Sector of modern business services in Poznań agglomeration

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2 Sector of modern business services in Poznań agglomeration Report prepared for the Poznań City Hall by the Association of Business Service Leaders (ABSL) Hays Poland and Jones Lang LaSalle Poznań

3 Authors of the Report Janusz Górecki Expert in the Association of Business Service Leaders (ABSL) Jadwiga Naduk Head of Market Research&Consultancy, HAYS Poland Tomasz Szreder Analyst in HAYS Poland Jan Szczepanowski Analyst in HAYS Poland Anna Bartoszewicz-Wnuk Head of the Department of Market Research and Consultancy in Jones Lang LaSalle Mateusz Polkowski Senior Analyst in Jones Lang LaSalle Grzegorz Micek Jagiellonian University, Institute of Geography and Spatial Management Hays Poland Sp. z o. o. ul. Złota 59, Warsaw tel.: , fax: Association of Business Service Leaders (ABSL) Rondo ONZ 1, Warsaw tel.: , fax

4 Table of Contents Offer for investors in the City of Poznań...5 Executive Summary Introduction Structure of the report Sources of information and methods of analysis Terminology Investment attractiveness of Poznań for investors in the sector of modern business services Human resources Demography Costs of business activity Characteristics of a regional real estate market in the context of the needs of investors in the sector of modern business services Availabilityof communications Quality of life Summary service centres location factors and their changes Characteristics of service centres in Poznań agglomeration History of development of modern business services sector in Poznań agglomeration Employment in the sector and its changes Types of business processes supported by the service centres Languages in which the centres provide services Service centres and the country of origin of capital Non-wage benefits offered by the centres The business environment as a whole The dynamics of the formation of new businesses The structure of business entities The opinions of employers on employees The effects of the operation of modern business services sector companies in Poznań agglomeration The main conclusions regarding the economic effects of the operation of service centres in Poznań agglomeration: Corporate Social Responsibility Bibliography Appendix

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6 Offer for investors in the City of Poznań Poznań is one of the main centres of investment locations in Poland. The greatest asset of the city is its economic potential: good and stable economic situation, high level of the entrepreneurship, and above all the human capital. Poznań stands out among other Polish cities for a good situation on the labour market one of the lowest in Poland unemployment rate 3.5% (October 2011). For the potential investors, however, the high quality of the labour market counts. The investors appreciate the high qualifications and effectiveness of the Poznań employees. Poznań is a city of young people, very well educated, speaking foreign languages freely. Nearly 140 thousand students study at the 27 university level schools in Poznań, almost 40 thousands graduate each year supplying the local labour market. The developed technical infrastructure and the infrastructure of business environment and transport accessibility, particularly international air connections and the A2 motorway, which links Poland with western European network of motorways, are also important for the investors. According to the adopted Strategy for attracting investors to the city of Poznań promotional activities are aimed primarily at attracting investors to the priority sectors: technologically advanced production, outsourcing centres and shared services centres, R&D (research and development), convention and exhibition activities, recreational and entertainment facilities. Poznań offers attractive conditions for investors of the modern services sector [shared services centres (SSC), outsourcing centres (BPO/ITO) and centres of research and development]. The condition for the development of this type of investment is to provide highly qualified personnel, university graduates. The potential of knowledge is the greatest asset that Poznań offers investors. Investors can find job candidates especially among graduates in economics and finance, IT, and philologists. Poznań is a known centre of education in philological studies. The Faculty of Modern Languages at the Adam Mickiewicz University the largest such department in Poland offers the opportunity to study almost all European languages and major non-european languages. Poznań stands out from other Polish cities as the centre for research and development and education in the field of modern information technology. Information technology is one of the most popular fields of study in Poznań, where the university level schools currently educate more than 4,600 future IT professionals, and 1,200 young professionals who graduated with a degree in computer science in University level schools also offer new interesting fields of study related to IT, such as bioinformatics and technological applications of the Internet (unique in the country, intercollegiate faculty created by three of Poznań universities, at the initiative of the American telecommunications company Telcordia Technologies). The Institute of Computer Science at the Faculty of Computer Science at the Poznań University of Technology is considered one of the best in Poland, as evidenced by numerous awards and honours earned by students in international IT competitions (such as Microsoft Imagine Cup). With these assets, as well as an attractive location, good telecommunication and office infrastructure, advanced network of the services for business and the support of the City, Poznań creates the attractive conditions for the realization of highly specialized investments. Poznań is an attractive place to do business for both the international corporations and the small businesses. All investors can count on the support of local administration. The system of incentives for investors was created, which include exemption from property tax or subsidies to create jobs for the unemployed (offered by the District Employment Office). Also the special support programs were created for investors pursuing investments in highly specialized service sector and innovative investments. For the innovative investors the program of scholarships for students was created to finance the internships with the employers investing in Poznań. All investors are provided with the assistance of Investor Relations Department and the protection of the guide of investment, the officer responsible for handling the particular investment project. Please feel invited to invest in Poznań! Ryszard Grobelny Mayor of Poznań 5

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8 Executive Summary

9 Report prepared for the Poznań City Hall by the Association of Business Service Leaders (ABSL) Hays Poland and Jones Lang LaSalle Poznań has the fifth largest population among the cities in Poland (about inhabitants). Within the agglomeration live 877 thousands of people. The population density in the area is steadily decreasing. As other major urban centres, Poznań is aging, which results in a significant number of people of working age (70% of the population) and small in the pre-working age ( thousands). For every 100 people of working age in retirement are 30. This is a very favourable result in relation to the whole Poland (Łódź 33.8; Warsaw 33.1; Tri-City (the Tri-City) 31). The local community therefore assumes no significant demographic burden. The Capital City of Wielkopolska has, after Warsaw, the lowest in Poland unemployment rate (3.5%). It is noteworthy that as many as 24% of people without jobs have higher education, who are a base of workers with relatively low demands and high competence. The duration of unemployment of the potential employee is also a very important piece of information, as it indicates the possibility of re-adoption to perform the job. The number of the long-term unemployed is very small and amounts to only 3% of the group. The fact that over 80% of working population in Poznań is engaged in service activity cannot be ignored. Of that in IT, accounting and personnel payroll services specialize more than 13.5%. The skills of personnel most valued by employers include: knowledge of English, German, of the area associated with the performed duties (IT, accounting), soft skills (communication skills and ability to work in a group), hard skills (technical knowledge and practical skills), the ability to quickly acquire knowledge and the willingness for further development. At the same time, it is worth mentioning that gone are the days in which the decisive factor in inducing to establish a service centre in Poland were the labour costs. Now the key is to prepare the intellectual potential of human capital. Poznań university level schools educate staff that meet this criterion at even more than expected level. In addition, the Poznań inhabitants are highly valued in the studies of the tendency to further learning. Only 17% of employees do not express such a will. The Poznań City Hall tries to support the ambitions of most of those people by organizing the projects such as Top Skills for Wielkopolska. Poznań is the centre, whose population is characterized by above-average level of competence and preparation of human capital. The knowledge of English is declared by nearly 100% of the employees, German about 50%, Spanish, Russian and French about 30% each, Italian 20% and Scandinavian languages about 10%. Among the students the results of the analysis provide similar information: English 90%, German 50%, Russian, Spanish and French 10% each and others 7%. In 2010, there were 27 university level schools in the Capital City of Wielkopolska, including the Adam Mickiewicz University ( UAM ), the Poznań University of Technology and the University of the Economics. This first offered 49 faculties and 183 specializations in 2011, which educated nearly 40 thousands of students (studies of the I and II degree) and more than 1,300 graduate students. In the ranking of universities drawn up in 2011 by the magazines Perspektywy and Rzeczpospolita UAM took the third place and maintains this position for three years now. In 2010, 10 departments and 24 faculties of the Poznań University of Technology educated nearly twenty thousands of people, while at the University of Economics in Poznań almost 11.5 thousand of people. An extremely important factor determining the location of service centres is the number of students and graduates in a particular area. In Poznań, according to data of the City Hall, study nearly 136,000 people. This puts Poznań in the fourth place among the other Polish academic centres, before Łódź and the Tri-City. The most interesting for investors, however, is the number of people gaining education in the fields of economic, IT and technology. In the first Poznań is in fourth place in Poland, after Warsaw, Cracow and Wrocław, with the number of 9.5 thousand graduates, which is a huge potential for investors that support accounting processes. Four and a half thousand students of IT allow Poznań to take the fifth place among the Polish cities. But if we look at the number of graduates Poznań is moving to the fourth place, slightly ahead of Wrocław. The companies in the sector of modern business services are also very eager to hire graduates of philology, especially those fluent in using rare or exotic foreign languages. 8

10 Executive Summary Poznań has the widest range of language studies in Poland, in the 2009/2010 academic year were as many as 44 such directions, which together graduated 2697 people. Most of them chose English philology, they were up to 28%. Also the faculties educating people who speak rare languages are very important. At the Adam Mickiewicz University, among others, an unique in Poland Vietnamese-Thai philology is offered, as well as Japanese philology and sinology. The additional skills and expanded knowledge of specific subjects or courses are also increasingly important. This is because of the farther-reaching specialization of the economy. Those with niche knowledge, which is usually not acquired under the program of study, explore the secrets of the art in an overtime period, eg. participating in a wide range of scientific circles. At the Adam Mickiewicz University only there are 120 scientific circles, with a broad profile of activity. The Poznań University of Economics has 63 active scientific circles, and the University of Technology more than 40. It is worth mentioning also the expectations of employees towards employers. In the first place is the friendly atmosphere at work (60%), and only at the second the perspective of high wages (57%). Further places take: the type of implemented projects and the possibilities of selfimprovement and development of interests. For employers an important determinant of the potential of young personnel are the preferences for a particular industry or specialization. The research shows that the preferences of graduates are not fully clarified, the preferred industry has not chosen more than 20% of the respondents. The greatest interest among future personnel enjoyed Marketing and HR as well as Training (respectively 19% and 13%). Also the customer service (8%) was chosen, further areas have reached no more than 6% of the respondents. Extremely important is the change in the perceptions of employers in the sector of modern business services for almost 60% of the respondents declared that they wish to work for them. The cooperation of the business with the research centres makes mutual benefits. Poznań institutes and universities are able to provide services in the field of research on a large scale and at a very high level. In addition to the universities, among the best in the country, the city has about 50 research institutes, boasts that its economy is largely based on knowledge and everything indicates that this character will be maintained and further developed, because it has 27 university level schools and over 140 thousands of the students. The City Hall actively supports the creation and maintenance of connections between the science and the business, and for this purpose the Wielkopolska Innovation Platform was created a platform for communication in the form of a website which provides information on current research and offer to private companies ( One of the examples of good practices of cooperation between the science and the business are joint ventures of the Poznań University of Technology and Microsoft. Among the 6.3 thousand people employed in the service centres in the Poznań agglomeration, 2/3 are working in the centres of BPO/ITO. About 2 thousand are employed in the shared services centres and less than 200 people in the research and development centres. Interesting conclusions arise from analysis of the position of Poznań in terms of employment in the service centres with foreign capital. According to the data for the years , Poznań was the second in Poland (after Wrocław), the fastest-growing centre for offshoring services. The number of employees in Poznań service centres at the end of 2010 was about 90% higher than at the end of The share of the City in the total employment in the service centres in Poland increased from 4.4% to 5.7% (as of ). Currently the share of Poznań is about 6%, so the tendency is clearly increasing. The plans of the centres assume that at the end of 2012 in the Poznań sector will be employed nearly 8.2 thousand people (up by 1/3 compared to the present status). This value does not include the new jobs in centres that have not yet announced a start-up. It can therefore be assumed that the value eventually will be higher. Interesting is, that the average service centre in Poland employs 245 persons. In Poznań, the value is 197 persons (for foreign centres) and 207 persons for all companies in the sector. The Poznań centres employ fewer people than the statistical average in the country. The analysis of the structure of the services provided in the centres of the SSC and BPO/ITO and R&D showed that the business processes supported in the largest number of centres in the Poznań agglomeration are the finance and accounting (14 centres) and IT services (12). Most of the respondents participating in the study, when questioned about changes in the activity of the centres responded that during their operation more advanced features were introduced without reducing the scope of provided services. 9

11 Report prepared for the Poznań City Hall by the Association of Business Service Leaders (ABSL) Hays Poland and Jones Lang LaSalle The centres in Poznań agglomeration provide services in over 21 languages, mostly European. Four of them (English, Polish, German and French) are used in over half of them. The enterprises from 12 countries invested in the activity in the Poznań agglomeration. Most centres (almost 60%) is owned by the companies from the European Union and more than one quarter of all American. The situation has not changed significantly over the past few years. Five centres belong to Polish investors and four to German ones. The employers highly value the initiative and entrepreneurship among its own personnel. One of the indicators allowing to estimate it, could be number of businesses registered in the statistics (REGON) per 10 thousands of the inhabitants of the region. In Poznań, the indicator s value is 1773 and it is one of the highest in Poland (greater number of entities is registered only in Warsaw). The Wielkopolska Province, and in particular Poznań, is a very attractive place for foreign investors. The number of entities with foreign capital grew in recent years, although in 2009 the increase was insignificant due to the economic slowdown that has affected our country. The best and most reliable way to verify the skills of personnel available in the city is the opinion of employers about them. The opinion of the companies already present on the market about their own employees is very good in Poznań. All companies express the above-average satisfaction at their subordinates. Not even one of the respondents interviewed by HAYS Poland sees weaknesses among their own human resources. Another positive sign is the fact that the turnover rate is much lower in comparison with other large centres, and is estimated at a level of 2.5%. 10

12 1. Introduction

13 Report prepared for the Poznań City Hall by the Association of Business Service Leaders (ABSL) Hays Poland and Jones Lang LaSalle The modern business services sector in Poland in recent years is rapidly expanding, already employing about 100 thousands of persons (including R&D centres), including 80 thousands in the service centres with foreign capital. The Poznań agglomeration is one of the important clusters of service centres, not only in the country but also whole Central and Eastern Europe. The global competition among particular locations requires activities to facilitate the development of the policy of the cities and the regions, to increase the investment attractiveness. Among these activities are: preparing the current characteristics of the industry and identify the changes that have occurred in the sector in relation to previous years, identification of the factors influencing investment decisions, identification of the investors needs and the recognition of local and regional resources (development potential). What is, therefore, the status of development of the sector in the area of the Poznań agglomeration and its future in the context of the challenges awaiting him? What are the needs of the investors in the sector? What is the impact of service centres on the local economy? These are the chosen important questions that the authors of this report want to answer. The purpose of this report is to give a comprehensive characteristic of the modern business services sector in the Poznań agglomeration 1 and to discuss investment attractiveness of Poznań as a location for offshoring of business services. In the report a broad definition of the sector was adopted, which also includes the research and development activities. The considerations for the sector were based on the analysis of service centres with foreign capital 2 and with the Polish capital: the shared services centres (SSC), the business process outsourcing (BPO/ITO), and the research and development (R&D). Despite the relatively low capital commitment by the service centres, they play a very important role in the local and regional labour market, due to the size of employment. In the area of the Poznań agglomeration 30 service centres 1 The spatial unit of analysis for the characteristics of the service centres is in the report the Poznań agglomeration. 2 Centres, in which foreign investors hold at least 10% of the capital are called in the report the foreign service centres or service centres with the foreign capital. operate. In the fourth quarter of 2011 they were employing 6.3 thousand of people. Since 2008 in the sector appeared almost 2.7 thousand of new jobs. Owing to the service centres, especially those with the foreign capital, significant quantitative and qualitative changes in the labour market of Poznań occurred. It should be noted that over 1/5 of the today existing centres in the Poznań agglomeration was established in the past two years, including four already in Among the currently operating service centres, 13 are the shared services centres (SSC), 11 the centres of outsourcing services (BPO/ITO) and 6 the research and development centres (R&D). It is worth noting that the service centres with the foreign capital accounted for a dominant share of these entities and more than a quarter of all centres belonged to companies with the American capital. The authors wish to thank all the representatives of the companies and institutions who have agreed to participate in the study and gave their time to prepare the data for this study Structure of the report In the introduction the key information was presented about the sector of modern business services in the Poznań agglomeration, the sources of information and methods of analysis used in the report were discussed and the basic terminology was set. The second chapter the various elements of the investment attractiveness of Poznań compared to Poland in total was discussed. The information was presented on the availability and potential of human resources, the costs of doing business (along with a detailed characteristic of the wages in the sector at different positions), accessibility by the communications and quality of life. The characteristic were presented of the regional real estate market in the context of the needs of investors in the sector of modern business services. Also the opinions of the representatives of the sector on the changes in the investment location factors for service centres were presented. The third chapter is a comprehensive characteristic of selected elements of the activity of modern business service centres in the Poznań agglomeration and the history of development of the sector in the area. It contains also the information on non-wage benefits offered by the service centres. In the next part of this work a description of Poznań business environment as a whole is contained. The fifth chapter is a thorough analysis of the effects of the functioning of the sector in the Poznań agglomeration: the financial multiplier effects, employment 12

14 effects arising from the operation of service centres and service centres social responsibility Sources of information and methods of analysis The primary source of information used for analysis in this report was data base of the service centres operating in Poland. This specification is updated on an ongoing basis for over two years by acquiring data from the companies, the information contained in the industry reports and the press query of the selected journals. It is worth noting that the report also includes information from the in-depth interviews, which HAYS Poland conducted with the representatives of the centres. A very important stage of the study was an online survey addressed by the ABSL and the Poznań City Hall to managers of the service centres and filling in the questionnaires by the representatives of 15 of 30 centres operating in the agglomeration, employing 4 thousands of people, which represents nearly 2/3 of employment in the sector on the analyzed area. The preparation of the report in the part regarding the quality of life required the collection of information contained in a nationwide survey Social Diagnosis 3. 3 Social Diagnosis 2011, J. Czapiński, T. Panek (ed.), 2011, The presentation of a detailed review of salaries for individual positions in the service centres in the Poznań agglomeration was made possible by obtaining direct information from the representatives of the companies from the sector. The results of the recent studies by HAYS Poland of 2011 were also used in the report. To estimate the additional employment created in the surrounding of the centres the interviews with the management of the service centres were used. The consumption expenses structure necessary for the calculation of the income multiplier effects is derived from the publication of the Central Statistical Office Household budgets in 2009 (2010). For the employees of the investigated sector the structure of expenses typical for the households in the urban areas of over 500 thousands people was taken. For the calculation of the revenue from the personal income tax the value of average deduction from PIT was taken into account according to the latest available information of the Ministry of Finance (Information relating to the settlement of income tax ). To assess the value of revenue from the participation of local governments in the corporate income tax (as of 2009) were used the financial statements of the individual companies. It should be noted that due to the unavailability of the data for some companies, the revenues from the corporate income tax were estimated according to the state in

15 The analysis of the real estate market in Poznań has been done on the basis of the results of Jones Lang LaSalle researches. is simply analyzing the centres collectively, without detailing the information for each of their types. Such a solution was adopted in this report (with some exceptions). Report prepared for the Poznań City Hall by the Association of Business Service Leaders (ABSL) Hays Poland and Jones Lang LaSalle 1.3. Terminology In this report three types of service centres were distinguished (due to the scope of the activity): 1. Business Process Outsourcing Centres (Business Process Outsourcing Centres/ Centres of IT Outsourcing) specialized companies or their organizational units, which on behalf of other companies take over the implementation of selected, non-productive business processes Shared Services Centres separate service units of the company or individual business entities acting for the benefit of the parent organization and its branches, supporting the assigned business processes. 3. Centres of research and development (R&D Centres) specialized companies which lead the research and development works on behalf of other companies or separate units of companies operating in the field of research and development. Due to the adoption of a broad definition of research and development, the technical and engineering centres and the centres in which the main activity is the work on the development of software 5 were also classified as this type. It is worth noting that some of the centres serve both the parent company as well as the external clients. This is called the hybrid model of providing the services. In the database a separate, mixed type centres BPO/SSC was not distinguished, but th particular entities were assigned to different basic types (BPO/ITO, SSC, R&D) basing on their dominant business profile. The process of blurring the differences between the above mentioned types of centres, however, requires caution in the undertaken analysis. It seems that the most appropriate approach to this issue 4 Outsourcing of IT (ITO) was taken as the part of the BPO. 5 It is worth noting that the requirement for a given entity to be treated as a research and development service centre is to conduct its commercial activities primarily in the field of business services. Therefore, this study does not include, among others Microsoft Innovation Center and a number of research institutions. The local impact of modern companies on the environment is usually multidimensional. One of the obvious manifestations of this kind of impact are the revenues of the local governments from the property tax and from the participation of municipalities, districts and provinces in the corporate income tax (CIT) and personal income tax (PIT) for the purposes of this study they were called financial multiplier effects. Another measurable result of the operation of enterprises are newly created jobs. They are created: in the analyzed business entities (direct effects), in the sectors supplying the employees of the analyzed companies in the services (income multiplier effects), in the companies providing products and services to the service centres (supply multiplier effects). The income and supplies, as well as the employment multiplier effects resulting from the business tourism, therefore, contribute to employment multiplier effects. This report presents the cautious, minimum estimations of the multiplier effects. The multiplier effects testing methods are also outlined in the publication of B. Domański and K. Gwosdz (2008). Due to the nature of modern business services sector (BPO/ITO, SSC and R&D centres) the activity conducted in the service centres can not be assigned to one section of the PKD Most of them operate in line with the characteristics of M section (professional, scientific and technical activity), but the business processes in the other centres are also classified as belonging to the K section (financial and insurance) and J (information and communication). In this last section a particularly important section is the PKD 62 that is, the activity related to software and IT consultancy and related activities which include business of eg. certain centres of software development, and ITO centres (IT outsourcing). In addition to N section (Activity related to services in administration and support service) can be included the processes of call and contact centres. 14

16 2. Investment attractiveness of Poznań for investors in the sector of modern business services

17 Age structure Report prepared for the Poznań City Hall by the Association of Business Service Leaders (ABSL) Hays Poland and Jones Lang LaSalle 2.1. Human resources Demography Population Poznań has the fifth largest population among the cities in Poland. At the end of 2010, according to CSO data, more than 550 thousand people were domiciled there. These data, compared to other Polish cities, are shown in the Diagram 1. Additionally, in the district of Poznań, which consists of the municipalities located in the nearest vicinity of Poznań, for example Kostrzyn, Swarzędz and Kórnik, lived over 327 thousands people, who often commute to Poznań to work. Therefore, the Poznań agglomeration numbered in total to more than 877 thousand people. The density of population in Poznań in 2010 was 2,107 people per square kilometer and for a few years systematically decreased. Like all highly developed countries of Europe, Poland is currently undergoing a process that is commonly known as aging of the society. Due to the steadily declining birth rate and increasingly higher average life expectancy the demographic structure of the society is changing more and more people are in the retirement age, and the number of people in pre-productive age is decreasing. This process can also be seen on the example of changing of the demographic structure of Poznań between 2005 and 2010, which is presented in Diagram 2. Slightly, because only about 1,360 persons has decreased the number of people in pre-productive age since 2005, in 2010 there were over 83 thousands of them. Nearly 70 percent of the inhabitants is still of working age, i.e. between the 15 and 60 (women) or between the 15 and 65 (men) years of age. For employers the most attractive is the group of people with the greatest job mobility, that is, at the age of years. The share of such persons in the total population in Poznań rose by 0.4 percentage points compared to And about 3 percentage points lowered the share of people in immobile productive age. Diagram 1. The population domiciled in the major Polish cities at the end of 2010 (source: own elaboration based on CSO, Local Data Bank) Warsaw Cracow Łódź Wrocław Poznań Gdańsk Szczecin Lublin 16

18 The share of people in the retirement age within those 5 years increased by 2.4 percentage points. At the end of 45,0% 2010 according to CSO data over 105 thousands people of that age lived in Poznań, which accounted for 19.1% 40,0% of all inhabitants. In 2010 the demographic dependency ratio in Poznań amounted to This means that 35,0% for every 100 people of working age account almost 30 30,0% people in the retirement age. The height of this indicator compared to other large Polish cities is presented 45,0% in Diagram 39,5% 39,9% 40,0% 3. The value of this indicator for Poznań in comparison to other 39,5% large Polish 39,9% cities looks very favourable. 35,0% So we can say that the society of Poznań in comparison to other cities is relatively low demographically burdened. 31,3% 31,3% 30,0% 28,3% 25,0% 28,3% 25,0% Diagram 2. Changes in population age structure 20,0% of Poznań between ,1% 16 and 2010 (source: own elaboration 20,0% based on CSO, Local Data Bank) 15,0% 12,5% 12,6% 16,7% 15,0% 45,0% 10,0% 39,5% 39,9% 40,0% 5,0% 10,0% 12,5% 5,0% 12,6% 35,0% 0,0% Pre-productive age Mobile, productive age Immobile, productive age R 0,0% 31,3% 28,3% 30,0% Pre-productive age Mobile, productive age Immobile, productive age Retirement ag ,0% ,0% 16,7% 19,1% 15,0% 12,5% 12,6% 10,0% 5,0% 0,0% Pre-productive age Mobile, productive age Immobile, productive age Retirement age Diagram 3. The demographic burden ratio in selected Polish cities in 2010 (source: own elaboration based on CSO, Local Data Bank) 35,0 34,0 33,8 33,0 32,0 32,2 33,1 31,0 31,1 30,0 29,0 28,6 29,2 29,7 29,8 28,0 27,0 26,0 Szczecin Poznań Cracow Wrocław Tri-City Katowice Warsaw Łódź 17

19 Report prepared for the Poznań City Hall by the Association of Business Service Leaders (ABSL) Hays Poland and Jones Lang LaSalle Migrations Migration balance is the second factor, after the birth rate, which affects the number of people in the given area. In the case of Poznań since 2000 one can observe a growing number of registrations. The exception was 2008, when the Diagram 5. The comparison of registrations in Poznań subregion and the de-registrations from Poznań district in the years (source: own elaboration 6 based 000 on CSO, Local Data Bank) De-registrations Poznań 0 Registrations Poznań subregion De-registrations Poznań Registrations Poznań 2002subregion number of registrations dropped. Also the number of de-registrations decreased, so it can be inferred that the economic slowdown, which in 2008 affected Poland decreased the mobility of the Poles. In subsequent years, one could still observe a small increase. Diagram 4 presents the changes in the number of registrations in Poznań in the years Diagram 4. The number of registrations in Poznań in the years (source: own elaboration based on CSO, Local Data Bank) De-registrations Poznań Regist 18 De-registrations Poznań Registrations Poznań subregion

20 At the same time increased the number of de-registrations the district of Poznań, this does not necessarily mean that the City of Poznań is unattractive. The analysis of the number of de-registrations from Poznań district in comparison with the number of registrations in the Poznań subregion, which is the districts located in the nearest vicinity of Poznań (Oborniki, Poznań, Środa Wielkopolska, Śrem and Szamotuły), show a clear relationship between these variables, which was presented in the Diagram 5. With the increase in the number of de-registrations from Poznań, at a similar rate increased the number of registrations in the surrounding localities and when the number of de-registrations fell in 2008, decreased also the number of registrations in the subregion. This may indicate that people who decide to leave Poznań did not move to the other cities, but settled in one of the suburban towns, where thanks to a well-developed transport infrastructure could commute to work in the city centre. Often the corporations choosing to establish an office in Poznań are likely to choose suburbs, due to lower rental price of the office space. Then the access is even easier. This direction of migration is now very popular and contributes to the creation of agglomerations, in which people live in the suburbs and nearby towns and work in the city centre. The level of unemployment in Poznań The level of unemployment in Poznań in 2010 was the lowest among major Polish cities. The lower unemployment rate occurred only in Warsaw. The data on the level of unemployment in the major Polish cities is presented in Diagram 6. In , the unemployment rate in Poznań declined steadily, reaching in 2008 a record low amount of 1.8 percent even in Warsaw there was a higher unemployment then. In 2009, the level of unemployment has increased due to the economic slowdown which hit Poland at that time. In 2010, the unemployment rate continued to rise, but this increase was only 0.3 percentage points. This may mean that the situation on the labor market is stabilizing and in the year 2011 the decrease of the level of unemployment can be expected. The data on changes in unemployment rates in Poznań in are presented in the Diagram 7. The valuable information are also provided by the study on education structure of unemployed registered in Poznań. In 2010, up 24% of unemployed people had higher education, representing more than 2.5 thousand highly skilled job seekers. This is a great opportunity for employers to quickly gain valuable employees, and at the same time the possibility of obtaining funding from the Employment Diagram 6. The unemployment rate recorded in 2010 in selected cities in Poland (source: own elaboration based on CSO, Local Data Bank) 12,0 10,0 10,0 9,7 9,6 8,0 6,0 4,0 5,4 5,3 4,7 3,8 3,5 3,4 2,0 0,0 Łódź Lublin Szczecin Wrocław Tri-City Cracow Katowice Poznań Warsaw 19

21 Diagram 7. The changes in the unemployment rate recorded in Poznań in (source: own elaboration based on CSO, Local Data Bank) 8,0 Report prepared for the Poznań City Hall by the Association of Business Service Leaders (ABSL) Hays Poland and Jones Lang LaSalle 6,0 4,0 2,0 0,0 6, Office, for example, to equip the workplace. The structure of unemployment in Poznań in terms of the level of education was presented at the Diagram 8. For the potential investors the structure of the unemployed in the division due to the duration of unemployment is also important. The shorter the easier it will predispose the person to work. 5,0 2,9 1,8 At this point there have been very positive changes in Poznań in the last 5 years. First of all, about 27 percentage points, from 30 to just 3 percent, decreased the share of the long-term unemployed who remained unemployed over 24 months. In 2010 there were only 312 of them at the average in Poznań. Also the share of people who remain without work for over a year decreased. However in the last 5 years increased the share of those who remained unemployed for shorter periods. Above all, inspire the optimism the fact that as many as 45% of all unemployed people are unemployed for less than 3 months. It gives them a much greater chance of successful return on the labour market. Employees 3,2 The structure of the employment The Diagram 9 presents the structure of employment in Poznań in 2008 in terms of a section of PKD About 20% of all workers found employment in the industry, and only half a percent in agriculture. This means that nearly 80 percent of the working population in Poznań is engaged in service activities. Most of them 18.7% of employees is providing services in the section Trade and repair, in 2008 over 42 thousands. This number may be higher, however, as the data presented by the CSO do not include the smallest economic entities employing less than 9 persons, i.e. in this case, all the small shops and craft workshops. 3,5 20

22 The next in terms of number of employees is a real estate section, and services related to business activity. This section includes many modern services such as IT service Diagram 8. The structure of unemployment recorded in Poznań in terms of the level of education (source: own elaboration based on CSO, Local Data Bank) 20% 14% 20% 24% and accounting and personnel-payroll services. In these enterprises were employed 13.5% of the working inhabitants of Poznań. It is also a section that according to prohigher post-secondary, secondary vocational secondary general education basic vocational lower secondary and less 22% Diagram 9. The structure of employment in Poznań in terms of the sections of PKD 2004 (source: own elaboration based on CSO, Local Data Bank) 2,5% 0,5% 6,6% 13,5% 11,8% 7,1% 20,6% 18,7% 5,1% Agriculture Industry Building industry Trade and repair Hotels and restaurants Transport, warehousing, communication Financial brokerage Real estate services and the services related to conducting business activity Public administration Education Health and social care Other services 4,8% 6,7% 2,2% 21

23 Report prepared for the Poznań City Hall by the Association of Business Service Leaders (ABSL) Hays Poland and Jones Lang LaSalle jections made by the City Hall will significantly increase employment until Less, that is 11.8% of employees are employed in the Education section, so are working in kindergartens, schools and colleges. This industry is very dependent on the demographics and due to the changes described in Chapter Population demand for labor will decrease in this section, if not reversal of demographic trends. The demand for skills The foundation of the development of any business venture are its employees. They are the essence of the company and its future success depends on the quality of their competence and preparation for work. Young investors eagerly come to Poznań planning to establish the service centres; they require employees with relatively high-skills, mostly related to soft skills and language skills. To clarify and crystallize the knowledge of employers expectations in Poznań, HAYS Poland conducted a series of studies, interviews and analysis. On this basis it can be concluded that the most valued is the knowledge of English. Almost equally important is the ability of fluent communication in German due to geographical proximity and strategic business location. The investors also pay the attention, certainly, to the candidate s basic knowledge about the field, department in which they will work (such as IT or accounting). Not only the soft skills are valued, such as communication skills and ability to work in a group, but also the hard: technical and practical knowledge. Due to the in depth specialization that characterizes the shared services centres, the retraining of employees is sometimes necessary, therefore, absolutely needed is the ability to quickly acquire knowledge and enthusiasm for the occasion of its acquisition and expansion. Such knowledge would not make sense for the employer, without the talent to transfer it into practice. It is worth noting that most companies train employed people, which usually lasts from six months to a year. The internship served in the company is definitely an advantage, as well as the lack of need for long-term training. Extremely valued is the experience and language skills acquired eg. in Erasmus. One should not skip the fact that knowledge of the basic tool for office work, which is Microsoft Office, is valued. The investors in the field of IT, however, are much more demanding, for their activity is much more complicated. IT industry is very dynamic and subject to significant changes in very short periods. The knowledge of new information technology, knowledge of fresh advanced products, awareness of the network etc. are required in this area. Especially appreciated is the knowledge of the SAP system. Among the soft skills the extremely important position takes the motivation, flexibility and reliability; the assurance that the employee remains engaged and attached to the job. Finally, it is worth quoting a rather constructive and somewhat prognostic statement of one of the investors, namely, that a good theoretical background of graduates of Polish universities, more and more of which are also in Poznań, makes it possible to implement in the country increasingly complex processes, requiring not only knowledge but also creativity being the fruit of good intellectual preparation. Gone are the days when only low labour costs were taken as an asset. The new advantage of Poland will become the ability to handle the most demanding business needs. Poznań will be a city that could provide personnel with the excellent intellectual preparation not only today, but probably also in the future. The tendency to raise the qualifications The employees of Poznań service centres express the deep will to extend their professional qualifications. They are aware of the fact that activity in this field can be a source of promotion, a better performance of actual duties, and self-fulfilment. The basic, desirable form of the personal development are the training and the courses, more than 65% of personnel is planning to take advantage of this possibility in the next 6 months, typically provided by the employer. Almost as much popular is, resulting yet solely from their own initiative and involvement, reading articles on the Internet (52%) or the industry press (38%) associated with their work. About 27% plan to start a language course, so that will gain the opportunity to broaden the competence of the most valued by employers. Natural for each specialist should be involvement in seminars and conferences (24%). This serves to broaden the theoretical knowledge; it is essential to acquire the knowledge of the latest trends and technologies in the world that is changing so rapidly and is subject to the technical transformation. The opportunity to exchange experiences and acquire knowledge of the market is also important here. One should not ignore also those who seek to supplement their theoretical information in a manner broader than through one-time conferences. 24% of respondents would like to gain new knowledge in college. The MBA plans to take only about 7%. And only 17% do not have any intentions in the matter of gaining additional profes- 22

24 sional competence. The results of this study are presented in the Diagram 10. Programs aimed at developing the sought after skills Poznań City Hall is very interested in raising the qualifications of the persons already present on the labour market, by supplementing or updating knowledge, to make the City s human resources become more competitive. One of the methods are the training projects such as Top Skills for Wielkopolska, for persons interested in working in the sector of the modern business services. The aim was to broaden the skills in language, communications, financial and IT field. The project lasted for two years, a total of 445 persons were trained. The professions of the future in the Poznań aglomeration Forecasting the development of specific industries in the region is of the great importance, since it allows to plan, among others, educational reforms, so that the development was not hindered by the lack of the qualified staff. To this purpose, the City of Poznań, in cooperation with the District Employment Office in Poznań started the research project The personnel demand of the business in the Poznań agglomeration on the background the socioeconomic fields of the development of the region diagnosis, prognosis, monitoring. After the second stage of the work the report was published, which contains, among others, the prognosis for the strength of the individual industries and the changes in the employment in the years Industries (included in the study as sections of PKD 2004) were evaluated in terms of the development potential in comparison to the average. A value below 1.0 means that the industry is not crucial for the region, a value above 1.0 indicates a key industry. On the basis of the available data also an attempted was made to forecast employment growth in each of the industries. Forecast results are presented in the Table 1. On the basis of the presented data the conclusion can be drawn that in the year 2009 (the year in which the survey was conducted), the strongest industry in the agglomeration was the Trade and repair. This sector was not as strongly affected as the industrial sector by the economic slowdown in and will continue to increase the Table 1. The prognosis of the personnel demand of the business in the Poznań aglomeration Industry The strength of the industry in 2009 The prognosis of the strength of the industry in 2014 The change in the employment in 2014 Agriculture 0,88 0,94 0 Industrial processing 1,16 1,14 0 Building 0,88 0,97 ++ Trade and repair 1,24 1,18 ++ Hotels and restaurants 0,57 0, Transport, warehousing, communication 0,78 0, Financial brokerage 0,88 0, Real estate services and the services related to conducting business activity 1,19 1,20 ++ Public administration 0,88 0,89 ++ Education 0,65 0,66 0 Health and social care 0,95 0,94 + Other services 0,74 0,66 ++ The source: The final report of the study Personnel demand of the business in the Poznań agglomeration,

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