern bacteria or beaks in finches, are examples of microevolution. Microevolution leads to new species over time. Large changes, such as the evolution of major features, like wings in birds, or legs in fish, are examples of macroevolution. Macroevolution leads to significant evolutionary change.

57 Macroevolution How did eyes evolve? See this video:

58 Role of the Fossil Record Provides the only actual record of evolutionary change over geologic time. Provides data on the timing of evolutionary origins. Shows mass extinctions to be a major cause of evolutionary change, although strictly speaking, it is not an evolutionary process. Provides information on rates of evolution.

59 Evolutionary Origins Oldest life: 3.5 BY Oldest nucleated cells: 2.1 BY First animals: 600 MY First tetrapods: 375 MY First dinosaurs: 220 MY First mammals: 220 MY First hominids: 4 MY

60 Evolution of Tetrapods

61 Acanthostega and Ichthyostega

62 Evolution of Whales

63 Mass Extinctions Survival of the luckiest? Over geologic time, mass extinctions may subvert the notion of survival of the fittest. Is evolutionary history predictable?

64 The Record of Mass Extinctions

65 Rates of Evolution Biologists cannot measure evolutionary rates. They have only the present. Darwin assumed gradual rates. Paleontologists can measure evolutionary rates. They have found punctuated equilibria to be the major pattern in fossil species rather than gradual change.

Biology 1406 - Notes for exam 5 - Population genetics Ch 13, 14, 15

Biology 1406 - Notes for exam 5 - Population genetics Ch 13, 14, 15 Biology 1406 - Notes for exam 5 - Population genetics Ch 13, 14, 15 Species - group of individuals that are capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring; genetically similar 13.7, 14.2 Population

More information

Ch. 13 How Populations Evolve Period. 4. Describe Lamarck s proposed theory of evolution, The Theory of Acquired Traits.

Ch. 13 How Populations Evolve Period. 4. Describe Lamarck s proposed theory of evolution, The Theory of Acquired Traits. Ch. 13 How Populations Evolve Name Period California State Standards covered by this chapter: Evolution 7. The frequency of an allele in a gene pool of a population depends on many factors and may be stable

More information

Evolution and Darwin

Evolution and Darwin Evolution and Darwin Evolution The processes that have transformed life on earth from it s earliest forms to the vast diversity that characterizes it today. A change in the genes!!!!!!!! Old Theories of

More information

How Populations Evolve

How Populations Evolve How Populations Evolve Darwin and the Origin of the Species Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, November 24, 1859. Darwin presented two main concepts: Life

More information

Quiz #4 Ch. 4 Modern Evolutionary Theory

Quiz #4 Ch. 4 Modern Evolutionary Theory Physical Anthropology Summer 2014 Dr. Leanna Wolfe Quiz #4 Ch. 4 Modern Evolutionary Theory 1. T/F Evolution by natural selection works directly on individuals, transforming populations. 2. T/F A genotypic

More information

What two Assumptions did Darwin have to arrive at BEFORE he could form his theories of evolution?

What two Assumptions did Darwin have to arrive at BEFORE he could form his theories of evolution? Influences on Darwin s Thinking: What ideas did each of the listed names below contribute to Darwin s thinking about evolution? (very brief) Georges Buffon: Jean Baptiste Lamarck: Charles Lyell: Thomas

More information

Theories of Evolution: A Brief History (take notes from classmates presentations)

Theories of Evolution: A Brief History (take notes from classmates presentations) Packet Theories of : A Brief History (take notes from classmates presentations) Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) William Paley (1743-1805) Georges Cuvier (1769-1832) Thomas Malthus (1766-1834) Jean Baptiste Lamarck

More information

Chapter 10. The Theory of Evolution Worksheets. (Opening image copyright Daniel Korzeniewski, Used under license from Shutterstock.com.

Chapter 10. The Theory of Evolution Worksheets. (Opening image copyright Daniel Korzeniewski, Used under license from Shutterstock.com. Chapter 10 The Theory of Evolution Worksheets (Opening image copyright Daniel Korzeniewski, 2010. Used under license from Shutterstock.com.) Lesson 10.1: Darwin and the Theory of Evolution Lesson 10.2:

More information

Evolution Part 1. Unit 10 Miss Wheeler

Evolution Part 1. Unit 10 Miss Wheeler Evolution Part 1 Unit 10 Miss Wheeler Evolution Evolution- The process by which organisms have changed (and will continue changing) over time Charles Darwin- Father of Evolution Traveled for 5 years on

More information

Principles of Evolution - Origin of Species

Principles of Evolution - Origin of Species Theories of Organic Evolution X Multiple Centers of Creation (de Buffon) developed the concept of "centers of creation throughout the world organisms had arisen, which other species had evolved from X

More information

CCR Biology - Chapter 10 Practice Test - Summer 2012

CCR Biology - Chapter 10 Practice Test - Summer 2012 Name: Class: Date: CCR Biology - Chapter 10 Practice Test - Summer 2012 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What is the term for a feature

More information

Evidence for evolution factsheet

Evidence for evolution factsheet The theory of evolution by natural selection is supported by a great deal of evidence. Fossils Fossils are formed when organisms become buried in sediments, causing little decomposition of the organism.

More information

Darwin & His Theories

Darwin & His Theories Darwin & His Theories The Origin of Species In 1859, Darwin publish his ideas in a book, The Origin of Species Stated animals and plants changed gradually over time; still changing. Animals living today

More information

Summary. 16 1 Genes and Variation. 16 2 Evolution as Genetic Change. Name Class Date

Summary. 16 1 Genes and Variation. 16 2 Evolution as Genetic Change. Name Class Date Chapter 16 Summary Evolution of Populations 16 1 Genes and Variation Darwin s original ideas can now be understood in genetic terms. Beginning with variation, we now know that traits are controlled by

More information

Ch.16-17 Review. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Ch.16-17 Review. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Name: Class: Date: Ch.16-17 Review Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which of the following statements describe what all members of a population

More information

Section 10.1. KEY CONCEPT There were theories of biological and geologic change before Darwin.

Section 10.1. KEY CONCEPT There were theories of biological and geologic change before Darwin. Section 10.1 KEY CONCEPT There were theories of biological and geologic change before Darwin. Early scientists proposed ideas about evolution. Evolution is the biological change process by which descendants

More information

Problem Set 5 BILD10 / Winter 2014 Chapters 8, 10-12

Problem Set 5 BILD10 / Winter 2014 Chapters 8, 10-12 Chapter 8: Evolution and Natural Selection 1) A population is: a) a group of species that shares the same habitat. b) a group of individuals of the same species that lives in the same general location

More information

Microevolution: The mechanism of evolution

Microevolution: The mechanism of evolution Microevolution: The mechanism of evolution What is it that evolves? Not individual organisms Populations are the smallest units that evolve Population: members of a species (interbreeding individuals and

More information

Evolution (18%) 11 Items Sample Test Prep Questions

Evolution (18%) 11 Items Sample Test Prep Questions Evolution (18%) 11 Items Sample Test Prep Questions Grade 7 (Evolution) 3.a Students know both genetic variation and environmental factors are causes of evolution and diversity of organisms. (pg. 109 Science

More information

Section Review 15-1 1.

Section Review 15-1 1. Section Review 15-1 1. Beagle 2. theory of evolution 3. varied 4. Darwin s curiosity might have led him to make many observations and ask questions about the natural world. His analytical nature may have

More information

9.1: Mechanisms of Evolution and Their Effect on Populations pg. 350-359

9.1: Mechanisms of Evolution and Their Effect on Populations pg. 350-359 9.1: Mechanisms of Evolution and Their Effect on Populations pg. 350-359 Key Terms: gene flow, non-random mating, genetic drift, founder effect, bottleneck effect, stabilizing selection, directional selection

More information

Practice Questions 1: Evolution

Practice Questions 1: Evolution Practice Questions 1: Evolution 1. Which concept is best illustrated in the flowchart below? A. natural selection B. genetic manipulation C. dynamic equilibrium D. material cycles 2. The diagram below

More information

evolutionary biologists

evolutionary biologists 1 evolution 2 Darwin On November 24, 1859, Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. Darwin made two points in The Origin of Species: Today s organisms descended

More information

8.2: Sources of Evidence for Evolution pg

8.2: Sources of Evidence for Evolution pg 8.2: Sources of Evidence for Evolution pg. 332-340 Key Terms: fossil record, transitional fossil, vestigial structure, biogeography, homologous structures, analogous structures, embryology. Darwin was

More information

Mechanisms of Evolution

Mechanisms of Evolution page 2 page 3 Teacher's Notes Mechanisms of Evolution Grades: 11-12 Duration: 28 mins Summary of Program Evolution is the gradual change that can be seen in a population s genetic composition, from one

More information

Lecture 10 Friday, March 20, 2009

Lecture 10 Friday, March 20, 2009 Lecture 10 Friday, March 20, 2009 Reproductive isolating mechanisms Prezygotic barriers: Anything that prevents mating and fertilization is a prezygotic mechanism. Habitat isolation, behavioral isolation,

More information

Evolution, Natural Selection, and Adaptation

Evolution, Natural Selection, and Adaptation Evolution, Natural Selection, and Adaptation Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution. (Theodosius Dobzhansky) Charles Darwin (1809-1882) Voyage of HMS Beagle (1831-1836) Thinking

More information

Name Class Date WHAT I KNOW. about how organisms have changed. grown in complexity over time.

Name Class Date WHAT I KNOW. about how organisms have changed. grown in complexity over time. History of Life Evolution Q: How do fossils help biologists understand the history of life on Earth? 19.1 How do scientists use fossils to study Earth s history? WHAT I KNOW SAMPLE ANSWER: Fossils give

More information

BIO 1: Review: Evolution

BIO 1: Review: Evolution Name: Class: Date: ID: A BIO 1: Review: Evolution True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. 1. Radiometric dating measures the age of an object by measuring the proportions of radioactive

More information

This is a series of skulls and front leg fossils of organisms believed to be ancestors of the modern-day horse.

This is a series of skulls and front leg fossils of organisms believed to be ancestors of the modern-day horse. Evidence of Evolution Background When Charles Darwin first proposed the idea that all new species descend from an ancestor, he performed an exhaustive amount of research to provide as much evidence as

More information

Chapter 16 How Populations Evolve

Chapter 16 How Populations Evolve Title Chapter 16 How Populations Evolve Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Population Genetics A population is all of the members of a single species

More information

Chapter 21 Active Reading Guide The Evolution of Populations

Chapter 21 Active Reading Guide The Evolution of Populations Name: Roksana Korbi AP Biology Chapter 21 Active Reading Guide The Evolution of Populations This chapter begins with the idea that we focused on as we closed Chapter 19: Individuals do not evolve! Populations

More information

Unit 1 - Fundamental Biology Skills and Knowledge

Unit 1 - Fundamental Biology Skills and Knowledge PREP TM AP* Biology Prep Course Syllabus Foundational Topics Review 10 units that cover fundamental biology topics typically covered in a general biology course. This content is perfect to use as a summer

More information

WJEC AS Biology Biodiversity & Classification (2.1 All Organisms are related through their Evolutionary History)

WJEC AS Biology Biodiversity & Classification (2.1 All Organisms are related through their Evolutionary History) Name:.. Set:. Specification Points: WJEC AS Biology Biodiversity & Classification (2.1 All Organisms are related through their Evolutionary History) (a) Biodiversity is the number of different organisms

More information

11.1. A population shares a common gene pool. The Evolution of Populations CHAPTER 11. Fill in the concept map below.

11.1. A population shares a common gene pool. The Evolution of Populations CHAPTER 11. Fill in the concept map below. 11.1 GENETIC VARIATION WITHIN POPULATIONS Study Guide KEY CONCEPT A population shares a common gene pool. VOCABULARY gene pool allele frequency MAIN IDEA: Genetic variation in a population increases the

More information

Chapter 16 Evolution of Populations. 16.1 Genes and Variation Biology Mr. Hines

Chapter 16 Evolution of Populations. 16.1 Genes and Variation Biology Mr. Hines Chapter 16 Evolution of Populations 16.1 Genes and Variation Biology Mr. Hines Figure 1-21 Levels of Organization Section 1-3 Levels of organization Biosphere Ecosystem The part of Earth that contains

More information

Allele Frequencies: Changing. Chapter 15

Allele Frequencies: Changing. Chapter 15 Allele Frequencies: Changing Chapter 15 Changing Allele Frequencies 1. Mutation introduces new alleles into population 2. Natural Selection specific alleles are more likely to be passed down because they

More information

CHAPTER 23 THE EVOLUTIONS OF POPULATIONS. Section B: Causes of Microevolution

CHAPTER 23 THE EVOLUTIONS OF POPULATIONS. Section B: Causes of Microevolution CHAPTER 23 THE EVOLUTIONS OF POPULATIONS Section B: Causes of Microevolution 1. Microevolution is generation-to-generation change in a population s allele frequencies 2. The two main causes of microevolution

More information

8.1: Scientific Contributions to a Theory of Evolution pg

8.1: Scientific Contributions to a Theory of Evolution pg 8.1: Scientific Contributions to a Theory of Evolution pg. 326-331 Key Terms: paleontology, catastrophism, uniformitarianism, inheritance of acquired characteristics, theory of evolution by natural selection,

More information

A Hands-On Exercise To Demonstrate Evolution

A Hands-On Exercise To Demonstrate Evolution HOW-TO-DO-IT A Hands-On Exercise To Demonstrate Evolution by Natural Selection & Genetic Drift H ELEN J. YOUNG T RUMAN P. Y OUNG Although students learn (i.e., hear about) the components of evolution by

More information

MS. Structure, Function, and Information Processing

MS. Structure, Function, and Information Processing MIDDLE SCHOOL LIFE SCIENCE Alignment with National Science Standards Use the chart below to find Science A-Z units that best support the Next Generation Science Standards* for Middle School Life Science,

More information

What is evolution? - Helena Curtis and N. Sue Barnes, Biology, 5th ed. 1989 Worth Publishers, p.974

What is evolution? - Helena Curtis and N. Sue Barnes, Biology, 5th ed. 1989 Worth Publishers, p.974 Chapter 16 What is evolution? Evolution is a process that results in heritable changes in a population spread over many generations. Evolution can be precisely defined as any change in the frequency of

More information

C1. A gene pool is all of the genes present in a particular population. Each type of gene within a gene pool may exist in one or more alleles.

C1. A gene pool is all of the genes present in a particular population. Each type of gene within a gene pool may exist in one or more alleles. C1. A gene pool is all of the genes present in a particular population. Each type of gene within a gene pool may exist in one or more alleles. The prevalence of an allele within the gene pool is described

More information

8.11C Explore how short and long term environmental changes affect organisms and traits in subsequent populations

8.11C Explore how short and long term environmental changes affect organisms and traits in subsequent populations 8.11C Explore how short and long term environmental changes affect organisms and traits in subsequent populations Watch and Think https://www.youtube.com/embed/ysa5obhxz- Q?feature=player_embedded What

More information

HSC YEAR 12 BIOLOGY BLUEPRINT OF LIFE

HSC YEAR 12 BIOLOGY BLUEPRINT OF LIFE HSC YEAR 12 BIOLOGY BLUEPRINT OF LIFE First I would like to say that this document should be used as a guideline in building your own syllabus answers, rather than copied and memorised. The latter strategy

More information

II B. Gene Flow. II C. Assortative Mating. II D. Genetic Drift. II E. Natural Selection. Northern Elephant Seal: Example of Bottleneck

II B. Gene Flow. II C. Assortative Mating. II D. Genetic Drift. II E. Natural Selection. Northern Elephant Seal: Example of Bottleneck I. What is Evolution? Agents of Evolutionary Change The Five Forces of Evolution and How We Measure Them A. First, remember that Evolution is a two-stage process: 1. Production and redistribution of variation

More information

Characteristics and classification of living organisms

Characteristics and classification of living organisms Unit 1 Characteristics and classification of living organisms Welcome to the exciting and amazing world of living things. Go outside and look around you. Look at the sky, the soil, trees, plants, people,

More information

Campbell Biology in Focus Correlation for AP Biology Curriculum Framework

Campbell Biology in Focus Correlation for AP Biology Curriculum Framework Campbell Biology in Focus Correlation for AP Biology Curriculum Framework Chapters/ Graphical analysis of allele frequencies in a population 5 Application of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium equation 1,

More information

Macroevolution: Change above the species level NABT 2006 Evolution Symposium

Macroevolution: Change above the species level NABT 2006 Evolution Symposium Introduction Macroevolution: Change above the species level NABT 2006 Evolution Symposium The basic concept of evolution change over time can be examined in two different time frames. The first, which

More information

Introduction Darwin Synthetic Interview Webquests

Introduction Darwin Synthetic Interview Webquests Page 22 2 Introduction Darwin Synthetic Interview Webquests Overview: There are two 40 minute activities in this lesson plan that can be used independently or together. For both activities, students can

More information

AP Biology Essential Knowledge Student Diagnostic

AP Biology Essential Knowledge Student Diagnostic AP Biology Essential Knowledge Student Diagnostic Background The Essential Knowledge statements provided in the AP Biology Curriculum Framework are scientific claims describing phenomenon occurring in

More information

Classification and Evolution

Classification and Evolution Classification and Evolution Starter: How many different ways could I split these objects into 2 groups? Classification All living things can also be grouped how do we decide which groups to put them into?

More information

Evolutionary Evidence

Evolutionary Evidence Evolutionary Evidence 7th Grade, Science and English/Language Arts: Age of Mammals Make the most of your Museum field trip by integrating it into your classroom curriculum. These lesson plans provide a

More information

B2 6 Old and New Species

B2 6 Old and New Species B2 6 Old and New Species 62 minutes 62 marks Page of 22 Q. Fossils give us evidence for the theory of evolution. The diagrams show how a fish became a fossil. (a) In the sentences below, cross out the

More information

1. Over the past century, several scientists around the world have made the following observations:

1. Over the past century, several scientists around the world have made the following observations: Evolution Keystone Review 1. Over the past century, several scientists around the world have made the following observations: New mitochondria and plastids can only be generated by old mitochondria and

More information

GENETICS AND HEREDITY

GENETICS AND HEREDITY Page No.1 GENETICS Genetics is the science which deals with the mechanisms responsible for similarities and differences among closely related species. The term genetic was coined by W.Batesmanin 1905.

More information

A Correlation of Pearson Miller & Levine Biology 2014 To the Utah Core State Standards for Biology Grades 9-12

A Correlation of Pearson Miller & Levine Biology 2014 To the Utah Core State Standards for Biology Grades 9-12 A Correlation of Pearson To the Utah Core State Standards Resource Title: Publisher: Pearson Education publishing as Prentice Hall ISBN (10 or 13 digit unique identifier is required): SE: 9780133242003

More information

Natural Selection v Evolution

Natural Selection v Evolution Adaptation Natural Selection v Evolution Evolution = observed change in organisms over historic and geologic time Natural selection = one hypothesized mechanism for change Has enormous body of supporting

More information

Heredity - Patterns of Inheritance

Heredity - Patterns of Inheritance Heredity - Patterns of Inheritance Genes and Alleles A. Genes 1. A sequence of nucleotides that codes for a special functional product a. Transfer RNA b. Enzyme c. Structural protein d. Pigments 2. Genes

More information

Workshop on Microevolution

Workshop on Microevolution Workshop on Microevolution by Dana Krempels I. Discuss the meaning of: a. species f. heritable traits (consider "nature vs. nurture") b. population g. lethal alleles c. gene pool h. adaptive, maladaptive,

More information

WEEK 6 EOC Review Evolution, Human Body, Biotechnology

WEEK 6 EOC Review Evolution, Human Body, Biotechnology WEEK 6 EOC Review Evolution, Human Body, Biotechnology Benchmarks: SC.912.L.15.13 Describe the conditions required for natural selection, including: overproduction of offspring, inherited variation, and

More information

Okami Study Guide: Chapter 3 1

Okami Study Guide: Chapter 3 1 Okami Study Guide: Chapter 3 1 Chapter in Review 1. Heredity is the tendency of offspring to resemble their parents in various ways. Genes are units of heredity. They are functional strands of DNA grouped

More information

Key Questions. How is evolution defined in genetic terms?

Key Questions. How is evolution defined in genetic terms? Getting Started Objectives 17.1.1 Define evolution in genetic terms. 17.1.2 Identify the main sources of genetic variation in a population. 17.1.3 State what determines the number of phenotypes for a trait.

More information

The Case of the Threespine Stickleback 3 A Model of Macroevolution by James E. Platt, University of Denver

The Case of the Threespine Stickleback 3 A Model of Macroevolution by James E. Platt, University of Denver The Case of the Threespine Stickleback 3 A Model of Macroevolution by James E. Platt, University of Denver Although many biologists would not necessarily agree on an exact definition of the term, macroevolution

More information

The Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection

The Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection Section 1 The Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection Objectives Identify several observations that led Darwin to conclude that species evolve. 3C 3F Relate the process of natural selection to its outcome.

More information

Preparation. Educator s Section: pp. 1 3 Unit 1 instructions: pp. 4 5 Unit 2 instructions: pp. 6 7 Masters/worksheets: pp. 8-17

Preparation. Educator s Section: pp. 1 3 Unit 1 instructions: pp. 4 5 Unit 2 instructions: pp. 6 7 Masters/worksheets: pp. 8-17 ActionBioscience.org lesson To accompany the article by Lawrence M. Page, Ph.D.: "Planetary Biodiversity Inventories: A Response to the Taxonomic Crisis" (May 2006) http://www.actionbioscience.org/biodiversity/page.html

More information

Geologic Time Scale and Change Over Time. Module 1.4

Geologic Time Scale and Change Over Time. Module 1.4 Geologic Time Scale and Change Over Time Module 1.4 Geologic Time Scale Geologic time Earth s history is divided into time units that make up a geologic time scale. Time units on the scale are based on

More information

Lesson Title: Constructing a Dichotomous Key and Exploring Its Relationship to Evolutionary Patterns

Lesson Title: Constructing a Dichotomous Key and Exploring Its Relationship to Evolutionary Patterns Lesson Title: Constructing a Dichotomous Key and Exploring Its Relationship to Evolutionary Patterns NSF GK-12 Fellow: Tommy Detmer Grade Level: 4 th and 5 th grade Type of Lesson: STEM Objectives: The

More information

Introduction to Physical Anthropology - Study Guide - Focus Topics

Introduction to Physical Anthropology - Study Guide - Focus Topics Introduction to Physical Anthropology - Study Guide - Focus Topics Chapter 1 Species: Recognize all definitions. Evolution: Describe all processes. Culture: Define and describe importance. Biocultural:

More information

UNIT 9 Evolution Part 1. Microevolution: Unique Gene Pools and Changing Allele Frequencies

UNIT 9 Evolution Part 1. Microevolution: Unique Gene Pools and Changing Allele Frequencies UNIT 9 Evolution Part 1 Microevolution: Unique Gene Pools and Changing Allele Frequencies Adaptations and Fitness An adaptation is a genetically controlled trait that is favored by natural selection and

More information

Connected Experience: Evolution and the Galápagos Tortoise

Connected Experience: Evolution and the Galápagos Tortoise Connected Experience: Evolution and the Galápagos Tortoise GRADE LEVELS 6 th -8 th ; California Content Standards for 7 th and High School Biology Objectives SUBJECTS Life Sciences DURATION Pre-Visit:

More information

Biology 101 Section 1 The Scientific Study of Life. Biology = the study of living things and their interactions. Bio life logy study of

Biology 101 Section 1 The Scientific Study of Life. Biology = the study of living things and their interactions. Bio life logy study of Biology 101 Section 1 The Scientific Study of Life Biology = the study of living things and their interactions. Bio life logy study of What is life? Consider the meaning of what is alive. Organization

More information

Understanding by Design. Title: BIOLOGY/LAB. Established Goal(s) / Content Standard(s): Essential Question(s) Understanding(s):

Understanding by Design. Title: BIOLOGY/LAB. Established Goal(s) / Content Standard(s): Essential Question(s) Understanding(s): Understanding by Design Title: BIOLOGY/LAB Standard: EVOLUTION and BIODIVERSITY Grade(s):9/10/11/12 Established Goal(s) / Content Standard(s): 5. Evolution and Biodiversity Central Concepts: Evolution

More information

Microevolution is a change in population s gene pool [1]

Microevolution is a change in population s gene pool [1] GUIDED READING - Ch. 14 - Section 4 NAME: Please print out these pages and HANDWRITE the answers directly on the printouts. Typed work or answers on separate sheets of paper will not be accepted. Importantly,

More information

CHAPTER 22 Descent with Modification: A Darwinian View of Life. Section A: Historical Context for Evolutionary Theory

CHAPTER 22 Descent with Modification: A Darwinian View of Life. Section A: Historical Context for Evolutionary Theory CHAPTER 22 Descent with Modification: A Darwinian View of Life Section A: Historical Context for Evolutionary Theory 1. Western culture resisted evolutionary views of life 2. Theories of geologic gradualism

More information

Theory of Evolution. A. the beginning of life B. the evolution of eukaryotes C. the evolution of archaebacteria D. the beginning of terrestrial life

Theory of Evolution. A. the beginning of life B. the evolution of eukaryotes C. the evolution of archaebacteria D. the beginning of terrestrial life Theory of Evolution 1. In 1966, American biologist Lynn Margulis proposed the theory of endosymbiosis, or the idea that mitochondria are the descendents of symbiotic, aerobic eubacteria. What does the

More information

Lab 2/Phylogenetics/September 16, 2002 1 PHYLOGENETICS

Lab 2/Phylogenetics/September 16, 2002 1 PHYLOGENETICS Lab 2/Phylogenetics/September 16, 2002 1 Read: Tudge Chapter 2 PHYLOGENETICS Objective of the Lab: To understand how DNA and protein sequence information can be used to make comparisons and assess evolutionary

More information

Science Focus 9 Biological Diversity Review Booklet. Explain the difference between structural and behavioral adaptations with examples of each.

Science Focus 9 Biological Diversity Review Booklet. Explain the difference between structural and behavioral adaptations with examples of each. Topic 1 - Biological Diversity and Survival What does the term biological diversity refer to? What are the main components of biological diversity? Explain the difference between structural and behavioral

More information

Biology Final Exam Study Guide: Semester 2

Biology Final Exam Study Guide: Semester 2 Biology Final Exam Study Guide: Semester 2 Questions 1. Scientific method: What does each of these entail? Investigation and Experimentation Problem Hypothesis Methods Results/Data Discussion/Conclusion

More information

Campbell Biology Concepts & Connections 8 th Edition, 2015

Campbell Biology Concepts & Connections 8 th Edition, 2015 A Correlation of Campbell Biology Concepts & Connections To the Next Generation Science Standards A Correlation of, HS-LS1 From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes HS-LS1-1. Construct an explanation

More information

MECHANISMS OF EVOLUTION

MECHANISMS OF EVOLUTION MECHANISMS OF EVOLUTION DESCENT WITH MODIFICATION: A DARWINIAN VIEW OF LIFE FRAMEWORK This chapter describes Darwin's formulation of evolution-descent from a common ancestor modified by the mechanism of

More information

8th Grade Midterm: PRACTICE TEST

8th Grade Midterm: PRACTICE TEST 8th Grade Midterm: PRACTICE TEST Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What are the products of photosynthesis? a. carbon dioxide and water b.

More information

The Story of Human Evolution Part 1: From ape-like ancestors to modern humans

The Story of Human Evolution Part 1: From ape-like ancestors to modern humans The Story of Human Evolution Part 1: From ape-like ancestors to modern humans Slide 1 The Story of Human Evolution This powerpoint presentation tells the story of who we are and where we came from - how

More information

Worksheet: The theory of natural selection

Worksheet: The theory of natural selection Worksheet: The theory of natural selection Senior Phase Grade 7-9 Learning area: Natural Science Strand: Life and living Theme: Biodiversity, change and continuity Specific Aim 1: Acquiring knowledge of

More information

Population Genetics -- Evolutionary Stasis and the Hardy-Weinberg Principles 1

Population Genetics -- Evolutionary Stasis and the Hardy-Weinberg Principles 1 Population Genetics -- Evolutionary Stasis and the Hardy-Weinberg Principles 1 Review and Introduction Mendel presented the first successful theory of the inheritance of biological variation. He viewed

More information

Evolution UNIT 4. CHAPTER 10 Principles of Evolution 296. CHAPTER 11 The Evolution of Populations 326. CHAPTER 12 The History of Life 358

Evolution UNIT 4. CHAPTER 10 Principles of Evolution 296. CHAPTER 11 The Evolution of Populations 326. CHAPTER 12 The History of Life 358 UNIT 4 Evolution CHAPTER 10 Principles of Evolution 296 CHAPTER 11 The Evolution of Populations 326 CHAPTER 12 The History of Life 358 INTERNET MAGAZINE Drug-Resistant Bacteria A Global Health Issue 390

More information

Science Focus 9 Biological Diversity Unit Test

Science Focus 9 Biological Diversity Unit Test Name Class Biological Diversity Unit Test 1. The most successful life form seems to be the insect. It is a species - a particular group of organisms that have the same structure and can... A. have the

More information

3 The Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras

3 The Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras CHAPTER 9 3 The Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras SECTION A View of Earth s Past KEY IDEAS As you read this section, keep these questions in mind: What were the periods of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras? What

More information

Cell Division. Use Target Reading Skills. This section explains how cells grow and divide.

Cell Division. Use Target Reading Skills. This section explains how cells grow and divide. Cell Processes and Energy Name Date Class Cell Processes and Energy Guided Reading and Study Cell Division This section explains how cells grow and divide. Use Target Reading Skills As you read, make a

More information

Endemic and Introduced Species Lesson Plan

Endemic and Introduced Species Lesson Plan Grade Level: 6-8 Curriculum Focus: Ecosystems and Biomes Lesson Duration: Two class periods Student Objectives Materials Understand and apply the term endemic to animal and plant life, meaning native,

More information

Smart Science Lessons and Middle School Next Generation Science Standards

Smart Science Lessons and Middle School Next Generation Science Standards Smart Science Lessons and Middle School Next Generation Science Standards You have chosen the right place to find great science learning and, beyond learning, how to think. The NGSS emphasize thinking

More information

Name: DUE: May 2, 2013 Ms. Galaydick. Geologic Time Scale Era Period End date (in millions of years) Cenozoic Quaternary present

Name: DUE: May 2, 2013 Ms. Galaydick. Geologic Time Scale Era Period End date (in millions of years) Cenozoic Quaternary present Name: DUE: May 2, 2013 Ms. Galaydick Objective: Use the diagrams to answer the questions for each set: USING SCIENCE SKILLS PART #1 Geologic Time Scale Era Period End date (in millions of years) Cenozoic

More information

Bio EOC Topics for Cell Reproduction: Bio EOC Questions for Cell Reproduction:

Bio EOC Topics for Cell Reproduction: Bio EOC Questions for Cell Reproduction: Bio EOC Topics for Cell Reproduction: Asexual vs. sexual reproduction Mitosis steps, diagrams, purpose o Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase, Cytokinesis Meiosis steps, diagrams, purpose

More information

Bio EOC Topics for Ecology, Evolution and Natural Selection:

Bio EOC Topics for Ecology, Evolution and Natural Selection: Bio EOC Topics for Ecology, Evolution and Natural Selection: UEvolutionU Difference between macroevolution and microevolution Sexual reproduction and natural selection are mechanisms of microevolution

More information

Taxonomy and Classification

Taxonomy and Classification Taxonomy and Classification Taxonomy = the science of naming and describing species Wisdom begins with calling things by their right names -Chinese Proverb museums contain ~ 2 Billion specimens worldwide

More information

Evolution by Natural Selection 1

Evolution by Natural Selection 1 Evolution by Natural Selection 1 I. Mice Living in a Desert These drawings show how a population of mice on a beach changed over time. 1. Describe how the population of mice is different in figure 3 compared

More information

Dogs and More Dogs. NOVA presents the story of dogs and how they evolved into the most diverse mammals on the planet.

Dogs and More Dogs. NOVA presents the story of dogs and how they evolved into the most diverse mammals on the planet. Program Overview NOVA presents the story of dogs and how they evolved into the most diverse mammals on the planet. The program: discusses the evolution and remarkable diversity of dogs. notes that there

More information

MCAS Biology. Review Packet

MCAS Biology. Review Packet MCAS Biology Review Packet 1 Name Class Date 1. Define organic. THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE 2. All living things are made up of 6 essential elements: SPONCH. Name the six elements of life. S N P C O H 3. Elements

More information

BioBoot Camp Genetics

BioBoot Camp Genetics BioBoot Camp Genetics BIO.B.1.2.1 Describe how the process of DNA replication results in the transmission and/or conservation of genetic information DNA Replication is the process of DNA being copied before

More information

Chapter 25: The History of Life on Earth

Chapter 25: The History of Life on Earth Overview Name Period 1. In the last chapter, you were asked about macroevolution. To begin this chapter, give some examples of macroevolution. Include at least one novel example not in your text. Concept

More information