Large and deep cast-in-place reinforced concrete piles using of shaft grout

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1 IABSE-JSCE Joint Conference on Advances in Bridge Engineering-II, August 8-10, 2010, Dhaka, Bangladesh. ISBN: Amin, Okui, Bhuiyan (eds.) Large and deep cast-in-place reinforced concrete piles using of shaft grout Hiroaki Mukaichi Oriental Consultants C., Ltd., Hanoi 1000, Vietnam ABSTRACT: The Main Bridge of Rupsa Bridge has 5 spans with the length of m in the middle and 2 spans with the length of m on both ends. Foundations for the mid-piers on the river (MP2 through MP7) are cast-in-situ reinforced concrete piles with the diameter of 2,500 mm and those for the end piers on land (MP1 and MP8) are the same with the diameter of 900 mm. The Contract requires static pile loading tests and detailed soil investigations for review of the design length of piles shown on the Contract Drawings. Accordingly a pile loading test for the piles of piers of the Main Bridge on the river was conducted in May However large settlement of the test pile was observed during the first Pile Loading Test (PLT No.1). Therefore the second Pile Loading Test (PLT No.2) was decided to carry out on July However the same results were realized in the first stage of the PLT No.2 and the PLT No.2 was suspended temporarily. Since the results of the PLT No.1 and the first stage of the PLT No.2 were not satisfactory, the second stage of the PLT No.2 and the third Pile Loading Test (PLT No.3) were conducted after execution of grouting for the test piles on 22 through 25 November 2002 and 12 through 15 January 2003, and the both tests completed with satisfactory results. 1 INTRODUCTION This is the final report on the pile loading tests for the piles for piers at MP2 through MP7 of the Main Bridge on the river prepared based on the previous preliminary and interim reports on the pile loading tests. This report consists of studies on the causes of this unusual phenomenon of piles, review of factors to determine bearing capacity of piles and the load test results including analysis of the reads of the strain gauges, and determination of countermeasures to increase bearing capacity of the piles for piers with estimation of bearing capacity after the grouting. Figure 1. Location Map Figure 2. General View of Rupsa Bridge 377

2 2 PILE LOADING TESTS 2.1 Features of Test Pile Features of the test piles are as shown below. 1) Type of Piles : Cast-in-situ reinforced concrete piles 2) Diameter : 2.50 m 3) Length : 74.0 m (No.1), 79.0 m (No.2), 90.5 m (No.3) 4) Ultimate Bearing Capacity : 55,200 kn 5) Allowable Bearing Capacity : 22,100 kn (Factor of safety : 2.5) 6) Bearing Layer : Silty fine sand (N = 50 or more) 7) Sub-surface Layer : Silt - Silty fine sand (N = 15-50) 8) Construction Site : River (Riverbed depth : 10 m, Scouring depth : 25 m) 9) Drilling Method : Reverse Circulation Method Figure 3. Geological Condition 2.2 Results of Pile Loading Tests (1) Pile Loading Test No.1 Results of the PLT No.1 are shown in Table 2 on the next page. When the test load reached 10,800 kn, large settlement of the test pile started occurring and settlement of the pile was 26 cm, more than 10 % of the pile diameter at the test load of 21,600 kn, which is the working load on the piles for piers of the Main Bridge on the river. Then the final settlement reached 63 cm at the maximum test load of 32,400 kn. The pile tip layer is silty fine sand, which has high mica content, which is compressive soil. When the test load increased, skin friction reached ultimate and all the test loads reached the tip. Then it is considered that the pile tip layer failed progressively and large settlement occurred. Table 1. Results of Pile Loading Test No.1 Description Load : 21,600 kn Load : 33,300 kn Gross After loading After holding Residual After releasing Rebound For details, refer to a figure of Load - Settlement Curve of the PLT No.1 and a table of settlement at various loading stage. (2) First Stage of Pile Loading Test No.2 Results of the first stage of the PLT No.2 are shown in Table 2 below. 378

3 When the test load reached 7,800 kn, large settlement of the test pile started occurring and settlement of the pile was 33 cm, when the test load reached 21,600 kn. Thus the PLT No.2 was suspended to find cause and study on countermeasures. For details, refer to a figure of Load - Settlement Curve of the first stage of the PLT No.2 and a table of settlement at various loading stage. Table 2. Results of Fist Stage of Pile Loading Test No.2 Description Load : 21,600 kn Gross After loading 250 After holding 328 Residual After releasing 319 Rebound 9 (3) Second Stage of Pile Loading Test No.2 Results of the second stage of the PLT No.2 are shown in Table 3 below. The settlement of the test pile was 8 mm at the design load of 21,600 kn and 14 mm at the maximum test load of 32,400 kn. The settlement after grouting was remarkably small compare to that before grouting. Residual settlement was only 2 mm. Soil around the test pile was still elastic zone at the maximum test loads of 32,400 kn. Therefore ultimate bearing capacity of the pile is expected to be much larger than the 32,400 kn. Table 3. Results of Second Stage of Pile Loading Test No.2 Description Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Load : 21,600 kn Load : 32,400 kn Gross Residual Rebound For details, refer to a figure of Load - Settlement Curve of the second stage of the PLT No.2 and a table of settlement at various loading stage. Load (ton) PLT No.2 after PLT No.2 before PLT Figure 4. Load-Settlement Curve -3,500-3,000-2,500-2,000-1,500-1, Test Elevation (m) 32,400 26,500 kn Depth Load (ton) Axis Force of Test Figure 5. Axis Force of Test Piles 379

4 In accordance with the results of the second stage of the PLT No.2 after grouting, skin friction and end bearing of the Test Pile No.2 are evaluated as shown in Table 4 below. Table 4. Skin Friction and End Bearing of Test Pile No.2 after Grouting Depth Ultimate Bearing Capacity Soil Type of Skin Friction End Bearing Strata Unit Total Bearing Capacity (Unit) (m) (kpa) (kn) (kn) (kn) Silt ,650-7,650 Silt ,700 3,700 Silt Sand ,950 2,450 13,400 Weight ,350-2,350 Total , ,300 In accordance with the reads of strain gages, skin friction was still under development with increase of test load. Therefore the ultimate skin friction is expected to be larger than the above figure. (4) Pile Loading Test No.3 The PLT No.3 was conducted using Osterberg Cell Method. Osterberg Cell Method is a test method loading by Osterberg Cell embedded in a pile. Own weight of the pile above a cell, and skin friction of the piles above and below the cell act reaction each other. Therefore reaction piles are not required for this pile loading test method. Results of the PLT No.3 are shown in Table 5 below. Table 5. Results of Pile Loading Test No.3 Description Stage 1 Load : 22,600 kn Stage 2 Load : 33,300 kn Gross Residual Rebound The load by the upper cell was 22,600 kn and the load by the lower cell was 33,300 kn 2 = 66,600 kn. The effective maximum test loads of PLT No.3 were about 89,200 kn after adjustment of own weight of the pile. Since surrounding soil of the pile did not reach ultimate stage at the effective maximum test load of 81,400 kn, it is expected that the ultimate bearing capacity of the Test Pile is greater than 81,400 kn. In accordance with the results of the PLT No.3 after grouting, skin friction and end bearing of the Test Pile No.3 is evaluated as shown in Table 6 below. Table 6. Skin Friction and End Bearing of Test Pile No.3 after Grouting Depth Ultimate Bearing Capacity Soil Type of Skin Friction End Bearing Strata Unit Total Bearing Capacity (Unit) (m) (kpa) (kn)) (kn) (kn) Sand / Silt ,800-4,800 Silt ,500-4,500 Clay ,800-4,800 Silt ,900-10,900 Sand ,300 11,950 59,250 Weight ,450-2,450 Total , ,800 Since the surrounding soil did not reach ultimate stage, skin friction of the Test Pile No.3 is estimated to be greater than that shown in the table above. (5) Summary of Piles Loading Test Results Results of each pile loading test are shown in Table 7 below. Table 7. Summary of Piles Loading Test Results Description Unit PLT No.1 PLT No.2 PLT No.3 - Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 1 Stage 2 Date - 8 May July Nov Jan Jan Test Load kn 33,300 21,600 32,400 22,600 33,300 Settlement mm Rebound mm Notes : 1. The PLT No.1 and the PLT No.2 were conducted by Reaction Pile Method. The test load was charged on the pile heads. 2. In the PLT No.2, the first stage was conducted before grouting and the second stage was conducted after grouting. 380

5 3. In the PLT No.3, test load was charged by the lower cell in the first stage and test load was charged by the upper cell with free mode of the lower cell in the second sage. 4. Analysis of Pile Loading Test Results 3 EFFECTS OF GROUTING 3.1 Results of Bearing Capacity Increase of beating capacity of test piles by grouts is shown in this section. (1) Second Stage of Pile Loading Test No.2 As the results of the first and second stages of the PLT No.2, the increase of bearing capacity by the grouting is 21,600 kn as shown in Table 8 below. Table 8. Comparison of Bearing Capacities of Test Pile No.2 and after Grouting Description PLT No. Unit Value Method Remarks Bearing Capacity after Grouting PLT No.2 Second Stage kn 32,400 Evaluation Note 1 Bearing Capacity before Grouting PLT No.2 First Stage kn 10,800 Evaluation Note 2 Bearing Capacity with Grouting - kn 21,600 Calculation Notes : 1. 32,400 kn is the maximum test load of the second stage of the PLT No.2, and the Test Pile No.2 has not reached the ultimate stage. Therefore it is recognized that the ultimate bearing capacity of the Test Pile No.2 is 32,400 kn or more. Based on the load - settlement curve of the second stage of the PLT No.2 shown in Table 3 and those of the previous tests, however, it is estimated that actual ultimate bearing capacity of the Test Pile No.2 is 49,000 kn or more. The settlement of the Test Pile No.2 was only14.0 mm at the maximum test load of 32,400 kn. Meanwhile the load - settlement curve of the second stage of the PLT No.2 is still almost a straight line up to the maximum test load and the residual settlement was 2.3 mm only. These facts indicate that the surrounding soil of the Test Pile No.2 still has elastic behavior. Therefore it is expected that larger load is required that the Test Pile No.2 reaches the ultimate stage. Since the piles for piers of the Main Bridge on the river are supported by sandy soil at the pile tips, settlement of the piles is larger but the transitional range from elastic zone to ultimate stage is wider compare to those when piles are supported by bedrock. From this point of view, it is determined that the ultimate bearing capacity of the Test Pile No.2 after grouting is 1.5 times of the maximum test load or more (32,400 kn 1.5 = 48,500 kn, approximately 49,000 kn) referring to the load - settlement curves of the other pile loading tests in this project ,800 kn is the ultimate bearing capacity of the Test Pile No.2 before grouting determined based the load - settlement obtained by the results of the first stage of the PLT No.2. Ultimate stage is a situation that settlement of a pile progresses without increase of load and a load - settlement is almost parallel to the vertical axis. According to the load - settlement curve of the first stage of the PLT No.2, therefore, it has been decided that ultimate bearing capacity of the Test Pile No.2 is 10,800 kn. The soil at the pile tip is silty fine sand, which has very special characteristic due to high mica content. This is compressive soil and causes progressive failure of soil at the pile tip with large settlement of the pile. At test load of 10,800 kn, creep phenomenon that settlement continues increasing at the same load, occurred and the surrounding soil already showed plastic behavior. Meanwhile it is realized that when the test load increased more, very large settlement is observed, but end bearing was still under development. From a point of shear strength of surrounding soil, it is recognized that surrounding soil has not reached the ultimate stage and ultimate bearing capacity is larger. However this large settlement is not acceptable from the point of function of a bridge. Therefore, it has been concluded that 10,800 kn, which is the test load when surrounding soil reached a plastic zone, shall be the ultimate bearing capacity of the Test Pile No.2 before grouting. (2) Pile Loading Test No.3 As the results of the PLT No.1 and the PLT No.3, the increase of bearing capacity by the grouting is 65,600 kn as shown in Table 9 blow. Since the PLT was conducted 1 month after construction of the Test Pile No.3, it is recognized that only the effect of grouting has increased bearing capacity of the pile without any effect of recovery of surrounding soil due to its remolding. Table 9 : Comparison of Bearing Capacities of Test Pile No.3 before and after Grouting Description PLT No. Unit Value Method Remarks Bearing Capacity after Grouting PLT No.3 kn 8,340 Evaluation Note 3 Bearing Capacity before Grouting PLT No.1 kn 1,375 Evaluation Note 4 PLT No.2 (Reference) Bearing Capacity with Grouting kn 6,965 Calculation Notes : 3. 81,800 kn is the ultimate bearing capacity of the Test Pile No.3 determined by the results of the PLT No.3 and the Test Pile No.3 has not reached the ultimate stage by the effective maximum test load of 83,200 kn. Therefore it is recognized that ultimate bearing capacity of the Test Pile No.3 is 81,800 kn or more. The PLT No.3 was conducted using Osterberg Cell Method and load cells (O-Cells) were embedded in the Test Pile No.3. In the PLT No.3, the actual maximum test load by the lower load cell was 22,800 kn and that of the upper load cell was 33,300 kn. Taking consideration of balance of resistance to the load i.e. skin friction, end bearing and pile weight, of each side of the load cells, the test load by the lower cell worked effectively to the downward direction of the load cell only, but that by the upper cell 381

6 worked to both upward and downward directions from the load cell. Accordingly, the effective maximum test load was 81,200 kn after deduction of the pile weight of 6,300 kn from the actual maximum test load. As the results of analysis of the special company conducted this loading test, the effective maximum test load was 81,350 kn with consideration of load loss and load transfer to the other cell. The ultimate bearing capacity of 81,800kN was estimated according to the net unit skin friction of each pert of the pile and the end bearing evaluated based on the results of analysis on the data of the PLT No.3 by the special company. 4. Since a pile loading test was not conducted on the Test Pile No.3 before grouting, average of the bearing capacities of the Test Pile No.1 and the Test Pile No.2 before grouting was applied as that of the Test Pile No.3 before grouting for this estimation. With the same consideration as the first stage of the PLT No.2, the ultimate bearing capacity of the PLT No.1 has been determined to be 16,200 kn. As shown in results of the PLT No.1 and the first stage of the PLT No.2, large settlement of the test piles occurred before grouting. It is evaluated that the ultimate bearing capacities of those piles are 10,800 kn for the Test Pile No.1 and 16,200 kn for the Test Pile No.2. These figures are less than working load of the piles. A comparison between the results of the PLT No.1 and the first stage of the PLT No.2 conducted before grouting, and the results of the second stage of the PLT No.2 and the PLT no.3conducted after grouting show, settlement of the test piles decreased remarkably the after grouting. As the results, it is estimated that increased bearing capacities by grouting are 40,000 kn or greater for the Test Pile No.2 and 70,000 kn to 80,000 kn for the Test Pile No Estimation of Bearing Capacity In accordance with the results of the second stage of the PLT No.2 and the PLT No.3, the bearing capacities of the test piles are estimated as shown below. (1) Test Pile No.2 The maximum test load of the second stage of the PLT No.2 was 32,400 kn. But the soil surrounding the Test Pile No.2 did not reach ultimate stage. Therefore it is expected that the ultimate bearing capacity of the Test Pile No.2 is more than 49,000 kn as mentioned above. (2) Test Pile No.3 The maximum test load of the PLT No.3 was 81,800 kn. But the soil surrounding the Test Pile No.3 did not reach ultimate stage at this load. Therefore it is expected that the ultimate bearing capacity of the Test Pile No.3 is 83,300 kn or greater. 4. COUNTERMEASURES 4.1 Alternatives of Countermeasures After completion of the first stage of the PLT No.2, studies on countermeasures against the large settlement to increase bearing capacity or decrease loads acting on the piles. The following possible alternatives were studied. 1) Increase of bearing capacity by grouting (End bearing and skin friction) 2) Increase of bearing capacity by extension of pile length 3) Decease of load by increase of number of piles 4.2 Results of Studies on Countermeasures Outline and results of studies on countermeasures are shown below. (1) Increase of Bearing Capacity by Grouting This method has past record to be applied in cities where bearing strata is situated in deep such as Hong Kong and Bangkok. This method is expected to increase bearing capacity of a pile remarkably and economical compare to extension of pile length to bearing strata. (2) Increase of Bearing Capacity by Extension of Pile Length Since skin friction in silty fine sand layer is estimated almost 0 Pa, extension of pile length within this layer is expected to has no effect. Meanwhile it has realized that there is a clay layer at the depth of 100 m. However this layer cannot consider as sufficient bearing layer due to its high moisture content. According to the result of trial calculation, therefore it has been concluded that the pile tip shall be penetrated till EL-140 m. In case that pile length exceeds 85 m, it is necessary to reinforce the present machines and equipment, or mobilize new machines and equipment. 382

7 (3) Decease of Load by Increase of Number of Piles According to requirements of river control and size of the pile caps, 9 piles in 3 rows are maximum numbers of pile per pile cap. It is impossible to obtain sufficient bearing capacity by increase of 3 numbers of piles without other countermeasures such as grouting. Therefore this option cannot be applied as a countermeasure independently and shall be used as subsidiary measures with the above 2 options if necessary. 4.3 Selection of Countermeasures As the results of the above study, it was decided that the grouting should be applied as a countermeasure to increase bearing capacity of the piles. The following types of grouting were applied for the piles for piers of the Main Bridge on the river. 1) Constructed Piles : Toe Grout, Skin Grout (Execution of grouting around the piles) 2) Constructing Piles : Base Grout, Shaft Grout(Execution of grouting from inside of the piles) Refer to schematic drawing for further information of grouting Since the bearing capacity of the Test Pile No.3 was much greater than it had been expected and there was a small different in sin frictions between silt layer and silty fine sand layer, it was decided to maintain the original pile length of 75 m. However for consideration of further safety of the bridge, shaft grout length has been decided to extend by 5 m to 35 m from 30 m applied for the Test Pile No.3. Estimate values of skin friction, end bearing and ultimate bearing capacity of the piles in case of pile length of 75 m and shaft grout length of 35 m. As shown in Table 10 below, the pile is expected to be with factor of safety of 2.5 or more against the estimated working load. Table 10. Skin Friction and End Bearing of Piles for Piers Depth Ultimate Bearing Capacity Soil Type of Skin Friction End Bearing Strata Unit Total Bearing Capacity (Unit) (m) (kpa) (kn) (kn) (kn) Sand / Silt ,450-2,450 Silt ,900-9,900 Clay ,800-4,800 Silt ,900-10,900 Sand ,600 11,950 32,550 Weight ,450-2,450 Total ,650 9,500 58, CONSIDERATIONS 5.1 Increase of Bearing Capacity by Remolding of Surrounding Soil During the study on increase of bearing capacity of the piles, effect on recovery of strength of surrounding soil due to its remolding after casting concrete of a pile has been considered. The results of study are summarized as shown below. (1) Relationship between Construction, Loading and Results of Pile Loading Tests The relationship between casting concrete of the test piles and loading with the test results is summarized as shown in Table 11 below. Table 11. Relationship between Construction, Loading and Result Description Date of Date of Period of Grout Result Concreting Loading Remolding PLT No.1 7 March 02 7 May days Without NG First Stage of PLT No.2 14 June July days Without NG Second Stage of PLT No.2 14 June Nov days With Good PLT No.3 12 Dec Jan days With Good (2) Increase of Bering Capacity by Remolding of Surrounding Soil As the results of the PLT No.1 and the first stage of the PLT No.2, it is recognized almost no recovery of strength of surrounding soil by its remolding in two months after casing concrete of the test piles. Meanwhile from this point and the results of the PLT No.3, it is considered that the required bearing capacity of the Test Pile No.3 is mostly obtained by effect of grouting. It is a fact that combined effects of remolding and grouting increased the bearing capacity of the Test Pile No.2. As results of analysis of all pile loading tests and consideration of characteristic of silty fine sand it is 383

8 concluded that major effect to increase bearing capacity is grouting and effect of remolding is considered to be small. 5.2 Sequence of Development of Resistance Forces on Piles (1) Development of Skin Friction and End Bearing Considering the mechanism of development of bearing of a pile, procedure of development of skin friction and end bearing of a pile, is summarized as described below. When load acts on the top of a pile, at first, the settlement (displacement) of the pile is likely to occur and skin friction of the pile is developed to resist this movement. Since the entire pile is settled together in one body, skin friction of entire parts of a pile is developed simultaneously. In the next, when the load increases, settlement of the pile is increased and displacement of soil at pile tip is occurred. As the result end bearing is developed in proportion of the soil displacement. And then when load increases more, skin friction of the pile is increased and surrounding weak soil in the upper part of pile reaches its ultimate. Accordingly load born in this part transfers to the lower part of pile and consequently skin friction in the lower part of the pile and end bearing are developed more to support more load. Finally when load increase further more, this phenomenon extends to the lower part of pile and the surrounding soil reaches its ultimate in the entire part of pile and soil around the pile is failed. At this stage, the entire load is transfer to the pile tip. If the end bearing of the pile cannot support the load, the pile will fail. A figure of distribution of axis compressive force measured by strain gauges in the second stage of the PLT No.2 is shown in Figure 5. According to this figure, skin friction of the lower part of the Test Pile No.2 was developed since early stages of loading. Reaction of ground (end bearing) was developed at the test load of 21,800 kn. The load - settlement curves of the PLT No.1 and the first stage of PLT No.2 indicate the above-mentioned process of failure of a pile. (2) Skin Friction of Silty Fine Sand Layer As a result of analysis of bearing capacity of the test piles based on the results of the PLT No.1 and the first stage of the PLT No.2, the skin friction of silty fine sand layer has not been developed and is considered to be almost 0 Pa. According to the relationship between test load and settlement or pulling up of the Test Pile No.1 and the reaction piles in PLT No.1, it was recognized that total of the end bearing and skin friction of silty fine sand layer is 6,650 kn. Based on the fact that the soil at the pile tip supported the weight of fresh concrete and the analysis of the Load - Settlement Curve of PLT No.1, it was concluded that the end bearing is 6,650 kn and the skin friction of silty fine sand layer is almost 0 Pa. This is unusual phenomenon of sandy soil and this is the cause of the problem of unusual large settlement of the piles. Although some hypotheses of causes of this phenomenon such as stress release or disturbance of silty fine sand, which is very sensitive and is not able to remold once disturbed, by excavation have been studied, the actual mechanism of this phenomenon has not been found yet. Further investigation and studies are necessary to find out the mechanism. 6. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS As the results of the second stage of the PLT No.2 and PLT No.3, it has been proved that grouting was the most effective and economical countermeasure to increase bearing capacity of the piles in order to obtain its required value. Therefore it has been concluded that the grouting was the only solution for the problem of insufficient bearing capacity of the piles for piers of the Main Bridge on the river. Piling work was resumed using grouting to obtain sufficient bearing capacity of the piles at the beginning February All the piles for the Main Bridge including grouting were completed at the beginning of August In order to increase bearing capacity of the piles for certain, supervision methods of grouting to achieve high quality of grouting and measurement method to confirm effect of grouting were established. The grouting methods used for the test piles were applied for grouting of the working piles for piers of the Main Bridge on the river. The effects of grouting are proving by survey of elevations of the top of pile caps and measurement of axis stress of the piles by strain gauges. Comparison in axis stress between the test pile and the working piles are been conducting to confirm increase skin friction by the effects of grouting. Both results of 384

9 measurements of top level of the pile caps and axis stress of the working piles are satisfactory and it is concluded that grouting is exhibiting its effects so far. Since grout consists of cement and water, grout itself considered being perpetual. If end bearing of a pile is increased by a pressure bulb constructed using grout, there is a possibility that the end bearing will be decreased due to pressure release of the bulb. However the purpose of the grout applied for this project is different and increase in bearing capacity is not depended on the pressure bulb. Therefore it is concluded that the grout applied for the working piles has sufficient durability within the life span of the bridge. It has been recognized that applying grouting as the countermeasure was the right decision, since grouting is considered to be the most effective and economical solution to cope with the problem insufficient bearing capacity of the piles. However, grouting in the test piles was executed through trial and error, since this method was applied to increase bearing capacity of a pile for the first time. Thus some trail executions of grouting were made and it took time to finalize details of grouting methods. As the results, proper grouting methods were established and it has been realized that the grouting methods applied for the working piles for piers were reasonable. It has been also recognized during the studies of countermeasures that investigations and preliminary studies for design of the large pile were not enough. By some reasons, the design of the piles was conducted in Phase 2 of the Feasibility Study for this project and the detailed design has not been carried out. The piles were constructed in the area, which has the deepest alluvial soil layer in the world and the pile tip was not embedded in sufficient bearing strata. Therefore it has been considered that further investigations and studies should have executed for design of the very large and deep cast-in-suit reinforced concrete piles, which do not have enough past records to construct. In case that pile tips are not penetrated into sufficient bearing strata such base rock, it is recommendable to shorten pile length using grout around the piles for economical design of piles. However, it is recognized that it is very difficult to estimate of the effects of grout and establish quantitative design method of piles with grout, since the effects of grout are various depend on soil. Through studies and execution of countermeasures to cope with the problem of insufficient bearing capacity of the piles, various knowledge and valuable data were obtained. These knowledge and data shall be shared by all structure engineers and applied for future design of piles and supervision of piling works. REFERENCE 1) The Study on Construction of the Bridge over the River Rupsa in Khulna, Phase 1, JICA, March 1999 and Phase 2, JICA, March ) Rupa Bridge Construction Project. Tender Documents: Volume A, B, C, JICA, March ) Plumbridge, G.D., Littlechild, B.D., Hill, S.J. and Pratt, M.: Full Scale Shaft Grouted Piles and Barrettes in Hong Kong, Foundations, The 19 th Annual Seminar, Geotechnical Design, ) Bruce, D.A., Enhancing the Performance of Large Diameter Piles by Grouting, Ground Engineering, Vol.19 (4), pp.9-14, ) Plumbridge, G.D and Hill, S.J.: Performance of Shaft Grouted Piles and Barrettes, 14 th South East Asia Geotechnical Conference, Geotechnical Engineering, pp.10-14, ) Plumbridge, G.D and Hill, S.J.: Performance of Shaft Grouted Piles and Barrettes, Geotechnical Engineering Meeting of Society s Needs, Vol.1, Geotechnical Engineering, pp , ) Osterberg, J.O.: The Osterberg Load Test Method for Bored and Driven Piles - The First Ten Years, The 7 th International Conference of Piling and Deep Foundations, Deep Foundation Institute, ) Osterberg, J.O.: What Has Been Learned about Drilled Shafts form the Osterberg Load Test, , The Annual Meeting, Deep Foundation Institute,

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